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Full text of "Layamons Brut; or, Chroncile of Britain; a poetical semi Saxon paraphrase of the Brut of Wace. Now first published from the Cottonian MSS in the British Museum, accompanied by a literal translation, notes, and a grammatical glossary"

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[v. 25275—25285.] 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

AS twselfe heore wai ferde 
touward heore londen. 

mid feolure and mid golde. 
cnihtes fwa ifcrudde :f 
no J'urh al fwa wel idilite. 
]?uf ArSur heom dilite :' 
al for heore worde. 
paf twalf cnihtef foren r' 
J7at heo to Rome comen. 
heo gretten heore kaifere :" 


MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

••' H "REGS tw.Aue 3eoden hire:^ 
j/ toward hire londe. [wai :f 
nere in none londe r 
mid feoluer and mid golde. 
cnihtes fo ifcrud :' 
ne J»orh alle ]^ing fo wel idiht. 
afe ]?eos were ^ 
of Arthur ]7an kinge. 
peos cnihtes for]f 3eoden :' 
J>at hii to Rome comen. 
hii grette hii*e caifer ^ 

These twelve went their way toward their land ; were in no hmd 
knights so bedecked with silver and with gold, nor through all [things] 
so well arrayed [as these were by Arthur the king] . ' Thus Arthur 
them treated, all for their words ! These ' twelve ' knights 'proceeded 
[forth went] until they came to Rome ; they greeted their emperor, their 


' A line is here wanting. 


[v. 25286—25308.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

heore kine-lauerd. 

Hail feo ^u Luces r 

]>u art haext ouer uf. 

We weoreii ^ at |7an raje r' 

at Ardure^ |?an kinge. 

we habbeoS writen ibroht J?e t' 

word fwiSe grate. 

Ar^ur if j^e kennefte mon t 

l^at we asure lokeden on. 

and he if wuder riche :* 

and hif j^einef beo^ balde. 

J?er if aeuer aelc fwein^ :f 

swulc he cniht weore. 

]>eT if aeuer selc fvvein :f 

swulc he weore riche j^ein. 

per beo^ ]?a cnihtef f" 

fvvulc hit weoren kingef. 

mete ]?er if vnimete r' 

& men fvviSe balde. 

and J^a ueie3erefte wifmen r 

J?a wunie^ on liuen. 

and him feolf Ar^ur ]>e balde r 

uaBi3ereft ouer alle. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

hire kine-louerd. 
Hayl beo )?ou Lucef r' 
l^ou hart j^e hexfte ouer ous. 
We weren mid )?an heh3e r' 
Arthur |?e riche. 
we habbe]? ibroht ]>e t [f. ] is. c. i .] 
wordes fvvij>e grete. 
Arthur his j^e kennefte man t' 
J>at we euere lokede an. 
10 and he his wonder riche :' 
and his cnihtes bolde. 
)?ar his euerech cnaue r' 
afe he cniht were. 

par beo]? cnihtef .'' 
afe hit were kinges. 
meate par his onimete r 
and men fwipe bolde. 
20 and pe faireft wifmen r' 
pat woniep in londe. 
and him seolf Arthur :' 
fayreft of alle. 

sovereign : " Hail be thou, Luces, thou art [the] highest over us ! We 
were with the 'fierce [noble] man, ' with ' Arthur the 'king [powerful] ; 
we have brought thee 'writs,' words exceeding great (lofty). Arthur is 
the keenest man that we ever looked on, and he is wondrous powerful, and 
his 'thanes [knights] are bold ; there is every knave as if he were knight, 
' there is every swain as ?y he were rich thane'; there are 'the' knights 
as if it were kings ; meat there is most abundant, and men most bold, 
and the fairest women that dwell 'alive [in land] ; and Arthur ' the bold ' 
himself fairest 'over [of] all ! By us he sendeth word to thee, that he 'will 

' weoren, pr. m., omitting we. 

' 7?. Ar"^iire. 

cnaue r 

[v. 25309-25330.] LA^AiMONS BRUT. 3 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

Bi uf he fende word j^e t' Bi ous he word fende}> :f 

)?athewuleto)nffelonde.[f. HT^c. i.]}7at hider he |?enche|?. 

na gaiiel he nule bringe :f no gaxiel he nele fende :' 

ah |?e feoluen he wiile binden. ac ]/i seolue he wole binde. 

and feo^S he wule |'e an-hon r' and su|>|?e he wole ]>e an-hon :f 

and p'if lond al for-don. and j^is lond al for-don. [bardie :' 

and Aleniaine Lunbardie r' and nimen Alemaine and Lom- 

Burguine France and Normandie.Borgoyne France and Normandie. 

Frolle he floh if iua Y And Frolle he floh his i-fo / 

swa he wulle uf alle do. lo and j^e he wole al fo do. 

and ahnien him ane :f and habbe him seolf one :' 

p-d we ajen alle clane. }?at we owe)? cleane. 

her to he wule leden kinges r Her to he wole leade kinges :' 

eorlef & here-]?riges. eorles and heredringes. 

And her we habbeo^ an honden r'And her we habbe]? an honde :f 

writen ]?at he fende. writes ]?at he |?e fende]?. 

)?e ]?e quiddieS what he wule don :']?at telle]? wat he wole don t' 

J?enne he cume^ hider on. wane he come]? hider on. 

pa ]?ffi sernde wes ifeid :f po J?e earende was ifaid :' 

}?ae kaifere wes ful faeri mon. 20 ]?e cayfer was wel fori mod^. 

& aftured weoren Romwere alle t and alle Romleode r' 

mid fterclichere wrae^^e. a-fered weren fore. 

come to this land [hither he thinlieth to comel ; no tribute he will 'bring, 
[send] , butthy self he will bind ; and afterwards he will thee hang, and this 
land all destroy, and [take] Alemaine [and] Lumbardy, Burgundy, France 
and Normandy. [And] Frolle he slew, his foe, *so [and] he will 'to us all 
[to thee also] do ; and "possess [have] him [self] alone the land that we own 
' all ' clean ; hereto he will lead kings, earls, and chieftains. And here we 
have in hand the writs that he [thee] sendeth, that telleth ' thee ' what he 
will do, when he cometh in hither." When the errand was said, the em- 
peror was a full sorrowful man, and all the Rome-folk were 'stirred with 
strong wrath [sore afraid]. Oft they went to counsel, oft they went to 

* Interlined by second hatul. ^ mon > 

B 2 


[v. 25331—25354.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

Ofte heo eoden to raede "i 
ofte heo heolclcn rune, 
eer heom mihte iwurSen i 
walit heo don wolde. 
No^elef a ]?an ende r' 
enne raed heo ifunden. 
J7at waf ]mrh ]'a fenaturf r' 
]?a l^et filial heolden. 
]>an kaifere heo raddc r' 
)^at he write runen, 
and fende hif fonde :' 
3eond feole kinelonde. 
and hehte heom cume fone ^ 
alle to Rome, 
of euer seiche londe "! 
]7e heom oht lufeden. 


MS. Cott. Otho, C. xni 

Ofte hii ^eode to reade "! 

ofte hii 3eode to roune. 

her hii mihte iwor)?e r' 

wat idon' wolde. 

No|;eles a |?an eande :' 

anne read ifunde^. 

]7at was ]H)rh |?e fenaturs r' 

\2X ]?e londes witede. 

)7an cayfer hii radden ^ 

]>at he writes makede. 

and fende his fonde i 

to manicmie londe. 

and bidde heom come fone r' 

alle to Rome. 

of euereche londe i 

]>at he oht louede. 


and alle ]7a wulleS mid fehte :^[c.2.]and alle ]?at wollej; mid fihte ^ 
bi3iten lond oSer ahte. bi-^ete lond o|;er heahte. 

Folc j?er com fone 'i Folk |>ar com wel fone i 

to j?ere burh of Rome. 20 to J'are borh of Rome, 

fwa muchel fwa |?er neuere aerer i so moche fo par neuere hear r^ 
na mon no ifumnede. no man ne gadere. 

Heo feiden j^at heo wolden i Hii faide ]?at hii wolde i 
ouer Miit Giu iwenden. ouer Montagu wende. 

communing, ere 'to them [they] might 'be determined [determine] what 
they would do. Nevertheless at the end a counsel they found, that was 
through the senators who 'held the senate [ruled the lands] ; the emperor 
they counselled that he should 'write letters [make writs], and send his 
messengers 'over many kingdoms [to lands of many kind] , and bid them 
all come soon to Rome, from every land, 'who loved them [that he loved] 
aught, and all that willcth Avith fight obtain land or goods. Folk there 
came [well] soon to the burgh of Rome ; so mickle as there never ere any 
raan assembled ! They said that they would march over Muntgiu, and 

' hii don ? 

hii funde t 

[v. 25355—253770 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

and wiiS ArSure fehteii :! 
whar fwa heo hine ifunden. 
and ArSur flfen o"Ser anlion' t' 
and hif hired al for-don. 
and ahnien |^a kaifere :! 
ArSuref riche. 
pe asrefte king |?e ]7er com :! 
he wef fwi^e kene mon. 
Epiftrod king of Grece ^ 
Ethion due of Boece. 10 

|?er com mid muchle wi3e :! 
Irtac kig of Turckie. 
Pandraf king of Egipte :! 
of Crete \e king Ipolitte. 
of Syrie ]?e king Euander :! 
of Frigie ]?e due Teucer. 
of Babilone Magptifas ^ 
of Spaine }>e kaifere Meodraf. 
of Medie |7e king Boccuf r' 
of Libie ]?e king Sexftoriuf. 20 
of Bittunie Pollidices :f 
of Iturie ]:'e king Sexes^. 
Ofuftefar"* king of Aufrike :! 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII, 

and w\^ Arthur fihte ^ 

war fo liii liine finde mihte. 

and Arthur flean and an-hon r' 

and his cnilites al for-don. 

and ohni ]m\\ cayfere 1! 

Arthur his kineriche. 

^ j?e eareft king pat ]?ar com ^ 

he was fwi]?e kene man. 

Epiftrot king of Grece r' 

Ethion duk of Boece. 

j^'ar com mid mochele wyje ^' 

Irtak king of Turkic. 

Pandras king of Egipte :' 

of Grece^ \e king Ypolite. 

of Syrie |?e king Euander r' 

of Frifie j^e duk Teucer. 

of Babylonie Maptizas r' 

of Spayne |?e caifer Meodras. 

of Medie p'e king Bockus :! 

of Libie |je king Sextorius. 

of Bitunie PoUidites r 

of Yturie |?e king Serfes. ^^^ 1 j 

Oriftenfer king of Affrike r' 

fight with Arthur, wheresoever they him *found [might find] , and Arthur 
slay *or [and] hang, and his 'host [knights] all destroy, and possess for the 
emperor 'Arthurs [Arthur his] realm. The first king that there came, he 
was a man exceeding keen, Epistrod, king of Greece ; Ethion, duke of 
Boeotia, came there with a great force ; Irtac, king of Turkey ; Pandras, 
king of Egipt ; of Crete the king Ypolite ; of Syria the king Evander ; of 
Phrygia the duke Teucer ; of Babylon, Maptisas ; of Spain the caiser Meo- 
dras ; of Media the king Boccus ; of Libia the king Sextorius ; of Bitunia, 
Pollidices; of Ituria the king Xerxes; 'Ofustesar [Oristenser], king of 

* anliond, pr. m. 
^ Serxes i 

^ Probably a misiaJce of the scribe. 
^ Apparently Mullefar, pr. m. 

6 LA3AiMON8 BRUT. [v. 25378— 25400.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

nef ]>er na klg hif ilike. nas )?ar no king hif iliche. 

mid him com moni Aufrican r' mid him com many Affrican if 

of Ethiope he brohte j^a bleomen, of Ethiope he brohtc )?e bleomem^ 

pa. feohie Romleode :f pe feolue Rom-leode r' 

liben heom to-fomne. wende to-gadere. 

]>at weoren at nexte :' |?at weren nexfte r' 

of Rome |?a hexte. [f- 148. c.i.] of Rome ]>e hexfte. 

Marcef Lucaf and Catel :' Marchiis Lucas an Catel r' 

Cocta Gaiuf & Metel. Cocta Cayus and Metel. 

]^if weoren ]>a, fixe :' lo J'if weren 'pe fixe t 

]?e pat fenaht al biwuften. pat Rome-lond bi-wifte. 

pa l^if folc ifoined wes r' po |?is folk i-gadered was r' 

of feole cunne londes. of falecune londes. 

J>a fette^ pe kaifere r' ]70 lette |^e cayfere r' 

arimen al )?flene here. telle al |>an here. 

pa weoren ]?er riht itakle :' po weren }>ar riht itold :f 

to fihte fwide^ balde. to fihte fwi]?e bold. 

feouwer hundred )?ufede r' four hundred |>oufend r 

cnihtef a |?an haepe. cnihtes o j^an heape. 

mid wepnen and mid horfen ^ 20 mid wepne and mid horfe :' 

swa bihouecS to cnihten. afe bi-oue}? to cnihtes. 

Nes he neuere ibore t' Nas he neuere icore :f 

i nauere nane burje. iie in none londe ibore. 

Africa ; was there no king his like ; with him came many an African ; of 
Ethiopia he brought the black-men. The Rome-people themselves marched 
'them' together, that were 'at' nearest, of Rome the noblest; Marcus, 
Lucas, and Catel, Cocta, Gaius, and Metel ; these were the six, who *the 
Senate all [Rome-land] ruled. When this folk was assembled, from lands 
of many kind, then caused the emperor all the host to be numbered. Then 
were there told right, to fight most bold, four hunlred thousand knights 
in the heap (assemblage), with weapons and with horses, as belioveth to 
knights. Never was he 'born, in every any burgh [chosen, nor in any land 

' B. bleomen. ^ lettc, pr. m. ^ fwiSe ? 

[v. 25401—25425.] 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

J?at mihte ]?at folc tellen :! 

|?at J?er eoden a iioten. 

Auormeft hevueftef dasie / 

uor"S heo gunneii fturien. 

auer riht |?ene wasi r! 

J>et touward Munt Giu lai. 

Lete we nu ane while ^ 

l^eof ferde bilaeue. 

and fpeke we of Ar^ure :' 

a^eleft kinge. lo 

J^a J>e he bifoht hafde :' 

hif l^eines fele. 

and aelc wes ham iuare :' 

J^er he lond hafde. 

And raSe a-3aein comen :f 

cnihtef to hireden. 

mid wepnen wel idihten :* 

l^urh alien heore mihte. 

of Scotlond of Irlond :' 

of Gutlond of Iflond. 20 

of Noreine of Denene :' 

of Orcaneie of Maneie. 

of J?an ilke Ion den r' 

beo^ a hundred ]?ufende. 

iwepnede j^einef ohte :' [c 2.] 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiH. 

J^at mihte ]?at folk telle :' 
J^ar ^eode afote. 

For]? hii wende alle ];ane way ^ 

]7at toward Montegiu lay. 

^ Leate we nou one wile :' 

)?eos ferde bi-leafue. 

and fpeke we of Arthur r' 

baldeft aire kinge. 

\o )?at he bi-foht hadde :' 

his cnihtes gode. 

and ech was hom iwend :' 

J'ar he lond hadde. 

And fone a-3ein come :' 

cnihtes to route. 

mid wepne wel idiht :' 

mid al hire miht. 

of Scotlond of Irlond ?' 

of Gutlond of Iflond. 

of Norene of Denene ^ 

of Orcaneie of Mayne. 

of ]?an ilke londe r' 

beo]> an hundred |;oufend. [c.2.] 

iwepnid wel alle ^ 

born] , that might tell the folk, ' that ' there went on foot ! 'Before harvest- 
day forth they gan to march, ever right [Forth they marched all] the way 
that toward Muntgiu lay. Let us now leave this host a while, and speak 
we of Arthur, 'nnVi1p.tif- of [Hn1(](^gt o f all] kings, when that he had besought 
his good 'thanes [knights], and each had gone home where he had land. 
And soon again came the kniglits in assemblage, with weapons well pro- 
vided, 'through [-with] all their might, of Scotland, of Ireland, of Gutland, 
of Iceland, of Norway, of Denmark, of Orkney, of Man (?) ; of these same 
lands are a hundred thousand ' brave thanes,' [all well] weaponed in their 


La3AM0ns brut. 

[v. 25426—25450.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

on heore londes wife. 

Neoren hit nohtcnihtes ^ 

no )7ef wfeies idihte. 

all hit weoren men }>a kenkilvefte 

)?a aei mon ikende. 

mid mucle wiaxen c' 

mid longe faxe. 

Of Normandie of Angou r' 

of Brutaine of Peitou. 

of Flandres of Bukuine :' lo 

of Loherne of Luueine. 

comen an hudred ]?ufende :! 

to l^af kingef hirede. 

cnihtes mid ]?an bezfte i 

)?urh-coftned mid wepnen. 

per comen ]?a twalf iueren :^ 

]7a France fculden heren. 

twelf j^ufend cnihtes :^ 

heo brohten forS rihtes. 

and of }>iffen londe r' 20 

ArSur nom an honde. 

fifti jjufend cnihtef kene :! 

and ohte me to fihte. 

Howel of Brutaine :' 

cnihtef mid ]7an bezfte. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

in hire londes wife. 
Neren hii alle noht cnihtef:' 
ne J'ef avveies idilit. 
r' ac hit were j?e kenlokefte men r' 
I'at eni ma akende. 
mid mochele wiaxef r' 
and mid lange faxes. 
Of Normandie. of Angou r 
of Brutayne. of Peitou. 
of Flandres. of Boloyne :! 
of Lorenne. of Loueine. 
beo]; an hundred jnifend :! 
icome to )?an kinge. 
cnihtes mid ]/an befte r' 
]7orh-coftned mid wepne. 
par come \e twealf veres t 
|>at France folde werie. 
twealf J^ufend cnihtes ^ 
hii brohten for]7rihtes. 
and of l^iffe londe r' 
Arthur nam an honde. 
fifti ]70ufed cnihtes r' 
ohte men to fihte. 
Howel of Brutayne r' 
cnihtes mid ]>an befte. 

country s wise. They were not [all] knights, nor in this wise arrayed, 
but they were the keenest men that any man knew, with great battle-axes, 
[and] with long saexes^ Of Normandy, of Anjou, of Britain, of Poitou, of 
Flander?, of Boulogne, of Loraine, of Lovaine, *came [are come] a hun- 
dred thousand to the 'kings host [king], knights with the best, comiiletely 
provided with weai^olis. There came the twelve companions that France 
sliould 'obey [defend] ; twelve thousand knights they brought forth-right ; 
and of this land Arthur took in hand fifty thousand knights ' keen,' [and] 
brave men in battle. Howel of Britanny led ten thousand of his land- 

[v. 25451—25473.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

ten J^ufcnd lande ' r' 

of hif Icod-folke, 

Of ganninde nione r' 

J?a heo for^ wenden. 

]furh nane cunnef fpelle :' 

lie cuSe heom na mon telle. 

ArSur |7a hehte r' 

a^eleft kiiige. 

to ane ifette time r' 

];at folc ifomiiien. 

bi heore bare lifen r' 

at Barbe-fleote. 

& ]>er he wolde gsedere t 

fele hif j^ede. [f. hs^.c. 1.] 

pif lond he bitahte :' 

ane felcu^e cnihte. 

he wef Walwainnef broker :' 

njes J^er nan o^er. 

Moddred wes ihaten :f 

forcu^eft monnen. 

treou^e nefde he nane t 

to nauer nane monne. 

he wef Ar^uref maei :' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

ten |70ufend ladde :' 
of his leod-folke.' 
Of goinde men r' 
]>e lie^ for]? wende. 
]7orh none cunnes fpelle r' 
ne cou]>e^ no me telle. 
Arthur ]>o hehte :^ 
]7at his cnihtes alle. 
|7at hii at one ifat dai :' 
10 to-gaderes come, 
bi hire bare lifue t 
riht at Barbefleote. 

pis lond he bi-tahte :f 
one felcou];e cnihte. 
he was Waweynes broj^er r' 
nadde he non o|?er. 
Modread was ihote r' 
20 forcou}>eft manne. [f. 1 19. c. 1.] 

treu]?e nadde he none t 
to neuere none manne. 
he was Arthur his mey :' 

folk, knights with the best. Of foot-men ; when 'they [he] forth marched, 
through no kind of speech could any man them number ! Arthur then 
ordered, 'noblest of kiagv 'the folk to be assembled, [that to all his 
knights, that they should come together] at a set 'time [day], by their bare 
life, [right] at Barbefleote ; ' and there he would gather his good peo^^le.' 
This land he delivered to a famous knight ; he was Walwains brother, 
*there was [he had] no other ; he was named Modred, wickedest of men ; 
truth he had none to ever any man ; he was 'Arthurs [Arthur his] relation, 

ladde ? 

2 J)o hii ? 

' couj^e heom ? 



[v. 25474—25495.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

of aSelen hif cuiine. 

ah cniht he wes wuiider god r' 

& he hafde fwiSe muchel mod 

Arburef fufter fune :! 

to l^ere quene wes hif iwune. 

)?at Wcef ufele idon :! 

his seme he dude fvvike-don^ 

Ah al hit wes ftille :' 

in hirede and in halle. 

for jia man hit ne wende :' 

]?at hit fculde iwur^e. 

ah men to fo^e i-wenden r' 

for Walwain wes hif broker. 

]?e ah*e treowefte game :' 

]>e tuhte to j^an hirede. 

|jurh Walwain- wes Modraed r' 

monne |?a leouere. 

and ArSur p>e kene :' 

fill wel him iquemde. 

He nom al hif kinelond r' 20 

& fette hit Moddraed an hond. 

and Wenhauer hif quene ^ 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

of his gode cunne. 

cniht he was fwi}?e god r' 

and he hadde mochel mod. 

Arthur his fofter fone t^ 

to J^are cweane was his wone. 

]?at was vuel idon r' 

his earn he dude fwikedom. 

10 Ac no man hit ne wende r' 
|>at hit fo were, 
ac men to foj^e wende:' 
for Waweyn was his bro]?cr. 
]^e aire treuwefte cniht :^ 
J>at in er]7e was idiht. 
Jjorh Waweyn was Modread :! 
manne wel ]?e leauere. 
and Arthur |?e kene r' 
fole wel him cwemde. 
He nam al his kinelond r' 
and fette hit Modread an hond. 
and Gwenaj fer his cweane r' 

of his *noble [good] race ; ' but ' knight he was 'wondrous [exceeding] good, 
and he had very much pride ; he was 'Arthurs [Arthur his] sisters son ; 
to the (jueen was his resort, — that was evilly done, — to his uncle he 
did treachery. But ' it all was secret, in host and in hall, for ' no man 
it weened, that it 'should be [were so], but men in sooth weened Mm, 
because Walwain was his brother, the truest 'man [knight] of all that 
'came to the folk [in earth was formed] ; through Walwain was Modred 
'by men the [man well the] more beloved, and Arthur the keen full well 
was pleased with him. He took all his kingdom, and set it to Modred 
in hand, and'Wenhavcr [Gwcnayfer], his queen, worthiest of women, that 

' Jt. fwikedom. 

* The first syllable of Walwain hat been added by a second hand. 

[v. 25496—25518.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

wur^lukeft vviuen. 

]?a l^e in piffere leode r' 

wunede an londe. 

ArSur bi-tahte r' 

al ];at he ahte. 

Moddrade and |7ere quene :f 

]?at heom waf iquene^ 

pat waf ufele idon r' 

l^at heo iboren weoren. [c 2.] 

Y\{ lond heo for-radden :! 10 

mid raeu^en uniuo^en. 

and a |?an aenden heoni feoluen :! 

\& wurfe gon ifcenden. 

J'at heo l^er for-leofeden r' 

lif and heore faulen. 

and aeuer feo^^e la^en :' 

n auer aslche londe. 

pat nauer na ma nalde :! 

fel bede beoden for heore faule. 

for J^an fvvike-dome r' 20 

^ he dude Ardure^ hif seme. 

Al l^at Ar^ur ahte :^ 

he Moddrede bitahte. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

wor]?lokeft wifue. 

);at ]>o in |;iffe j^eode z' 

wonede on londe. 

Arthur 3am bi-taht r' 

al |?at lond ]7at he hahte. 

Modread and J>are cweane r' 

]7at him was icvveme. 

pat was vuele idon f' 

|?at hii ibore were. 

J>if lond hii for-ferde r' 

|?orh hire luj?er craftes. 

and 3am seolue an ]?an eande r 

|7e worfe gan fende. 

]?at hii for-lofede :' , 

hire lif and hire faule. 

and euere )?ar after r' [c. 2.] 

lo]? in eche londe. 

Al l^at Arthur hahte :! 
3am he hit bi-tahte. 

then in this nation dwelt in land. Arthur gave [to them] all [the land] 
that he possessed, to Modred and the queen, — that to 'them [him] Avas 
pleasing. That was evilly done, that they were (should have been) born ; 
this land they destroyed \vith numerous sorrows [through their wicked 
crafts] ; and themselves at the end the Worse gan disgrace {or destroy), 
so that they there lost [their] lives and their souls, and ever ^afterwards 
[thereafter] became odious in 'every [each] land, ' so that never any man 
would offer a good ^^rayer for their souls, on account of the treachery that 
he did to Arthur, his uncle,' All that Arthur possessed, he gave^to Mo- 

* 7?. iqueme. 

2 R. ArSur, 



[v. 25519—25541.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

loud and hif leoden :' 

& leofen hif quene. 

and fe^Sen he noni hif ferde r* 

of folken fwibe hende. 

and ferde ful fone "i 

touward SucS-hamtune. 

per comen feilien fone i 

3eond |?a fee wide. 

fcipes uiiiuo3e r' 

to ]?as kingef folke. 

\q king J'at folc beide r' 

^eond ]?a fcipen longe. 

bi l^ufend & bi J^ufed i 

to |?an fcipe |>raften. 

]7e uader weop a j^ene fune "i 

fufter a )>ene broker. 

moder a \\\ dohter :' 

]>a p'a du3eSe fturede. 

Werder^ ftod on wille:' 

wind wex an honde. 

ankeref heo up dro3en i 

drem wef on uolken. 

Wunden into widen fte X 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

and suj^l^e he nam his ferde i 

of folke fwij'e hende. 

and wende wel fone "i 

toward Suj^hamtone. 

par comen ride "^ 

oueral ]?an fee wide. 

sipes fwip>e manie r' 
10 to ]7is kinges folke. 

];e king ]?at folk dealde X 

to )?an fipes gode. 

bi l^oufend and bi l^oufend :' 

]?ider in |?rafte. 

|;e fader weap a }>ane fone i 

softer o f'an bro|>er. 

moder to^ ]?an dohter:' 

\o |7e ferde wende. 

Weder ftod at wille i 
20 wind wex an honde. 

ancreas hii vp drowen .*^ 

bliffe was a-manff heom. 

dred [it to them], ' his land and his people, and his dear queen'; and after- 
wards he took his army of folk most fair, and marched 'full [well] soon 
toward Southampton. There came 'numerous [very many] ships 'soon sail- 
ing [riding] over [all] the wide sea, to 'the [this] kings folk ; the king 
distrihuted the folk *over [to] the long [good] ships ; by thousands and 
by thousands 'to the ships [thither in] they thronged ; the father wept 
on the son, sister on the brother ; mother on the daughter, when the host 
departed. The weather stood at will, the wind waxed in hand ; anchors 
they up drew, joy was among '^/le folk [them]. 'The thanes wondrous 
blithe wound their way into the wide sea,' the ships there forth pressed, the 


^ weder? 

[v. 25542—25565.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

]?cinef wnnder bli^e. 

scipen J^er for^ prrungen^ ^ 

gleomen j^er fungen. 

feilef ))er tuhten ^ 

rapes per rehtten. 

wederen aire feleft:^ [f. I49.c. i.] 

and |7a fa? fweuede. 

For ]?ere foftneffe :! 

Ardur^ go to Happen. 

alfe \e king flepte :! lo 

a fweuen him imette. 

feorlic wes ]7at fweouen :' 

)>ene king hit auerde. 

pa J>e king him awoc :' 

swiSe he wes idrtecched. 

and granein agon :! 

hidere ftefenen. 

Nasf ]?er nan fwa ]?rifte r* 

cniht under crifte. 

)?at dnrfte ]?ene king frseine ^ 20 

of hif fare-cofte. 

£er ]'e king him feolf fpeke ^ 

and fpilede \vi5 hif beornen |?ere. 

and }f Ardur^ him feide:' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

Sipes |7ar for|? jn-onge :! 

gleomen ]?ar fonge. 

sayles ]'ar tohte r' 

ropes ])?iv rihte. 

weder aire faireft r' 

and ]7e fee fweuede. 

For }7are fofniffe t' 

Arthur ga to sleape. 

al fo I'e king flepte :! 

a fweuen he i-mette. 

feorlich was |7at fweuen r' 

];an king hit a-ferde. 

po |>e king him a-woc t 

]7e king was idrecchid. 

and gronie he gan :! 

loudere ftemne. 

Nas l^ar non fo J'rifte :! 

cniht onder crift. 

Jiat ]>ane king dorfte t' 

axi of his farecofte. 

her )>e king him seolf speake r' 

and faide to his cni]ites.[f.ii9''.c.i.] 

and l^us to 3am faide r 

glee-men there sung ; sails there they hoist, ropes there they right ; weather 
they had softest of all, and the sea slept. For the softness (calm) Arthur 
gan to sleep; as the king slept a dream he dreamt; marvellous was the 
dream, the king it alarmed ! When the king him awoke, ^greatly he [the 
king] was frightened, and [he] gan to groan with loud voice. Was there 
none so hold knight under Christ, who durst ask the king of his welfare, 
ere the king himself spake, and 'discoursed with [said to] his 'barons there 
[knights] ; and thus Arthur him said, when he awoke from sleep : " Lord 

^ R. Jrungen. 

=> 7?. kx^XXT. 



[v. 25566—25589.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

J^a he awoc of finope. 

Lauerd drihten crift i 

domef waldeiide. 

midelarde mund :! 

nionnen froure. 

Jjiirh )>ine aSmode wil r' 

walden' aenglen. 

let \\\ mi fweuen r' 

to fel]:>en iturnen. 

pa fpac Angel ]^e king "i lo 

Scottene deorlTg. 

Lauer^ fei uf \\ fweuen r' 

fele^eliSe uf beo jeue^e. 

Blu^eliche qua^ l^e king "i 

to bliffe hit avvur^e. 

per ich lai a fweuete :' 

agan ich forto f lepe. 

nie ]mhte j^at in |>ere weolcne :! 

com an wunderlic deor. 

seft I |;an leofte :^ 20 

ladlic^ an fehte. 

wis leite mid ftorme r' 

fturliche wende. 

nif in nare leode r' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

\o he woe of sleape. 
Louerd drihtene crift "! 
domes weldende. 
middilerj^es win r' 
mannene frouere. 
\ox\\ l^ine edmode i 
weldene eanglene. 
leatte \o\\ min fweuen "l 
to fealj^e teorne. 
po fpac Angel j^e king :' 
Scottene deorling. 
Louerd faie ous \\\\ sweuen :' 
for feal|?e his ous 3euen. 
Blo|?eliche cwa|? ]^e king :' 
to bliffe hit teorne. 
par ich lay a fweuete ^ 
and ich gan to fleape. 
me l^ohte in |?are wolcne ^ 
com an deor fellich. 
eaft in ]>an hifte r' 
lopliche on fihte. 

nis in none londe ^ 

governor Christ, ruler of dooms, 'protector [joy] of middle-earth, com- 
forter of men through thy merciful will, ruler of angels ; let thou my dream 
turn to good ! " Then spake Angel the king, Scotlands darling : " Lord, 
say us thy dream, [for] prosperity is given to us." "Blithely," quoth 
the king, " to bliss may it turn ! Where I lay in slumber, [and] I gan 
' for ' to sleep, methought ' that ' in the welkin came a marvellous beast, 
eastjfrt?-rf in the sky, and loathsome to the sight ; ' with lightning and with 
storm sternly he advanced '; there is in no land 'any bear so loathly [such 

waldcnd ? 

' Lauerd ? 


[v. 25590—25611.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

nan fwa ladlic' beore. [c.2.] 
pa com ]>er weftene :f 
winden mid }>a weolcnen. 
a berninge drake r' 

bur fuel..^ 

mid hif feure he lihte :f 

al |?if lond-riche. 

me |>uhte a mire f ih^eSe :f 

]?at )7a fae gon to berne. 

of leite & of fure :f 

]?a ]?e drake ferede. 

pes drake and beore r' 

beien to-fomne. 

radliche fone :' 

to-gadere heo come. 

lieo fmiten heom to-gaderen :' 

mid feondliche rfefen. 

flo3e^ of beore hae3ene :' 

fwulc fur-burondef ^. 

Ofte wes \>e drake buuen r' 

and eft feo^Sen bineo|?en. 

neo^elef a ]>a.n aende :' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

foch deor aftonde. 
po com J?ar weftene ^' 
winde in J^an wolcne. 
a bernene drake :' 
borwes he fvvelde. 
mid hif fui'e he lihte :f 
al J>is lond-riche. 
me jjohte in mine f ihte :' 
pat ]>e fee barnde. 
10 of lihte and of fure :' 
p'at ]>e drake ferede. 
peos drake and |>e beore :' 

to-gadere hii come, 
hii fmiten heom to gaderes t* 
mid feondeeliche^ reafes. 
flo3en of hire ejene t 
afe furbrondes. 
20 Ofte was ]>e drake boue :f 
and eft su]?]?e bi-neo|?e. 
na]?eles a ]?an eande :f 

creature existing] . Tlien came there westward, winding \vith the clouds 
[in the welkin] , a burning dragon ; burghs he swallowed ; with his fire 
he lighted all this lands realm ; methought in my sight that the sea *gan 
to burn [burnt] of light and of fire, that the dragon carried. This dragon 
and [the] bear, ' both together, quickly soon ' together they came ; they 
smote them together with fierce assaults ; flames flew from their eyes as 
firebrands ! Oft was the dragon above, and eftsoons beneath ; neverthe- 
less at the end high he gan rise, and he flew down right with fierce assault, 

* laSlic? 

' This line has been added in the margin by a second hand, but partly ait off by 

the rascally biiider. 
' feonde]iche? 

* flojen ? 

* fur-brondef? 



[v. 25612—25635.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

he3en he gon wende. 

and he flah dun rilite r' 

mid fcondliclie rffifcn. 

and ]>ene beore he ifmat t 

]\it he to l^ere eor^e iwhat. 

and he ]>er |?ene beore of-floh :' 

and hine lini-mele to-dmh. 

pa ]?at feht wef ido t' 

]>e drake a3en wende. 

pif fweucn me imette r' lo 

]>ei' ich lai and flapte. 

Bifcopef yd iherden t' 

& boc-ila?rede men. 

])if iheorden eorlef :' • 

yii iherden bcornef. 

felc bi hif vvitte :f 

M'ifdom feiden. 

]>if fweuen ara;hten r' 


Ne durfte ]?er na cniht :' 
to ufele rfecchen na wiht. 
leofte he fculden Icofen :f\_(.n9\cA 
hif leomen j^at weoren him deore. 
ForS heo gunen liSen :' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

heh3e he gan wende. 
and he fleah dun riht:^ [c. 2.] 
mid feondeHche reafe. 
and ]7ane beore he fmot :f 
]mt he fulle to grQde. 
and he ]?ar )>ane beore floh t' 
and leome-mele hine to-droh. 
po ]?at fiht was idon r' 
J^e drake a3en wende. 
pis me imette :' 
]>ar ich lay and fleapte. 
Biffopes }?is ihorde :' 
and clearkef wel wife. 
J?is ihorde eorles :' 
l^is ihorde cnihtes. 
ech bi his witte :' 
wifdom faide. 
I^is fweuen hi a-reht :' 
afe heom beft |7oht. 
Ne dorfte par no cniht:' 
to vuele hit teorne no wiht. 
Jlefte he }>ar vore lofede:' 
his leomes j^at he louede. 
For}; hii gonne lij^e :' 

and the bear he smote, so that he fell to *the earth [ground] ; and he there 
the bear slew, and limbmeal him tore. When the fight was done, the 
dragon back went. This ' dream ' 1 dreamt, where I lay and slept." The 
bishops heard this, and 'book-learned men [clerks well wise] ; this heard 
earls, this heard 'barons [knights] ; each by his wit said wisdom, and this 
dream [they] interpreted, as to them best seemed. There durst no knight, 
to evil 'expound [it turn] no whit, least he [therefore] 'should lose his limbs 
that 'were dear to him [he loved] . Forth they gan to voyage 'exceeding 

^ A line is here missing. 

[v. 25036—25658.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

an eoufte bilife. 

wind heoni ftod on wille / 

feleft aire wedere. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

in |7an fee blij^e. 

wind heom ftod at wille "l 

miirieft aire wedere. 

heo hffifden al j^at heom wes neod r'bii hadde al j^at waf neode :' 
tolondenheocomenatBarbe-fleot. to londe hii come at Barbefleote. 

To Barbe-fleot at Coftentin -! 

|7er com muchel moncun in. 

of alle l^an londe f' 

J>a Ar^ur hafde an honde. 

Swa fone fwa heo mihten "! 

ut of fcipe heo rehten. 

]7e king hif folc hehten ^ ^ 

herberwe ifechen. 

an badien J^e king wolde ^ 

J>at his folc come. 

Nes he J>ere buten ane niht i 

To Barbefleot at Conftantin i 
|?ar com moche moncun in. 
of alle J'an londe :l 
)?at Arthur hadde an honde. 
10 So rathe fo hii mihten ^ 
vt of sipe hii rehten. 
]7e king his folk hehte :' 
herborwe feche. 
and reafte \^ king wolde ^ 
forte his folk come. 
Nas he |?are bute one niht "! '- J , -i " 

pa com him to an hende cniht. J^at com him to an hendi cniht. 

he talde tidinge r' he tolde tydinge r* 

Ar^ure |?an kinge. Arthur }>an kinge. 

he feide j^at )?er wef icume "! 20 he faide J?at j^ar waf icome ■i 

a fca^e li^e. a lu]7er |?ing to londe. 

of weftward Spaine i of weftward Spayne i 

wel reordi feond. a wel lo|?liche feond. 

quickly [in the sea blithe] ; tlie wind stood to them at will, weather 'best 
[merriest] of all ; they had all that * to them ' was need ; to land they came 
at Barbefleot. To Barbefleot, at Constantin, therein came a mickle multi- 
tude, from all the lands that Arthur had in hand. So soon as they might, 
out of ship they moved ; the king ordered his folk to seek lodging, and the 
king would rest, until his folk came. He was not there but one night, 
that a fair knight came to him ; he told tiding to Arthur the king ; he said 
that there was arrived a 'monster [wicked thing to land], westward from 
Spain ; [a] fiend well loathsome ; and in Britanny was busy to harm. By 

' Written originally hehten, but n struck out by the same Jiand. 



[v. 25659— 25G80.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

and ine Brutaine r' 

bifi wef to harme. 

bi ]>ere fae fide ^ 

]7et lond he vvefte wide. 

nu hit hatte Munt Seint Michel ^ 

f lond ewelde^ iwidel. 

Lauerd king queS ])e cniht :' 

to foSe icli ]>e cu^e her riht. 

he hafue^ inome ]?ine ma3e :' 

mid hahliche ftren^e. lo 

heje wimmon iboren r' 

Howelef dohter icore. 

Eleine wef ihaten :f [c. 2.] 

a^eleft niaidenen. 

To ]nin munte he heo uerede :' 

aSeleft maidene. 

nu fulle feowertene niht r' [riht. 

]7e fe5d heo hafue^ ihalden ]>ev 

nute we on liue r' 

J'eh he heo nabbe to wife. 20 

Alle he makeS him to mete t' 

]>a. men ]>a he igripe^. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

and ine Brutayne :f 
bufi was to harme. 
bi ]?are fee fyde :f 
]?at lond he wafte]? wide, [chel f 
J'at nou hatte Mount Seint Mi- 
he hit wafte)? euereidel. 
Louerd king cwa|? |>e cni . . 

. o fo]?e ich ]>e fegge he 

he hauej> |?ine mow.' 
mid mochelere ftrengj^e. 
heh womman ibore i' 
Howel his dohter icore. 
Ele . . . was ihote r' 

faireft mayde. 

To on heh montayne r 

he ]?an mayde ladde. 

nou his folle fourteniht :' 

|?at he hire haue|? i-holde for]? riht. 

nute we on lifue t' 

]>eh he hire habbe to wifue. 

Al he make|> him to mete :' 

J?e men pat he gripe]?. 

the sea-side the land he wasted wide, — now it hight Mount Saint Michel, 
— ^'the land he possesseth [he it wasteth] every part. — " Lord king," quoth 
the knight, " in sooth I 'make known [say] to thee right here, he hath taken 
mvay thy relative, with great strength, a nobly born woman, 'Howels [Howel 
his] daughter choice, zvho was named Helen, 'noblest of maidens [fairest 
maid of all]. To 'the mount he carried her, noblest of maidens [a high 
mountain he led the maid] ; now [it is] full a fortnight, 'the fiend [that 
he] hath holden her 'there [forth] right ; we know not in Ufe whether he 
have her ' not ' to wife. All the men that he seizeth, he maketh to him 
for meat, cattle, horses, and the sheep ; goats, and the swine eke ; all this 

* he weldej) ? 

[v. 25681—25703,] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

ruSeren horf & ]>a, fcep :f 

gffit and j?a fwin eke. 

al J^if lond he wule for-fare f" 

bate ]?u afeollen ure kare. 

lond and |?af leode :f 

a |?e if ure neode. 

3et ]7e cniht feide :' 

to ]?an uolc-kinge. 

Ifihft ])\i lauerd ]?e miint r' 

and J>ene wude muchele. lo 

]?er wune^ ]>e fca^e inne :f 

])& fcendeS l^af leode. 

We habbe^ wiS him iuohte :f 

wel feole fi^en. 

bi fae & bi londe t 

)?ef leoden he amaerde. 

ure fcipen he afeingde :' 

)^at folc he al adrente. 

]>eo pat feuhten a J>an londe :f 19 

]>eo he adun leide. [longe t' 

we habbeo^ idriuen f J>at^ fwa 

]?at we hine leete^ ane. 

faren heu^ fwa he wule :' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

ro]?ere hors and J>e fceap :f 

geat and |>e fwin eak. 

al ]>is lond he wole for-fare r' 

bote )7ou alegge oure care. 

lond and J>is leode :f 

in ]?e hiKS oure neode, 

3et l^e cniht faide t' 

to bolde ]?an kinge. 

Ifext |?ou lauerd |?ane mont :f 

and l^ane wode mochele. 

J7ar wone]? ])o^ feond ine r' [c.2.] 

]?at fendef \>es leode. 

We habbe]? wi]7 him ifohte ^ 

wel fale fi|7e. 

bi fe^ and bi londe :' 

he do]? ous moche fonde. 

oure f ip . . he adreind :' 

oure folk he afeint. 

we habbe]? ]?is fo long idriue :' 
]?at we lete]? him one. 
don wat fo he wolle :' 

land he will destroy, unless thou allay our care, the land and this people ; 
in thee is our need." Yet said the knight to the ^monarch [bold king] : 
" Seest thou, lord, the mount, and the great wood, wherein the fiend 
dwelleth that destroyeth this people .'' We have fought with him well many 
times ; by sea and by land 'this folk he destroyed [he doth us much harm] ; 
our ships he sank (submerged), *the [our] folk he 'all' drowned; 'those 
that fought on the land, those he down laid.' We have driven (suffered) 
*that [this] so long, that we let him alone, to 'act how [do what] so he 

» >ei 

' Sic MS. 
c 2 

hou ? 



[v. 25704—25726.] 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

after iwille him. 

]nf lond cnihtef ne durren ^ 

■\vi^ him mare na fehten. 

ArSur J^if iherde ^ 

a-Seleft aire kinge. [[f.ijo.d.] 

he cleopede him to |>ene eorl Kjei 

]?e wef his ftiward and hif mfei 

Bedu eke to him he cleopede :! 

he wef ]?ef kingef birle. 

He haehte heom for^ riht^ r^ 

beon al war to midder-niht. 

mid alle heore wenpne^ :' 

to wende wrS ]?an kinge. 

];at na mo under crifte ^ 

of heore uare nufte. 

buten Ar^ur |?e king ^' 

and ]7a tweien cnihtef mid him 

and heore fweinef fixe :' 

ohte men and wihte. 

and l^e cniht \e. radde :! 

hit |?an kinge heom ladde. 

To |?ere midnihte :! 

)?a men weoren aflepe. 


MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

after his wille. 
ne dorre ];if lond cnihtes ^' 
na more wi]? him fihte. 
Arthur }7is ihorde r^ 
baldeft aire kinge. 
:^he cleopede him to Kay r' 
]7at was his ftiward and his mey. 
Beduer he cleopede eke r' 
]7at was \& kingef borle. 
He hehte 3am for}? riht "^ 
beon al 3ar to midniht. 
mid alle hire wepne r' 
wende mid ]?an kinge. 
)?at no man onder crift t' 
of hire fare nufte. 
bote Arthur pe king r' 
and hif twei cnihtes mid him. 
and hire fweines fixe :! 
ohte me and wihte. 
and |7e cniht 3am ladde :' 
]?at )?ane king )?is radde 
To pare mid-nihte r^ 
\o men were a-fleape. 

■will, after his will ; the knights of this land dare not with him any more 
fight." Arthur heard this, 'noblest [boldest] of all kings ; he called to him 
• the earl ' Kay, who was his steward and his relative ; Beduer eke ' to 
him ' he called, 'he [who] was the kings cup-bearer. He bade them forth- 
right be all ready at midnight, with all their weapons, to go with the king, 
so that no man under Christ should know of their journey, except Arthur 
the king, and 'the [his] two knights with him, and their six swains, brave 
men and active ; and the knight that counselled 'it [this] to the king, should 
lead them. At the midnight, when men were asleep, Arthur forth him went. 

' At first icritten rihtcf, hut the lust two letters cxpunctcd by the same hand. 
^ wcpne ? 

[v. 25727—25750.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

ArSur for^ him wende r 

aSeleft aire kinge. 

Bi-foren rad heore lod-ciiiht :! 

pat hit waf dwiliht. 

heo lihten of heore ftede r' 

and rihten heore iweden. 

pa ife3en heo nawiht feorren :! 

a muchel fur finokien. 

uppen aiie hulle :! 

mid fse ulode bi-uallen. lo 

and an o^er hiil ]7er wes fwi'Se heh 

jjfe fae hine bifledde ful neh. 

)jer uuen on heo ife3en a fur r' 

)7at wef muchel and fvvi^e ftor. 

pae cnihtef j^a tweonede r' 

to wha]?ere heo faren mihten. 

I^et ]?e eotend war neore :' 

of |;eof kingef fore. 

pa nom him to rede t* 

Ar^ur |?e rae3e. 20 

]?at heo fculden fomed faren r'[c. 2. 

aneoften |7an ane furen. 

and 3if hine |^er funde :^ 

a-quellen hine to deSen. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

Arthur for]? him wende r' 

baldeft aire kinge. 

Bi-vore 3eode hire lod-cniht :' 

forte hit was day-liht. 

hii lihte of hire ftedef r' 

and rihte hire wedes. 

po hii feh3en noht vorre t* 

on mochel fur fmokie. 

vppen one hidle r' 

mid fee flode bi-falle. 
:^an o]?er hulle was )?ar heh :''-J j -, ' 

J?e fee hine biflo3ede fwi]?e neh. 

])ar vpon he ifeh a fur :' 

];at was mochel and fwi];e ftor. 

pe cnihtes |^o nufte :! 

to wa]7er hii wende mihte. 

}7at \c eatant war neore :^ 

of ]7is kinges fore. 

po nam him to reade r 

Arthur |7e bolde. 
] ]>at hii wolden fare r' 

toward J^a fure. 

and 3ef hii hine ]?ar fude :/ 

a-cwellen to deaj^e. 

'noblest [boldest} of all kings. Before 'rode [proceeded] their guide, until 
it ■was"Say-light ; they alighted from their steeds, and righted their weeds. 
Then saw they not far, a great fire smoke, upon a hill, surrounded by the 
sea-flood ; ' and ' another hill there was ' most ' high ; the sea by it flowed 
full [very] nigh ; thereupon 'they [he] saw a fire, that was mickle and 
most strong. The knights then 'doubted [knew not], to whether of the 
two they might go, that the giant were not aware of the kings movement. 
Then Arthur the bold took him to counsel, that they 'should [would] go 
' together ' 'near [toward] the ' one ' fire ; and if [they] there him found, 
kill ' him ' to death. Forth went the king, so that he came near; nought 



[v. 25751—25770.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

For^ ]>e king wende r' 

\>a.t he com aneufte. 

iioht he |?er ne funde :f 

bute a niuchel fur ];er bernhide, 

Ar^ur eode abute :f 

& hif cnihtes bi hif fiden. 

na whit heo ne funden r' 

quikes uppen wolden. 

buten ]?at fur muchele :f 

and ban vnimete. lo 

bi atliiige he5 ]7uhte r' 

J^ritti uo^ere. 

Ar^ur ]?a nufte :' 

nenne red godne. 

& bi-gon him to fpeken r' 

to Beduer hif eorle. 

Beduer far biliue r 

a-dun of Jjiffen hulle. 

and wed ])e ouer ]?at water deope 

mid alien J^ine iwede. 20 

and mid wifdome t' 

wend to j^an fure. 

and bi-haluef ]>e iga :' 

and bihald 3eorne. 

3if ]?u miht a-finde :' 

oht of j?an feonden. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

For)? wende ]>e king r' 

J'at he aneweft com. 

noht he ]?ar ne funde r' 
, bote a fur bearnende. 

Arthur jeode a-boute t' 

and his cnihtef bi his fide. 

noht hii ne funde :' 

cwic vp ]?an hulle. 

bote }?at fur mochele :' 

and bones onimete. 

bi hatling heo j^ohte :' 

]?ritti fo|?er. 

Arthur ]>o nufte t' 

none read gode. 

and bi-gan him to fpeke r' 

to Beduer his eorle. 

Beduer wend bliue t' 

adun of }?iffe hulle. 
t' and wend ouer J»at water deope :' 

mid alle )?ine wede. 

and mid wifdome :f 

wend to J'ane fure. 

and bi-halues pou go :f 

and be-hold 3eorne. 

3ef ]70u miht ifinde r' 

oht of ]?an feonde. 

he there found but a ' mickle ' fire ' there ' burning. Arthur went about, 
and his knights by his side ; nought they found aHve upon 'earth [the hillj 
but the great fire, and bones innumerable ; by estimation it seemed to them 
thirty fother. Arthur then knew not any good counsel, and began him to 
speak to Beduer, his earl : — " Beduer, go quickly down from this hill, and 
pass ' thee ' over the deep water, with all thy weeds ; and with wisdom 
advance to the fire ; and go thou aside, and behold diligently, if thou may- 
est find ought of the fiend. And if thou mayest him perceive, *in wise 

[v. 25777—25801.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

And 3if ]m hiiie miht of-jiten :f 

on ai^es cunnef wifen. 

wend adun ftille t 

]?at^ cunie to J^an watere. 

& feien me ]?er fone r' 

what l^u i-fe3en habbe. 

And 3if hit ilimpe^ fwa r' 

l^at ]7u li^en to ]7an fure. 

& |?e feond J^e of-3ite :! 

and ]>n to fufe. lo 

hafe mine godne horn :' 

^e al mid golde if ibon. 

and blawe hine mid maine :f 

fwa mo fcal for neode. [f. iso^c. i 

and fuf J>e to J^a feonde t 

and bigin to fihten. 

& we ]>e fcnllen fufen to :/ 

fwa we hit fwi^eft ma3en don. 

And 3if ]?u hine ifindeft :' 

aneoufte |^an fure. 20 

and ]>\i al un-a3eten :' 

a3ein miht iwende. 

]7enne for-beode ich ]>e i 

bi J'ine bare life. 

]7at ]7u nauere wi^ }?ene fcucke :^ 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

And 3ef ]?ou miht hine onder3ete i 
wij? enicunnes gynne. 
wend adQ ftille ^ 
for to ]?an watere. 
and fei3e me J^ar fone :' 
wat J70U ifeh3e habbe. 
And 3ef hit bi-falle}> so i 
\dX )>ou wende in ]?an fure. 
and J7e feond )?e of-3ete i 
and J>e to foufe. 

haue mine gode home "! [c. 2.] 
)?at al mid golde his bi-gon. 
and blou hine mid maine i 
.] fo man fal to neode. 
and wend to |?an feonde i 
and bi-gin to fihte. 
and we folle |?e come to r' 
fo fwi|7e fo we mawe do. 
And 3ef j^ou hine findeft ^ 
a-neweft J>an fure. 
and ]7ou on-a3ete "^ 
a3ein miht wende. 
]?anne for-bed ich ]7e ^ 
bi |?ine bare Hue. 
f'at J'ou neuere wi]? j^an^ ":! 

[with stratagem] of any kind, go down still, until ' ihou come ' to the 
water, and say me there soon what thou hast seen. And if it so befalleth, 
that thou come to the fire, and the fiend thee perceive, and proceed toward 
thee, have my good horn, that all with gold is adorned, and blow it with 
strength, as man shall for need. And advance ' thee ' to the fiend, and 
begin to fight, and we shall come to thee, as *most quickly [quick as] we 
may ' it ' do. And if thou findest him near the fire and thou ' all ' unper- 
ceived back mayest go ; then forbid I thee, by thy bare life, that thou ever 

» J'at >u ? 

^ A word is omitted. 



[v. 25802—25826.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

feht no biginne. 

Beduer iherde i 

•what hif lauerd^ him feide. 

hif wepneii he on liim dude :' 

and forS him iwende. 

and up a-ftash |?ene munt "i 

J>e if unimete. 

He bar an hif honde i 

aenne gaere fwi^e ftronge. 

iene fceld an hif rugge r' 

iruft al mid golde. 

haehn an hif hafde :' 

hehne of ftele. 

hif bodi vvef bifeong i 

mid faeire are burne. 

he hafde bi hif fide i 

enne brond al of ftele. 

and for^ he gon fteppen "i 

fti^ imainede eorl. 

]?at he com fufen "i 

an neoufte ]?an furen. 

and he under ane treo i 

gon him at-ftonden. 

pa iherde he vvepen "i 

wunder ane fwiSen. 



MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

fiht ne bi-gynne. 
Bedu.. .horde :' 

wat his louerd 

his wepne he an him .... 
and iox\ he iwende. 
and .. a-fteh \... hul:' 
\. was onimete. 
he bar on his h . . . . 
ane gare fwi]?e ftronge. 

aid on his rugge "i 

.... al mid golde. 
healm on his heaued :' 
hehne of ftele. 
his bo., was ieled "! 

mid one go e. 

he hadde bi his fide i 
. . . brond of ftele. 
and for]? he gan fteppe r' 
fti]j imained eorl. 
pat he com fufe r' 
ane weft )?an fure. 
and he vnder one treo i 
gan him aftonde. 
po ihorde he wepe i 
wonderliche fwij^e. 

with the monster begin fight." Beduer heard what his lord said to him ; 
his weapons he put him on, and forth he went, and ascended up the ^mount 
[hill] that 'is [was] immense. He bare in his hand a spear exceeding strong; 
a shield on his back, ornamented all with gold ; a helm on his head, high, 
of steel ; his body was covered with a 'fair [good] burny ; he had by his side 
a brand ' all ' of steel ; and forth he gan step, the powerfully strong earl, 
until he arrived near the fire ; and he under a tree gan him tarry. Then 
heard he one weep, wondrously much, weep and whine with piteous cries. 

' laucr, jtr, in. 

[v. 25827—25850.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

wepen and vveinen r' 

and^ wanliche iberen. 

pa ]>e cniht wende :f 

]7at hit )?e eotend weoren. 

and he an-burften agon r [c. 2.] 

swulc weore a wilde bar. 

and for3a2t fone r' 

pat hif laiaerd him feide. 

Hif fceld he braeid on breofte ?" 

hif fpere he igrap fafte. lo 

and an neofte gon fufe :! 

touvvard |?an fure. 

he wende to finden :f 

]>ene feond fturne. 

]7at he fehten mihte :f 

and fSdien hine feolue. 

pa fond he "per ane quene :' 

quecchen mid hafde. 

heor-lockede wif f 

weop for hire wei-fi^. 20 

wanede hire fi^ef r 

j) heo waef on liuef. 

]7at fet bi ]?a fure r' 

mid reolichen ibere. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

weape and wony r' 

reuliche bearef. 

]?at l^e cniht wende :f 

]>a.t hit ]?e eatant were. 

and a-borft iwarj? :' 

afe hit a bor were. 

and for-jet fone :' 

]7at his louerd him faide. 

His feald he breid on his breofte :f 

his fpere he igrop faft. 

and ane weft gon wende :flf. 12 i.e. 1.] 

toward |?an fure. 

he wende to finde :f 

]>ane feond ftronge. 

)?at he fihten mihte r 

and fondie him feolue. 

po funde he |?are :' 

one womma fette. 

hor-ilocket wif :' 

wepe wel fore. 

and fat bi |7an fure :f 
and tar liire bi j?an ere. 

'Then [50 that] the knight weened that it were the giant, and he became 
incensed as if [it] were a ' wild ' boar, and soon forgot what his lord said 
to him. His shield he drew on [his] breast, his spear he grasped fast, 
and near (or quickly) gan wend toward the fire ; he thought to find the 
'stem [strong] fiend, that he might fight, and prove himself. Then found 
he there a woman 'shaking with her head [sitting], a hoary-locked wife, 
loho wept 'for her wretchedness [well sore] ; ' she cursed her lot that she 
was alive ; ' *that [and] sate by the fire, 'with piteous cries [and tare her by 




[v. 25851—25874.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 
& Aet & biheold aeuere r' 
aenne burinaeffe. 
and hire 3eddef faeide r' 
jeoni e ftefne. 
Wale Eleine :' 
wale deore niaide. 
wale |?at ich ]>e uedde :! 
pat ich ];e uoftredde. 
wale J'at ]>ffi wald-fca^e :' 
here ]>e haue^ ]7uf for-uare. lo 
wale ]?at ich wes iboren :' 
mine leomen he haueS to-broken, 
pa bi-faeh ]?at wif abute :' 
whar l^e eotend come bu^en :' 
bi-feh a \>ene eorl Beduer f 
|>a icvmien wef J?er. 
pa feide ]?at wif here • :^ 
|>er heo fet bi fure. 
Whaet sert \m faere whit :' 
eaert \>n angel eaert cnih^. 20 
beo^ ]>ine fe^er-heome r' 
ihaneked mid golden. 
3if ]7u asrt of heuene :f 
J?u miht ifund faren heonene. J ^ -, 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

and euere 360 bi-hald :' 

one buriniffe. 

and hire wordes faide r' 

mid rouliche ftemne. 

Wola Ealeyne :f 

wola deore mayde. 

wola l^at ich ]?e fedde :' 

]7at ich J>e foftrede. 

wola ]7at l^e wode-fca}>e r' 

hauej? ]?e ]?as for-fare. 

wola ]?at ich was iboren :' 

mine leomef he haue]? to-broke. 

po bi-feh J7at wif a-boute :' 

war ]>e eatant com b . . . e. 

bi-feh 3eo j^ene .... Beduer r' 

]?at icome was ]^ar. 

. . faide ]?at wif ore r' 

)?ar 3eo fit bi fui-e. 

Wat ha.t l^ou faeire wiht:^ 

hart J>ou hangel o|?er cniht. 

beoj? )?ine fea]?erhames t' 

ihaneked mid golde. 

3ef |?ou hart of heuene :f 

pou miht wende hinne. 

the liair], ' and sat ' and ever [she] beheld a grave, and said her words with 
'plaintive [piteous] voice: — "Alas! Helen; alas! dear maid ; alas! that I 
thee fed, that I thee fostered ; alas ! that the monster hath thee ' here ' thus 
destroyed ; alas ! that I was bom ; my limbs he hath broken in pieces ! " 
Then looked the woman about, where the giant should arrive ; and 'looked 
on [she beheld] the earl Beduer, who was come there. Then said the 
woman hoar, where she sate by the fire : " What art thou, fair wight ? art 
thou angel, 'art thou [or] knight ? are thy wings hung (?) with gold ? If 
thou art from heaven, thou mayest ' in safety ' go hence, and if thou art 

' hore? 


[v. 25875—25896.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

and ^if ]?u asrt eor^lic cniht "! and jef };ou hart er]?! cniht :' 
ffirm J7u iwur^eft for^ riht. J?ou harm ibideft for]? riht. 

For nu ana cunicS )7e fcaSe r' For nou a-non comep pe fcaj^e :' 
]7e allej^ineleonienwuleto-drajen.j^at al J^in leomes wole to-draje. 

|?eh |ni weore ftel al r' 
he p'e await ivvildel. 
He uerde to Brutaine i 
to a^eft^ aire bolde. 
to Howelef caftle i 
hash mon ine Brutene. 
]7a 3aten alle he to-brac :' 
and binnen he gon wende. 
He nom ]7are halle wah^ :' 
and helden hine to grunde. 
I^eef buref dure he warp adiin 
}?at heo to-barft a uiuen. 
he funde i j^a buren r' 
faeireft aire bruden. 
Eleinen wef ihaten :' 
a^eleft kunne. 
Howelef dohter :' 
haeh mon of Brutene. 



]7eh \o\x. were ftel al r' 

he )?e await euereidel. 

He wende to Britaine i 

to an ftude bolde. 

to Howel his caftle i 

freo man in londe. 

|?e ^eatef alle he to-brac :' 

and in he gan wende. 

He nam ];e hilewo]? r' 

and halede hine to grunde. [c 2.] 

\\{ boures dore he warp vp i 

\2X he to-barft a fifue. 

he funde in J7an boure i 

faireft aire mayde. 

Eleyne was ihote t 

of heh^e cunne. 

Howeles dohter:' 

heh man in Brutene. 

earthly knight, harm thou Vilt have [abidest] forth-right. For now anon 
Cometh the monster that all thy limbs will draw in pieces ; though thou 
wert all steel, he would thee destroy, every bit. He went to Britanny, to 
VAe best of all mansions [a place bold], to 'Howels [Howel his] castle, 'no- 
ble [free] man in ^Britanny [land] ; the gates he all brake in pieces, and 
within he gan wend. He took the hall wall ( ? ), and pulled it to ground ; 
the chambers door he cast Mown [up] , so that it burst in five ; he found in 
the chamber the fairest of all maids ; Helen she was named, of noble race ; 
Howels daughter, noble man 'of [in] Britanny, ^Arthurs [Arthur his] rela- 

' erj^lichi 

2 atJcIeft? 

' watJ, /;>•. m., corrected by a second. 



[v. 25897—25919.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

ArSuref maje ^ 

of fwiSe 11636 cunn6. 

Ich wes hire uofter-moder :' 

and feire heo uoftredde. 

per ]>e eotend unc ifeg r' 

forS mid him feoluen. 

fiftene mile. 

into ]?iffe wilde wude r' 

hider to J?iffen ilke ftude. 10 

J;ufhe ufdifte^:' 

to-daei a feoiien nihte. 

Sone fwa he hider com :! 

fvva he ]7at maide inom. 

he wolde mon-radene :' 

habben wiS ]?an maidene. 

^Ide naefde heo na mare :f 

buten fihtene^ 3ere. 

ne mihte ]?at maide :' 

hif mone i-J'olien. 20 

anan fvva he lai hire mide :! [c. 2.] 

hire lif heo lofede fone. 

& her he heo bi-burede :f 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

Arthur his raowe :' 

of he^e cunne. 

Ich was hire fofter-moder r' 

and faire hire bi-hedde. 

pe eatand j^at mayde nam r' 

for]; mid him seolue. 

and hire bar a Intel wile :! 

fiftene mile. 

in to J'iffe wilde wode r' 

riht into J^iffe ftude. 

]?^ he vs diht r^ 

to-day a foueniht. 

Sone fo he hider com r' 

he |?at mayde nam. 

he wolde manradene r' 

habbe wij? J>an mayde. 

Ealde nadde 36 more ^ 

bote fiftene jere. 

ne mihte }>at maide :' 

his imone jjolie. 

anon fo he hire bi lay r' 

hire lif wente awav. 

and her 360 his ibured r^ 

tive, of ' most ' noble lineage. I was her foster-mother, and fair her *fos- 
tered [tended] . ' There ' the giant took 'us [the maid] forth with himself, 
[and bare her a little way], fifteen miles, into this wild wood, 'hither to 
[right into] this ' same ' place ; thus he us treated to-day a sen'night. So 
soon as he hither came, ' so ' he took the maid ; he would have carnal in- 
tercourse with the 'maiden [maid]. Age had she 'no [not] more but fif- 
teen years ; the 'maiden [maid] might not endure his force ; anon so he lay 
'with [by] her, her life 'she lost soon [went away] ! And here 'he her [she 
is] buried, fairest of all maids, Helen, mine own foster, 'Howels [Howel 

./ line hero is npjiarenlly wanting. 

' dihte? 

' fiftene ? 

[v. 25920—25943.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

burde aire hendeft. 

Eleine min a^en iiofter :f 

Howellef dohter. 

pa l^e ^ hafde J^if idon :' 

fwa me feoluen inom^. 

a uolden he me laiden t" 

and lai mid me feoluen. 

nu hafeS be^ mine ban alle :' 

ladliche a-brokene. 

mine leonien al to-le^ed r' 

mi lif me if a-la^ed. 

Nu ich habbe ])e itald r' 

hu we beo^ her ihaed. 

flih nu fwiSe r 

left he ]?e ifinde. 

for ^if he cumeS a-bol3en :f 

mid hif balu reefen. 

nef he neuere iboren :f 

]>e ma3en ftonden J>e biuoren. 

Efne J^iffen worden :' 

J?a ]7at wif feide. 

Beduer heo gon hirten r' 

mid hendeliche worden. 

Leofe moder ich aem mon i' 



MS. Cott, Otho, C. xin. 

hendeft aire mayde. 

Ealeyne min owe vofter :f 

Howel his dohter. 

J?o he hadde pus idon t' 

]fo he mi feolue nam. 

to grunde he me leyde r' 

and lai bi mi feolue. 

nou haue]? he broken :f 

alle mine bones. 

mine leomes a-li]7ede :f 

mi lif me hif la]?. 

Nou |?ou haueft al ihord :f 

ou we beo]? her ilad. 

fle nou fwi|?e / 

laft he ]>e finde. 

for 3ef he comej* a-bolwe :' 

mid his balou reafes. 

nas he neuere ibore :' 

]>iit mawe ftonde ]>e bi-vore. 

Eafne ]?iffe fpeche t' 

]?at ]?e wif faide. 

Beduer hire anfwerede t 

mid hendeliche wordes.[f. I2i''.c. i.] 

Leoue moder ich ham a man r' 

his] daughter ! When he had 'this [thus] done, 'so [then] myself he took ; 
on the ground he me laid, and lay 'with [by] myself. Now hath he all my 
bones ' loathsomely ' broken ; my limbs ' all ' dismembered ; my life to me 
is odious! Now 'I have thee told [thou hast heard all], how we are led 
here. Flee now quickly, least he thee find ; for if he cometh enraged, with 
his direful onsets, was he never bom that may stand thee before ! " Even 
with 'these words [this speech] that the woman said, Beduer 'gan to com- 
fort her [her answered] with fair words : " Dear mother, I am [a] man, and 


' he nora? 

3 R. he ? 



[v. 25944—25966.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

and cniht aem wel idon. 

and ich ]>e wule fuggen :f 

]?urli fo5e mine worden. 

naes nan kepen iboren :' 

of nauer nare burden. 

]?at mon ne maei mid ftreSe r' 

ftupen hine to grunde. 

& hire ]?e an aide wifmon :' 

fwrbe lutle beo^ }>ine msehten. 

ah hafuen nu fwiSe godne daei :f 

and ich wulle faren minne wffii. 

Adun him ferde Beduer :' 

to hif du3e^e-kinge. 

and talde him hu he hafde kare 

and hu he hafde al ifare. [f. isP.c. i 

and what |?at vvif aide r* 

of |7an maidene hi talde. 

and hu ]>e eotend aelche daei r' 

bi )?an aide wiue lai. 

per heo heom bi-twenen :f 20 

heolden heolde^ heore runen. 

hu heo mihten taken on :f 

p'at ]>e fcucke weof fordo. 


MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

and cniht ham wel idon. 

and )?e ich wolle segge r* 

foj^e mine wordes. 

naf neuere kempe ibore :^ 

of none brude. 

J^at me ne may mid ftrengj^e / 

ftoupe to grunde. 

haue nou fwi]>e godneday :f 

and ich wolle wede mine way. 

Adun him ferde Beduer r' 

to Arthur )?an kinge. 
:f and tolde him ou he hadde care :f 
.]and al ou he hadde i-[fare]. 

and wat J^at wif olde :' 

of |?a maiden him tolde. 

and ou ])e eatant eche day r' 

bi }?an olde wife lay. 

]>nv hii 1 bi-twine :f 

helde hire roune. 

ou hii mihte taken on :' 

j^at ]7e feond were for-don. 

knight am brave ; and I will say thee ' through ' my sooth words, that 'no 
[never] champion was bom of ' ever ' any lady, that man may not with 
strength stoop ' him ' to ground ; ' and serve (?) thee an old woman, — 
very Httle are thy powers. But ' have now very good- day, and I will go 
my way." Down went him Beduer to 'his sovereign [Arthur the king], 
and told him how he had care, and all how he had fared, and what the old 
woman told him of the maiden, and how the giant each day by the old 
woman lay. There they them between held their communing, how they 

' hii 3ara ? 

^ Sic MS. 

[v. 25967—25988.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

peo while com ]>e eotene' faren 

and fufden to hi^ fure. 

he bar uppen hif rugge t' 

burSene grete. 

]?at weore twaelf fvvine :f 

iteied to-fome. 

mid wiSen fwi^e g^te ^ 

y-wri^en al to-gadere. 

Adu he warp |?e dede fwin t' 

& hi feolf feet ]>er hi. lo 

hif fur he beten agon :' 

& muchele treowen laeide on. 

I^a fix fwin he to-droh :' 

8c euere he to J^an wiue loh. 

& loe umbe while :f 

he lai bi j?an wife. 

ah he nufte noht ]?an tidende :' 

|7at comen to hif wife-|?inge. 

He droh ut hif gleden :' 

hif flaefce he gon breden. 20 

and "pa fix fwin he gon aeten alle 

aer he arife of felde. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

:' ]>e wile com ]>e eatant r' 
fufe to his fure. 
he bar vppe his rugge r' 
bor]>one grete. 
|?at weren twealf swin :' 
itijed to-gedere. 

Ha-dun he warp |;e deade fwyn :f 
an code fitte j^ar bin^. 
his fur he'* bi-gan t" 
and leide treouwes j^ar an. 
]>e fix fwyn he al to-droh r' 
and euere he to ]>iin wife beh. 
and be one wile :f 
he lay bi J^an wifue. 
he nufte noht of |?an tydhige :f 
]>ixt com to his wifinge^. 
He droh vt hif gleade :' 
his fleas he gan breade. 
:' and alle }?e fix fwyn he eat :f 
are he arife of fete. 

might take on, so that the fiend were destroyed. The while arrived the 
giant, 'and proceeded to [at] his fire ; he bare upon his back a great bur- 
then, that were (was) twelve swine, tied together, * with withies exceeding 
great wreathed altogether.' Adown he threw the dead swine, and 'himself 
sate [went to sit] thereby ; his fire he gan mend, and ' great ' trees laid 
[there] on ; the six swine he [all] drew in pieces, and ever he to the woman 
^smiled [approached], and ' soon ' by [a] while he lay by the woman. ' But ' 
he knew not of the tiding that came to his lemraan. He drew out his 
embers ; his flesh he gan to roast ; and all the six swine he 'gan eat [ate] , 

' eotened, sec. m., R. eotende. 
• A word is here omitted. 

2 his ? 

^ wifinge? 




[v. 25989—26011.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

al biwaled on axen r' 

wanliche weore )?a fonden. 

and feoS^en he gon raemien :' 

and raxlede fwi^e. 

& adun lai bi J^an fure :' 

& hif leomen ftrahte. 

Lete we nu J?ene eotend bi-lafuen 

and atlien to j^an kinge. 

Ar^ur at |?an watere t* [c.2.] 

hif wapnen nom^ an honde. lo 

& ]?e eorl Beduer :' 

god cnih^ wif and war. 

and \>e ]?ridde wef Ksei :f 

]7ef kingef ftiward & hif maei. 

Ouer pan watere heo comen r' 

iwepnend^ mid ]^an bezfte. 

& fti3en np j^an hulle t' 

mid alle heore maine. 

Jjat heo comen fufen :f 

a-neufte J^an furen. 20 

]7er ]>e eotende lai and flaep :' 

& J'a quene faet and weop. 

ArSur hine teh r' 

MS. Cott, Otho, C. xTii. 

al bi-walewed in axe :' 
karfolle were ]>e breades. 
and su|?]?e he gan renii :f 

and lej'de him bi j^an fure. 

r^Leate we nou j^an eatant beo t'Cc. 2.] 
and go we to )>an kinge. 
Arthur at |7an watere :f 
his wepne nam an honde. 
and ]>e eorl Beduer r' 
god cniht wis and war. 
and ]>e j^ridde waf Key :f 
];at was his ftiward and his niey. 
ouer J>an watere hii wende :f 

iwepned mid ]> 

and fti3en vppe ]><xn hulle r' 

m.. alle hire maine. 

.at hii com., fufe:' 

a-neweft ]mn fure. 

I^ar pe eatant lay and sleap :! 

and ]>at wif fat and wep. 

Arthur teh bi-fide :f 

ere he arose from his seat, all besmeared in the ashes, — 'e\dl [full of care] 
were the viands ; — and afterwards he gan to roar, ' and vociferated much,' 
and 'down lay [laid him] by the fire, ' and stretched his limbs.' Let we 
now the giant be, and go [we] to the king. Arthur at the water took his 
weapons in hand, and the earl Beduer, good knight, wise and wary ; and 
the third was Kay, 'the kings [that was his] steward and his relative. 
Over the water they came, weaponed with the best, and ascended 'up [upon] 
the hill with all their strength, until they arrived near the fire, where the 
giant lay and slept, and the woman sate and wept. Arthur drew ' him ' 

' Interlined by second hand. 

^ enihtr 

iwepned i 

[v. 26012-26035.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

bi-fiden hif iforen. 

for-bad heom bi heore leomen :! 

& bi beore bare liuen. 

}?at nan neoren fwa kene :! 

|nit heoin neb comen. 

buten he^ ife3en ^ 

l^at hit ned weoren. 

Beduer at-ftod him J^eret' 

and Kaei hif iuere. 

ArSur goa ftep vor^ i! lo 

ftiS imoded kepe. 

]?at he com to j^an ulette :! 

\qv ]?e feond lai and fkepte. 

^uere wes Ar'Sur i! 

aerb^e bideled. 

I^et wes futel \ev on ^ 

fellic ]?ah hit |?iinche. 

for Ar^ur mihte ]?ere :^ 

]7ene eotende al to-haeuwe. 

flan |?ene fcucke f 20 

l^er he lai & flapte. 

]>a nolde Ar^ur on flepen :' 

na wiht bine areppen. 

lefte he an uferre da^e :' 

,0 • 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

and faide to his iv^eres. 
for-bed 3am bi hire leomes 
and hire bare lifue. 
]>at non neore fo kene t 
]?at heom neb come. 
b..e hii ..e3en:' 
]?at hit neod weore. 
Beduer at-ftod him j^are r' 
and . . y bis ivei'e. 
Arthur gan r|?e :! 

ftij? imoded kempe. 

I^at . . com to ]7an fure r' 

I'ar lai f'e feond and fleapte. 

Euere was Arthur t' 

arh|)e bi-dealed. 

]?at was f — |?are :! 

wonder |?eh hit j?enche. 

for Arthur mihte |>are:' 

pan eatant al to-hewe. 

slean J>ane wrecche ^ 

|7ar he lai and fleapte. 

]?o nolde Arthur on his fleape t' 

nowilit arecche. 

lefte he in o]/ dai^e :/ 

beside [and spake to] his companions ; forbade them by their limbs and 
' by ' their bare life, that none were so keen that they should come near, 
unless they saw that it were need. Beduer tarried him there, and Kay, 
his companion. Arthur gan step forth, sturdy-mooded warrior, until he 
came to the 'floor [fire], where the fiend lay and slept. Ever was Arthur 
void of fear ; that was manifest therein, wondrous though it seem ; for 
Arthur might there have hewed the giant in pieces, slain the 'monster 
[wretch] where he lay and slept ; then would not Arthur no whit touch 
' him ' in [his] sleep, lest he in ^future [other] days should hear upbraiding. 


» heo? 

34 • LA3AM0NS BIIUT. [v. 26036— 2G058.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

up-bragid iherde. vpbreid ihorede. 

pa cleopede Ar^ur anun "^ po cleopede Arthur anon :' 

aSeleft kiiigen. baldeft aire kinge. 

Arif arif feond-fcaSe :' [f. I52.c. i.] Aris aris feond-fca]?e :' 

to |?ine fseie-fi^e. to ]^ine feayfil^e. 

nu wit fcullen delen :! nou we folle deale :' 

J'ene daed of mire ma3e. ]7an dea]> of mine mowe. 

Mr \tQ king hsefde r' Her ]?e king hadde J^at word :' 

]?aes ful iffeide. ibroht to eande. 

J>e eotend up a-fturte.*" lo j^e eatant vp a-ftorte:' [f. 122. c. 1.] 

& igrap hif mucle clubbe. and igrop his mchele^ chib. 

and wende mid J^an dunte :' and wende mid |?an dunte :' 

Ar'Sur al to-driuen. Arthur al to-driue. 

ah Ar^ur braeid he3e :^ ac Arthur breid he3e r' 

hif fcekl buuen hif hsehne. his feald boue his heahue. 

and ]>e. eotend fmat |7er an ouenan r'and )?e eatant fmot ouenan r' 

|)at al he gon to-fcenen. ]7at al he gan .. feane. 

And Ar^ur him fwende to :' And Arthur him ..einde to:' 

an hijende mid his sweorde. an hi3enge m.. his fweorde. 

and J'en chin him of-fwipte r' 20 and |?ane eh . . a-fwipte r' 

mid alle ]'an cheuele. mid alle }>an cheuele. 

and fturte^him biaften anetreor'and ftorte bi-hinde an treor' 

pe ]^er ftod aneoufte. ]7at ftot p'ar aneweft. 

Then called Arthur anon, 'npUlest, of of aUJ kmgs : "Arise, 
[arise] fiend-monster, to thy destruction ! Now we shall avenge the death 
of my relative ! " Ere the king had 'this fully said [the words brought 
to end], the giant up started, and grasped his mickle club, and weened 
with the blow to dash Arthur all in pieces ; but Arthur drew his shield 
high above his helm ; and the giant smote ' thereon ' above, so that all it 
gan to shiver. And Arthur struck at him in haste with his sword, and 
smote oif ' him ' the chin, with all the hair, and started ' him ' behind a 
tree, that there stood near; and the giant smote after quickly, and hit 

^ raochele? " fturten, j:^7-. m., but n erased. 

[v. 26059— 26082.J LA3AM0NS litlUT. * 35 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

and ]7e eotend fuiat after biliue r' and ]>e eatant fmot after bliue . 

& noht hine nc hutte. and nolit hine ne hitte. 

ah he |?at treo fmat :/ ac he J?at treo fmot t' 

f al his clubbe to-draf. ]?at al his clubbe to-brac. 

And ArSur aneoufte r' And Arthur aneweft t' 

pat treo bieorn abute. |?at treo bi-vrne aboute. 

and fwa Ar^ur & ]>e fcucke > and fo Arthur an |?e fcuke t' 

biurnen hit }>reie a-buten. bi-vrne hit I'rief. 

pa wef |?e eotend heui fwiSe :' po was ]7e eatant fwijje heui :f 

and Ardur^ wef fwiftre. lo and Arthur was fwiftere. 

and of-toc J?ene eotend :' and of-tok ]?an eatant :f 

and up ahof his gode brod. ad hefde vp his go., brand. 

and |nit ]>jh him of- fmat :' an of-fmot :' 

& eotend adii waet. unde. 

And Ar^ur at-ftod and biheold:' And Arth and bi-heold:' 

J>a gon to fpekene ]?e ueond. and to greade. 

Lauerd lauerd 3ef me gri^ t Louerd louerd ^em^ me grij? r' 

wha if J>at me fihteS wiS. [c.2.] wo his ]7at me fihti]? wi]?. 

ne wende ich J?at na man :' ne wende ich |?at no man t' 

a ]7iffere weorlde-richen. 20 in |?iffe worle-riche. 

me mihte |>uf lehtliche f j^at me mihte |7us lihtliche r' 

aleggen mid fehte. alegge mid fihte. 

bute hit Ar^ur weore ^ bute hit Arthur were i' 

aSeleft aire Brutte. baldeft aire king. 

him not, but he smote the tree, so that his club brake all in pieces. And 
Arthur quickly ran round about the tree ; and so Arthur and the monster 
ran round it thrice 'about.' Then was the giant exceeding heavy, and 
Arthur was the swifter, and overtook the giant, and up heaved his good 
brand, and smote from him the thigh ; and the giant 'down fell [fell to 
ground]. And Arthur stopt and beheld ; 'then gan the fiend to speak [and 
the fiend gan to cry] : " Lord, lord, give me peace ; who is it that fighteth 
with me ? I weened not that any man in this worlds-realm [that] might 
me thus hghtly defeat in fight, except it were Arthur, "noblest [boldest] of 

1 R. Ar&ur. 

= jef? 

D 2 



[v. 26083—26105.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

and neo^elef naes ich nauere :^ 

of Ardure^ afffired fsere. 

pa him faeide Ardur^ :f 

a^eleft kingen. 

Ich sem Ar^ur ]>e king :^ 

Bruttene deorling. 

Tel me of J?ine cune :' 

and whar beo heore beonfte. 

and wha pe weore on uolde t 

fader o^'er moder ihalde. lo 

and of wulche lode :' 

]}\i art iliiSen hidere. 

and whi j^u mine ma3e t' 

a-ualled hafuest mid morSe. 

pa andfwarede j^e feond :f 

]>er he Itei and biheold. 

Al )?if ich wuUe don :' 

and |?ine treo^e under-fon. 

wis ]>at ]?u nie lete liuien r' 

and mine leonien haelen. 20 

Ar^ur hine iwra^^ede :' 

wunder ane fwiSe. 

and he Beduer cleopede :f 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

and nop'eles nas ich neuere r' 

of Arthur afered. 

po faide Arthur to him r' 

Ich ham Arthur ]>e king :' 

Telle of l^ine cunne r' 

Mar of J?ou hart ifpronge. [c.2.] 

and \vi |?ou mine mowe :' 
a-falled haueft mid nior|>re. 
po anfwerede ])e feond :' 
]>a.v he lay and bi-held. 
Al |ns ich wolle don :f 
and |nne treu]?e onderfon. 
]>at ich mote libbe :' 
and mine leomes habbe. 
Arthur ]?o \vre|?|'ede :' 
wonderliche fwij'e. 
and he Beduer cleopede r' 

king s ; and nevertheless was I never of Arthur ' sore ' afraid." Then 
said Arthur to him, ' noblest of kings ': " I am Arthur the king, ' Britains 
darUng.' Tell ' me ' of thy race, 'and where is their habitation [whereof 
thou art sprung] ; ' and who should be to thee father or mother accounted 
on earth ; and from what land thou art hither arrived'; and why thou hast 
destroyed with murder my relative ? " Then answered the fiend, where 
he lay and beheld : " All this I will do, and thy troth receive, on condition 
that *thou let me [I may] live, and 'heal [have] my limbs." Arthur 'him 
[then] wrathed, wondrously much ; and he called Beduer, his bold cham- 

* 2i. Arbuie. 

[v. 2G 106— 26 lis. J 

LA3AM0iNS lillUT. 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

biilde hif kempe. 
Ga aiieoufte Beduer :' 
and hefd him binim her. 
& fere hit forS mid |;e r' 
adun of |?iffe munte. 
Beduer aneoufte com :! 
& hif hafued him binom. 
& fwa heo ]?eonene^ ferden r' 
adun to heore iferen. 


and hine gon to reften. [f. 152". c. l.] 

and ]?af word feide :^ 

ArSur j^e fele. 

No uasht ich nauere neh^ non r' 

uppen ]?iffere uolden. 

bute J?a ich floh |?ene king Riun r' 

uppen )?an munte of Rauinite. 

SeoS^en heo uor^ wenden f' 

& to |?ere uerde comen. 

|?a l^e ]?at hafd ife3e r' 20 

fellic heom j^uhte. 

whar weore under heuene t 

fwulc hafed ikenned. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

balde his kempe. 

Go to ]>an wrecche Beduer:' 

and hif heued fmit of |?er. 

and nim hit for]? mid j^e ^ 

adun of )?an liulle. 

Beduer to him com ^ 

and his heued him bi-nom. 

and adun wende r' 

to his iveref. 

po fat l^e kig adun r' 

and hine gan refte. 

and ]?es word faide r' 

Arthur ]?e feale. 

Ne faht ich neuere fiht r' 

non vppe ]?if londe. 

bote |70 ich floh )?ane king Run :' 

vppe ]?an monte of Rauin. 

po ifor|>"^ wende t 

and to |?are ferde wende ^. 

)70 hii ]7at heued ife3en :! 

fellich heom ]?ohten. 

ware euere onder heauene :' 

foch heued were ikenned. 

pion : " Go 'near [to the wretch], Beduer, and 'take [smite] off 'from him 
here the [there his] head ; and 'carry [take] it forth with thee, down from 
this 'mount [hill]." Beduer 'came near [to him], and deprived him of his 
head ; and 'so they proceeded thence down to their [went down to his] 
companions. Then sate the king down, and gan him rest; and said these 
words Arthur the good : " N^ver fought I any such fight, upon this land, 
but when I slew the king Riun, upon the mount of Ravin ! " 'Afterwards ' 
they forth went, and came to the host ; when that [they] the head saw, 
wondrous it seemed to them, where [ever] under heaven were such head 

' J'eone, pr. m. 
* hii for]' ? 

* j4 line is here missing. 
'" come ? 

' ueht? 



[v. 26129—26150.] 

[ Tumbrel, 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

Howel of Brutuine :' 

beh to ]7an kinge. 

and ]>c king him feide :' 

al of p'an maidene. 

pa wef Howel fari r' 

& forhful an heorte for )?i. 

and no al hif feren :f 

and ferde to |?an niunte. 

^er f>at Brutifce maide :' 

bibured laei on eor^e. 

He lette ]>er areren fone :' 

ane chireche fwiSe faire. 

a feinte Marie norne :f 

drihtenef moder. 

& feo^^en he 3flef nome |?an hulle 

aer he j?onne wende. 

and hehte hine ^leine Tunbel t' 

nu hit hffihte Munt Seint Myhhel 

pa wef Ar^uref hired :' 

fellich ifomned. 20 

of Irlonde & of Scotlonde :' 

Yid^r weoren ifcriSene. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C, XIII. 

Howel to ]?an kinge com r' 
and Arthur of ]?an maide nom. 

po was Howel fori :' 

and for|?fol on heorte. 

and nam his cnihtes alle r' 

and wende to |?an hulle. 

]?ar Eleyne ]?at made' r' 

ibured was on eor];e. 

He lette ]7ar arere r' 

ane chapel msere. 

in feinte Marie name:' [f. 122^.0. 1.] 

drihtene moder. 
r'and fu}>|;e J?an hiille he name 3ef r' 

are he Jeanne wende. 

and hehte Eleyne Tombel :' 
. |?at nou hatte Mont Seint Michel. 

po was Arthur his ferde :f 

clanliche igadered. 

of Irlond of Scotlond :' 

and of many oj^er londes. 

begotten ! Howel ' of Britanny ' came to the king, and 'the king said to him 
all of the maiden [Arthur spake of the maid] . Then was Howel sorry, and 
sorrowful ' therefore ' in heart ; and took all his companions [knights], and 
fared to the 'mount [hill] where 'the British [Helen the] maid lay [was] 
buried in earth. He caused there to be areared ' soon ' a church most fair 
[noble chapel], in Saint Marys name, the Lords mother; and afterwards 
he gave a name to the hill, ere he thence departed, and named ' it ' Helens 
Tomb, — 'now it [that now] liight Mount Saint Michel. Then was Arthurs 
[Arthur his] host 'numerously [wholly] collected ; from Ireland, from Scot- 

/?. maide. 

[v. 26151—26173.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

pa lette ]>e king blauvven r' 

heme an hireden. 

& vvenden of Brutaine t' 

bifie men & kene. 

|?urh ut Norman die r* 

]>iB hehte |7a Neuftrie. [c.2.] 

heo uerden )>urh ut Frace :f 

and folc heom after ferde. 

heo bu3en ut of Frace ' r' 

into Burguine. lo 

Hif hauwagres ]?er comen t' 

and heolden hif iferen. 

& cudde |?an kinge r 

\fer i ]>are cu^^e. 

]7at Luces ]>e kaifere :' 

and al hif Romanifce here. 

]7iderward heo comen r' 

fromvvard heore ]7eoden. 

& swa heo wolden fufen t' 

in touwward France. 20 

and al j^at^ bi-winen :' 

and feo^^en wenden hidere. 

& Bruttef alle aquellen t' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

po bleuvven hii bumes t' 
and for]? ward wende. 

p>orh vt Normandie :' 

j^at ]>o hehte Neuftrie. 

hii wende j?orh vt France :' 

into Borgoyne. 
Hif fpiares come :' 

and tolde to )>an kinge ^ 

J^at Lucef ]}e cayfere i' 

mid his Romaniffe here. 

]?iderward heom comen :' 

vt of hire londe. 

and fo liii wolde wende r^ 

in toward France. 

and al |>at lond t' 

|?at lond^ bi-winne. 

and fu|?|?e }^at lond bi-winne :' 

land, 'thither were they come [and from many other lands] . Then 'caused 
the king the trumpets to be blown in the host [blew they trumpets], and 
marched 'from Britain, [forward], 'busy men and keen,' throughout Nor- 
mandy, that then hight Neustrie. They proceeded throughout France, ' and 
the folk marched after them ; they went out of France ' into Burgundy. 
His spies ' there ' came, and held his companions ; and 'made known [told] 
to the king, ' there in the country,' that Luces the emperor, 'and all [with] 
his Romanish host, thitherward they came, out of their land ; and so they 
would march in toward France ; and all the land conquer ; and afterwards 

' R. France. 

jjat lond i 

» s 

Sic MS. 



[v. 26174—26196.] 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

q'cke ]7er Leo heoiii funde. 

and Ar^ur J^ene kene :' 

ibuiide lede to Rome. 

pa wes abol3en :! 

baldeft aire kingen. 

and hchte a ]?an feldef r' 

f len alle hif teklef. 

and }?er he vvikien wolde "^ 

\dLt he ]?at fo^e wufte. 

whaer he mihte |>ene kffiifere :! lo 

iwifliche kepen. 

pat water ^ hehte Albe:' 

|>er lai |?e king balde. 

An wif cniht ]?er com ride :! 

to |?af kinges uerde. 

]7e wes al for-wunded:' 

& hif folc afelled fwiSe. 

hafde Romanifce men :' 

al hif lond bi-raeiued him. 

He talde ]?an kinge :! 

neouwe ti^ende. 

whar lai ]>e kaifere i! 

and al hif Romanifce here. 


MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiu. 
j?at Brutaine his ihote. 

po was abolwe :' 

baldeft aire kinge. 

and hehte in l^an feldes r' 

flean alle his tealdes. 

and ];are he bide wolde t' 

]7at he J?at foj^e wifte. 

ware he mihte f>an cayfer:' 

wifliche kepe. 

]7at water hatte Aube ^ 

]?ar lay f'e king balde. 

On wis cniht com ride :' 

to |>is kinges ferde. 

]7at was al for-fohte ^ 

and his men a-falled. 

and J?e Romaniffe men :' 

his lond hadde bi-nome him. [c. 2] 

He tolde l^an kinge ^ 

neouwe tydinge. 

war lay |?e cayfer r' 

mid al hif Romaniffe here. 

'proceed hither, and kill all the Britons, quick that they found [conquer the 
land, that is named Britain], ' and Arthur the keen led bound to France.' 
Then was enraged the boldest of all kings, and ordered all his tents to be 
pitched in the fields ; and there he would abide until he the sooth knew, 
where he might the emperor certainly intercejit {or hostilely engage). 
The water hight Albe, where the bold king lay. A wise knight ' there ' 
came riding to the kings host, who was all 'wounded [wearied in fight], 
and his Yolk [men] ' greatly ' felled ; [and] the Romanish men had be- 
reaved him of ' all ' his land. He told to the king new tiding, where 
the emperor lay, 'and [with] all his Romanish army, and where he might 

watc, py. m. 

[v. 26197— 26218.] LA^AMONS BRUT. 41 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

& vvhaer he hine milite ivvinde' :' and ware h. folde finde:' 

jif he hine wolde w'ld- hhii fihten. ^ef he f..te wolde. 

oSer griS niakien if [[f. I53.c. i.] 

wis Romanifce monnen. 

Ah lauerd Ar'Sur quaS )?e cniht:^ Ac louerd Arthur cwa]? |^e' 

ich l^e wulle cu^en her riht. ich ])e wolle fegge h.. 

]?at betere j^e if freondfcipe to hab- ]?at betere ]>e his fet. . gri]:> f 

l^ene for to fihte. [ben :f j^ane fihte him w'ip. 

for a3an J^ine tweie r^ for a3en j^ine tweie :f 

heo habbeoS twaehie. lo he habbej? folle twalue. 

fwa feole kinges :f 

swa feole here-dringef. 

Nis he ill nare ku^^e t' Ne may no man :' 

]>e hit Ipe ma-^e icudbe. mid mou]?e fo]>liche fegge. 

for alle ]?an uolke :' of hahiendeal |7an folke :f 

]>e uulief) J^an kinge. ]7at folwe]? ]?an cay fere. 

wi^ viten |?an Romleoden r' wi]^ houte Romleode :' 

of hif a3ere j^eoden. of his owene ]?eode. 

and wis iite |?an uolke r' and wi]? vt }>an folke i' 

]>e jirneS J^af kingef are. 20 J^at 3erne|7 his ore. 

pa \>e talen weoren alle italde :' po ]>e tales weren itald :f 

&ArSurheo^hafdenunder-ftonde.and he 3am hadde oiiderftode. 

[should] him find, if he ' him' would ' with him' fight, ' or make peace with 
the Romanish men.' " But, lord Arthur," quoth the knight, " I will 'shew 
[say] to thee here right, that better for thee is it to ^have friendship [set 
peace] , than ' for ' to fight [with him] ; for against thy two *they have [he 
hath full] twelve ; ' so many kings, so many chieftains ! ' "He is in no land 
who may it make known to thee, for all [May no man soothly say with mouth 
oi the half-part] the folk, that followeth the emperor, without (besides) the 
Rome-people, of his own territory, and without the folk that yearn 'the 
kings [his] favor." When the tales were ' all ' told, and Arthur [he] 
had them understood, ' then ' called 'the king [he] forth-right his 'dear- 

iuinde ? "' wi<i ? ^ heom ? 



[v. 26219—26241.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

]?a cleopede l^e king forS rihtef :^ he cleopede iov]> rihtef r' 

hif wifefte cnihtef. 
and radde 3am bi-twine r' 

hif deorefte cnihtef. 

& radden heom bitwenen :' 

eiie caftel to areren. 

on uaft J?an wateren r' 

\>e Albe wef ihaten. 

On ane fwiSe feiere ftude r' 

itimbred he wef ful fone. 

]>ev feng moni bond to :f 

and^ hi3ende he wef ido. 10 

for 3if ArSur mif-ferde :f 

J>ene he come to fihte. 

o^er hif uolc ueolle t' 

o^er fetten to fleonne. 

]?enne |?ohte he to at-ftonden r' 

at l^an caftle ftronge. 

pa cleopede he eorlef tweie :f 

a^ele men and wife. 

ane caftel a-reare. 


]7at Aube w 

fwif^e fayre ftude r' 

he was fone. 

I^av feng mani bond to r 
an hi3eng hit wa.s ido. 
for jef hii mif-ferde t' 
wane hii come to fihte. 

Jeanne |7ohte he ]?are aftonde r' 
at pane caftel ftronge. 
po cleopede he eorles tweye t' 
wife weren beyne. 

he3e men icunned r [c.2,] 19 

]7an kinge fvviSe deore. [Gerin ^ 
Ger[i!i]. ]>ie. an wef of Chartref and hehte ]>e on was of Chartref Gerin t 

muchel wifdom wunede mid him. moche wifdom was in him. 
Beof. J^eoSerhehteBeofof^Oxene-uordr'J'e oj^er was Beofs of Oxeneford r^ 

est [wisest] knights ; and they counselled them between a castle to arear, 
beside the water that Albe was named. On a spot exceeding fair it was 
built ' full ' soon ; there helped many a hand ; in haste (speedily) Avas it 
done ; for if 'Arthur [they] mis-fared, when 'he [they] came to the fight, 
' or his folk fell, or set to flight,' then thought he [there] to remain in the 
strong castle. Then called he earls twain, 'noble men and wise [wise they 
were both] ; ' high men born, to the king exceeding dear'; the one was of 
Chartres, ' and hight ' Gerin, — much wisdom Mwelt with [was in] him ; — 
the other 'hight [was] Beof of Oxford, — well wide sprang 'the earls [his] 


' Interlined by a later hand. 

[v. 26242—26265.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

welle wide fprong J>af eorlef word, wele wide fprang hif word. 

pe 3et ])e king cleopede Waiwaeiii :'pe jet |>e king cleopede Waweyn t' Wa[iwai7i'\. 

]>e wef hif deorefte mffii. ]7at was his may deore. [[f. I23.c. i.] 

for Walwain cuSe Romanifc:' for W.weyn cou|?e Bruttif:' 

Walwain cuiSe Bruttifc, Waw — e couj^e Roraanif. 

he wef iued inne Rome t' he was ifed in ....:' 

wel feole wintre. [hende r' wel fale wynter. 

pe king nom j^af l^reo cnihtes p nam |?is cnihtes hende:' 

and to ]?an kaifere heo fende. and to ]>a.n cayfer fende. 

and hehte hine mid his ferde :f lo and helite him mid his ferde r' 

faren ajaein to Rome. faren ajein to Rome. 

& l^at he naeuere into France ^' |?at he into France :f 

his ferde no ladde. ferde ne ladde. 

And jif ]?u |>ider wendeft r' 

and l^ine ferde ledeft. 

J7U fcalt beon underuonge ^ 

to pine uaeie-fi^e. 

For Frace if min ajen t' 

and ich heo mid fehte biwon. 

and jif )?u nult bilauen rf 20 

]>Q,t J^ider nult li^en. 

fare wit to uihte :! 

and falie ]>e uor-cu'Sere. 

and lete we ]?at folc wr*cche r' 

For France his min owe londe :f 

mid fiht ich hit bi-w6. 

and jef ]?ou nelt bi-leue t 

]>at );ou nelt }?ider li|?e. 

wende we two to fihte r' 

and falle ]?e forcou]7ere. 

an ]?at .... folk r' 

fame. The yet the king called "Walwain, who was his 'dearest [dear] re- 
lative ; for Walwain understood Romanish [British] ; Walwain understood 
^British [Romanish] ; he was nurtured in Rome well many winters. The 
king took these ' three ' knights fair, and to the emperor them sent, and hade 
him with his army go back to Rome, ' and' that he 'never' into France ' his ' 
host should lead. " ' And if thou thither marchest, and leadest thine host, 
thou shalt be received to thy destruction ! ' For France is mine own [land] , 
' and ' I won it with fight ; and if thou wilt not relinquish, that [thou] wilt 
not hither come, go we two to the fight, and fall the worst ; and let we the 
poor folk dwell in quiet. [For] whilom ihe Rome-people conquered [all] 



[v. 26266—26289.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

wunien an aere. 

While Romleoden r 

iwunnen |?a J>eoden. 

and feo^Sen heo ]?a J^eoden :' 

mid fehte for-lofeden. 

and ich heo mid feohte bi-won 

and mid fehte wule halden. 

ForS )7a cnihtef wenden i 

godliche kempen. [f. l53^c. i 

\di\} Gerin & Beof )?e hende ^ 

and Walwain |;e balde. 

iburned and ihehned ^ 

an h£e3en heore fteden. 

and aelc weiede an fcnldre r 

fceld fwi^e godne. 

heo beren on heore honde r' 

garef fwiSe ftronge. 

For^ heo gunnen ride f 

riche me fro hirede. 

muchel of |?ere du3eSe i 20 

J?e mid ArSure vvunede. 

mid Walwaine eoden :' 

and ae^modliche hine beden. 

|7at he wis Romleode i 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XXII. 


For wile R..leode:' 

... an al ]^e |?eode. 

and fa|?|;e .*' 

hit lofede 

i and ich hit mid won "i 

and mid wole 

For]; s wende :' 

] ftalevvor 


.brunied and de r' 

on heje hire ftedes. 
ech cafte on fcoldre f" 
feald fwij^e godne. 
hii here on hire honde r' 
fperes fwij'e ftronge. 

and many of ]>an 3onge r' 
J^at mid Arthur wonede. 
mid Waweyn hii 3eode r' 
and 3eorne hine beade. 
];>at he wij? Romleode r' 

the land, and afterwards they losed *the land [it] with fight ; and I with 
fight it won, and with fight will hold." Forth the knights went, 'goodly 
[valiant] champions ; ' that was, Gerin, and Beof the fair, and Walwain 
the bold,' cuirassed and helmeted on their noble steeds; 'and' each *car- 
ried [cast] on Ms shoulder a shield exceeding good ; they bare in their 
hands spears most strong. ' Forth they gan ride, noble men, from the host '; 
much [and many] of the 'folk [youth] that with Arthur dwelt, with Wal- 
wain [they] went, and earnestly prayed him, that he should raise some 
dispute with the Home-folk : — " That we may with fight prove ourselves ; 

' jjat wcoren ? 

[v. 26290—26314.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

fumme fake arerde. 

pat we majen mid fehte f' 

fondien uf feolue. 

for hit if feole 3ere :' 

|?at heore frsettef comen here. 

and heore beot makieS ^ 

]7at heo uf wulle bihafdi. 

Nu if hit muchel leod-fcome r' 

jif hit fcal ]7uf a-ligge. 

bate }?er fuiii fake beo i! lo 

per we iwur^e fsehte. 

fcaftef to-brokene :! 

brunies to-torne. 

fceldef to-fcened r 

fcalkes to-heouwen. 

sweordef iba^ede t' 

i blode J?an rede. 

ForS I'a eorlef wenden :' 

|?urh wude muchelen. 

and msercoden enne wfei :! 20 

]^e ouer anne munte laei. 

J^at heo bi-comen fone r' 

to l^an uolke of Rome. 

wur^liliche^ iwepned^ 

wmiden an^ horfen. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

fom fake a-rerde. 

pat we ma^e mid fihte ^ 

fondi ous seohie. 

for hit his fale 3ere r' 

I'at hire ))retes comen here. [c. 2.] 

Nou his hit moche fame r' 
3ef hit fal ]?us a-ligge. 
bote |?ar som fake beo f* 
ar we wor|?en feahte. 

For)> p»eos eorles wende :! 
in one brode weye. 

J?at liii come fone -J 
to |?an folk of Rome, 
richeliche i-wepnid r' 
feten vppe horfe. 

for it is many years that (since) their threats came here ; ' and their menace 
they make, that they will us behead.' Now is it much 'folk '-shame, if it 
thus shall allay, unless there be some strife ere we become reconciled ; 
' shafts broken in pieces, burnies torn, shields shivered, warriors hewed, 
and swords bathed in the red blood.' " Forth 'the [these] earls proceeded 
'through a great wood [in a broad way] , ' and marked a way that over a 
mount lay,' so that they came soon to the folk of Rome ; 'worthily [richly] 
weaponed Mey'rode on [set upon] their horses. There men might behold, 

* wurSeliche ? 

an an, pr. m. 



[v. 20315—2633/.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. IX. 

per me mihte bi-halden :! [c. 2.] 

\e. mon }?e bi-halues weore'. 

moni pufende :! 

Jraften ut of telden. 

al to bi-halden :' 

]?eof l^reo cnihtef balde. 

awd bi-heolden lieore fteden :! 

and bi-heolden heore iweden. 

& hercnede tidende :! 

from Ar^ure |?a kinge. 10 

and aneoufte forS rihtef r^ 

fraeinede ]?a cnihtef. 

and 3if ]7e king heom ifend haefde 

to ]?an kaifere. 

to fpeken ]>an kteifere wi^ r^ 

and to 3irnen hif gri^. 

Ah for nauer nare fpeche :' 

]7af )?reo eorlef riche. 

nolden abide 1! 

fer heo comen riden. 20 

forn to ]7af teldef deoren :! 

]7er inne wif Jje kaifere. 

Adun heo gunnen lihte r' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

par me mihte bi-holde t' 
|;e bi-halues were, 
many J>oufendes :' 
]?refte vt of teldes. 
for to bi-holde 1! 
]7is l^reo cnihtes bolde. 
hii bi-heolde hire wedes :! 
bi-heolde hire ftedef. 
and hercnede tydingef :' 
fra Arthur ]7an kinge. 
and manye for|7rihtes :! 
axede |>is cnihtes. 
:^3ef l^e king 3am hadde ifend r' 
to l^an cayfere. 
for fpeke |?an caifer wij> :' 
and 3eone^ his grij?. 
Ac for neuere none fpeche :/ 
]>& l^reo eorles riche. 
nolden abide r' 
ear hii come ride, 
anon to ]?e tealdes dore r* 
war ine vvaf ]7e caifere. 
Adun hii gonne a-lihte :! 

' the man ' who were beside, many thousands throng out of the tents, *all 
[for] to behold these three bold knights ; 'and [they] beheld their "steeds 
[weeds], 'and' beheld their \veeds [steeds], and hearkened tidings from 
Arthur the king. And 'next [many] forthright 'questioned the [asked these] 
knights, ' and' if the king had sent them to the emperor, [for] to speak with 
the emperor, and to yearn his peace. But for never any speech 'these [the] 
three noble earls would abide, ere they came riding 'before [anon to] the 
tents door, wherein was the emperor. Down they gan alight, 'and de- 

> At first written weoren, hut the n struck 


• seorne ? 

[v. 26338—26360.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

& bitahte hore fteden'. 

and fwa heo iwepned mid alle :' 

wenden in to telde. 

forn to ]?an kaifere r' 

])e Luces we^ ihate. 

per he fet an hif bedde :' 

heore aernde heo him cudde. 

aelc his fa3e fgeide 'J 

fwa him fel ]juhte. 

& hehten hine wenden :f lo 

a^aein to hif londen. 

|7at he nauere mid unfriSe :' 

France no ifohte. 

pa while ]>a, j^eos eorlef |?reo :f 

feiden heore erende. 

afet ]>e kaifere :f 

fwulc he akimed weore. 

and andfware nauer nan t' 

no ayce( }>iffe eorlen. 

ah he luftnede 3eorne :' 20 

lu^er on hif |7ohte. 

pa an-baelh Walwain:' [f.i54.c.i.] 

fwulc an iburft J'ein. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

of hire gode ftedes. 

and fo iwepnid mid al :' 

wende into telde. 

to ]?an cayfere :f 

]?at Lucef his ihote. 

par he fat on his bedde t' 

hire herende hii him cudde. 

and hehte him wende :f 

a^e'in to his londe. 

]mt ne neuere mid ferde t* 

France ne fohte. 

pe wile ]>at 'pes eorles r' 

hire earende faide. 

sat ]7e caifer ^' 

afe he dombe were. [f.i23\c.i.] 

and anfwere neuere non t' 

ne ^af to )7eos eorles. 

ac he lufte ^eorne ^' 

lu]?er on his J>onke. 

po a-balh 3aweyn^ r' 

and wrep»j7ede him fwij?e. 

livered their [from their good] steeds ; and so ' they ' weaponed with all 
advanced into Me tent/before [to] the emperor that Luces\vas [is] named. 
Where he sate on his bed their errand they to him made known ; ' each 
said his say as to him seemed best,' and bade him go back to his land, so 
that be never viore with 'hostility [army] should seek France. The while 
that these ' three ' earls said their errand, the emperor sate as if he were 
dumb, and answer never any gave to these earls ; but he listened eagerly, 
wicked in his thought. Then Walwain became angry, *as a thane enraged 

* T/«> line is added in ike margin by a second hand. 
^ R. Waweyn. 






[v. 26361—26383.] 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

and |>af word feide :' 

Wahvain ]>e kene. 

Luces ]>e riche :' 

)?u aert kteifere of Rome. 

we beo^ Ar^ures men :f 

a^eleft Brutten. 

He fent j^e hif fonde :' 

wi'5 uten gretmge. 

he hat j^e faren to Rome :' 

J>a I'iche if j^in 33611. 

let hine halden France :' 

]>e he biwon mid fehte. 

and hald ]fu^ richer^ 

and ]?ine Rom-leoden. 

While jnne aldre :' 

France ieoden^. 

mid fehte heo ]>er biwunen :' 

unimete wunnen. 

swa ane while heo ];er luuede :' 

and feo^en heo hit leofeden. 20 

mid fehte Ardur^ hit biwon :' 

and he hit wide walden. 

He if ure lauei'd :' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

and Jjeos word faide t 

Wawein ]?e kene. 

Lucef }?e riche :' 

caifer of Rome. 

M'e beo|? Aarthures men r 

king .. Brutayne. 

He fendc)? j^e his fonde t 

wij? oute gretynge. 

he hot ]>e fare to Rome :f 

]7at his ]?in owe riche. 

and let him holde France :' 

]?at he awo mid fihte. 

and hold |?ou |^ine riche :^ 

and ]?ine Romleode. 

Wile |>in eldre r' 

France bi-^eode. 

mid fihte hii bi-wonne :' 

onimete winne. 

fo one wile hii leouede :f 

and su]?):'e hii hit lofede. 

mid fihte Arthur hit bi-wan r' 

and mid fihte hit wole holde. 

[and wrathed him greatly] ; and said these words Wahvain the keen : 
" Luces the mighty, ' thou art ' emperor of Rome ! We are Arthurs men 
*noblest of Britons [king of Britain]. He sendeth to thee his messengers, 
without greeting; he bids thee march to Rome, that is thine OM-n realm, 
[and] let him hold France, that he won with fight; and hold thou thy 
realm, and thy Rome-folk. Whilom thy ancestors invaded France ; with 
fight they ' there ' won immense possessions ; so awhile they ' there ' 
lived, and afterwards they it lost. With fight Arthur it won, and ' he ' 
it will 'possess [hold]. ' He is our lord, we are his warriors'; he ordered 

* ]>u ]>\n ? 

' bi-eoden ? 

3 R. Artfur. 

[v. 26384—26407.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

we beo^ hif leod-kempen. 

He us hsRhte fuggen :' 

fo5 to l^e feolue. 

jif ]>\i nult ajen bu3en r' 

]>c^ bone he wule ivvur^en. 

and 3if ^n nult a3enwende t' 

ah iwurSien fjin iwillen. 

and |?u wult |?at kinelond t' 

bi-tellen to |?ire bond. 

nu to-moi^en if ]>e daei :f lo 

haue 3if j^ii bi3ete maei. 

pie andfwarede J>e kaifere r' 

mid graettere wrsetS^e. 

Nulle ich noht a3jein fai*e :f 

ah France ich wulle bi-tellen. 

mine aeldren hit heolden :f 

and ich hit wulle habben. 

Ah 3if hewolde bi-cumen mi mon 

& for lauerd me icnawen. [c. 2.] 

& treouliche me heren r' 20 

&; me for haerre halden. 

gri^ien ich him wulle :! 

8c his gumen alle. 

and lete halde Brutlond :f 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

He ous hehte fegge t' 
iht to |?i seolue. 
bote ]?ou a3en wende :f 
]?i bane he wole iworJ>e. 
and 3ef j^ou alles wolt :f 
in to France wende. 
and ])o\i wolt |?at kinelond:^ 
bi-telle to J?in owe bond, 
nou to-morwe his ]7e dai r' 
habbe ]?at hit bi-3ete may. 
po anfwerede |;e caifer r' 
mid grettere wrej7]7e. 
Nolle ich noht a3en fare :' 
ac France ich woUe a-winne. 

r'Ac 3ef he wole bi-come mi man :' 
and for louerd icnowe. 

grij>ie ich him woller* 

and his cnihtef alle. 

and lete him holde Brutlond ^ [c 2.] 

us to say 'sooth [right] to thyself, 'if [unless] thou 'wilt not' back 
march, thy bane he will be. And if thou wilt 'not back turn, but ex- 
ecute thy will [else march into France], and thou wilt win the kingdom 
to thine [own] hand, now to-morrow is the day, have it "if thou it [that 
it] may obtain ! " Then answered the emperor, with great wrath : "I 
will not back march, but France I will win ; ' my ancestors it held, and 
I will it have.' But if he 'would [will] become my man, and acknow- 
ledge ' me ' for lord, ' and truely serve me, and hold me for master,' 
I will make peace with him, and all his 'men [knights] ; and let [him] hold 





[v. 26408—26431.] 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

\>fe Julius hafde in hif hod. 
& o^ere londes monie r' 
l^e Juliuf hafde an honde. 
])at he naue^ naue rihte to r' 
]7ae riche ]?feh he walde. 
]>a. he fcal alle leofe ?* 
buten he leo^ makie. 
pa andfwarede Walwain f 
])se wef Ar^uref msei. 

Belen & Brenne :' 

beie3ene ]>2l ibroSere. 

Brutlond heo aehten r' 

and France heo biwunnen. 

and feoS^en heo uerde fone t' 

and bi3eten Rome. 

and ]>ev heo wuneden feoS^e 

wel feole jere. 

pa J'if wef al i\iare t 

]>a wes Brennef kfeifere. 

and walde Ro-leoden f 

and alle ]>a j^eoden. 

And Rome if ure icunde :' 

J7a ]?u haldeft an honde. 
and 3if we mote libben :' 


MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 
]>a.t Julius hadde wile an bond, 
and ojjer londe. ..nie?' 
]mt Julius wile h . . . . 
J>at he na... no riht to :f 

]?e londes |? olde. 

]7at he fal alle leofe :' 

bote he pais makie. 

po anfwerede Wawein i' 

]?an caifer ]>at fpac to him. 

Belyn and Brenne r' 

of wam we beo]? of-spronge. 

hii wende mid ifome r 
and bi-wonne Rome, 
and ]7ar wonede :' 
wel fale wintref. 


And |7us his Rome oure cunde 
)?ar ];ou nou rixlift. 
and 3ef we mote libbe t' 

Britain, that Julius had [awhile] in ' his ' hand, and many other lands, 
that Julius 'had in hand [awhile held], that he hath no right to, though 
he possess the 'realm [lands], that he shall all (wholly) lose, unless he make 
peace." Then answered Walwain, Vhowas Arthurs relative [to the emperor 
that spake to him] : " Belin and Brenne, 'both the brothers [of whom we 
are descended], ' Britain they possessed, and France they conquered ; and 
afterwards ' they marched 'soon [together] , and won Rome, and there ' they ' 
dwelt ' afterwards ' well many 'years [winters] . ' When this was all done, then 
was Brenne emperor, and ruled Rome, and all the people.' And [thus] is 
Rome our right, 'that thou boldest in hand [where thou now governcst] ; and ! 

[v. 26432—26-154.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

we hit wulle^ habbe. 
beiite 3if |m wulle icnawen beo ^. 
^ ArSur if king ouer }>e. 
and aelche 3ere him fende r' 
gaeuel of |)ine londen. 
and ^if ^ gasft him a leoS:' 
*) \ \\x miht libben j^a e5. 
pa fagt bi J^an kaifere r' 
a cniht of hif cunne. 
Quencelin ihaten ^ lo 

hash mon inne Rome, 
pef cniht andfwarde "! 
biuoren |7an kaifere. [f. i54''.c. i.] 
& )/Hif him feide ^ 
}?e cniht waf miifele. 
Cniiites fare^ eou a3aein i 
and cu^e^ eower kinge. 


at heo beo^ unwragfte italde. 
for aeuere heo jelp makie^ r 20 
heore monfcipe if luttel. 
Mare he J'ohte to fuggen :' 
I'a Walvvain braeid to fweorden. 

MS. Cott. Otho. C. xiii. 

we hit wollej? habbe. 
bote p'ou icnowe woUe "^ 
\dX Arthur .. .i louerd. 
and eche .... him fende :' 
gauel of J^ine londe. 

po fat bi )7an . . ifere :' 
a cniht of his cunne. 
....celyn ihote i 
heh man ... Rome, 
pe cniht anfvver... 

|?an caifere. 

and faide r' 

\q cniht 

Cnihtes wendejj 3 

and fegge]? 30ure kinge. 
. . Bruttus beoj? bolde :! 
ac hii beo|> onwreaft itold. 
for euere hii 3elp makiej* ^ 
hire mafipe his j^e laffe. 
More he |?ohte to fegge :! 
ac^ breid to fweorde. 

if we may live, we will it have, unless thou wilt acknowledge that Arthur is 
'king over thee [thy lord] , and each year send him tribute of thy land ; ' and 
if thou goest to him in amity, thou mayest live the quieter ! ' " Then sate 
by the emperor a knight of his kin, named Quencelin ; noble man in Rome. 
'This [The] knight answered before the emperor, and thus him said, — the 
knight was wicked : — " Knights, return you back, and "make known [say] 
to your king, that the Britons are bold, but they are accounted worthless ; 
for ever they make boast, — their honor is 'little [the less] ! " More he 
thought to say,Vhen [but] Walwain drew his sword, and 'smote him upon 

^ 3if \\x \ 

' A line is here wanting. 
E 2 

ac Waweyn . 



[v. 26455—26478.] 

MS. Cott. C-ilig. A. IX. 

and fiiiat hiiie ufenen |>at hafdc :' 

]7at he atweo haelde. 

& he hi^eiiliche anan r' 

heolde to hif horfen . 

and heo up leopen :! 

mid grimliche lechen. 

and l^af word feide r' 

Walwain |>e fele. 

Swa me helpe ]>q ilke lauerd :! 

\)e fcop ]?ef da3ef lihte. lo 

yd feuer aie if fwa kene :' 

of eouwer moncunne. 

];at uf after kenue ^ 

ich hine wulle aquelle. 

he fcal beo to-fwungeii :! 

mid brade mine sweorden. 

Efne )?are ilke tale r 

]7a cleopede |?e kaifere. 

Haldeb heom halde^ r' 

alle heo fculleS heongien. 


heje uppen treouwe :' 

ober mid horfen beon to-dra3ene 

Efne J^iffere faeje r^ 

l^a ]?e kaifere feide. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xin. 
and for-cleaf )?at hefued atwo r' 

and liii Jeanne gonne go :' 
and leope to horfe. 
\vor}>liche kempes ^ 

and l^es word faide :f 
Waweyn ];e kene. [f. 1 24. c. ] .] 
So me helpe ];e ilke louerd r' 
.. fop ]?is daies lihte. 

re his eny fo kene:' 

of mancune. 

)^at ous after ..nne?" 
ich hine wole acvvelle. 
he fal beo to-fwonge :! 
mid mine brode fweordc. 
Efne \diV ilke tale :! 
J70 faide )?e caifer. 
Holdej? 3am holde]^ t^ 
hongi hii folle]^. 
vppe he3e trouwcs ^ 
.o|?er mid horfe to-drawe. 

the head, so that it fell [severed the head] in two ; and 'he hastily anon 
ran to his horse ; and they up leapt with grim countenance [they then gan 
go, and leapt to horse, the worthy chamj)ions] ; and these words said 
Walwain the 'good [keen] : " So help me the same Lord, that formed the 
day-light, if over any of your men is so keen, that after us he pursue, I 
will him kill ; he shall be cut in pieces Avith my broad sword ! " Even 
with the same speech then 'called [said] the emperor : " Hold them ! hold ! 
They ' all ' shall hang upon high trees, or with horses be drawn in pieces ! " 
' Eveu with this saying that the emperor said,' 'the earls [These knights] 

[v. 26479—26502.] 

LA5AM0NS lillUT. 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

\>e eorlef gunnen ride t' 

& fpurcden heore fteden. 

lieo fcacken on heore honden r' 

fperen fwiSe ftronge. 

beren bi-foren breoften :' 

brade heore fcekles. [c 2.] 

Aneoufte gunnen ride r' 

eorlef rfe3e. 

and seuere j^ae kaifere r' 

hide gon cleopie. 

NimeS heom f laeh heoni :' 

ifcend heo uf habbeo^. 

per me niihte ihere t' 

]>c |jer bihaluef vveore. 

clupien |?ufende :f 

of ]?an ];eod-folke. 

Hider hider wepnen :' 

wende we heom sefter. 

hider ure fceldef t* 

])e fcalkef atwedeS. 

Sone heom after wende :' 

iwepnede kempen. 

]>eY fixe l^er feouene :' 

]?er aehte ]7er nijene. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

pis enihtes gonne ride :' 
and fporie hire hire^ ftedes. 
hii toke on hire lionde :f 
fperes fwi|?e long, 
baren bi-vore breofte :f 
brode hire fcealdef. 

And euere j^e caifer r' 
10 loude gan cleopie. 

Nimep* 3am fclea]? 3am r' 
ifcend ous ihabbe]?\ 
par me mihte ihere :' 
)?at bi-halues were, 
cleopie l^.-fend:' 
of J^an Roraleode. 

der wepne :f 

wende er. 

hider oure 

20 . . enihtes at-fto .... 
.... heom wende af . . . 
....nede cnihtef. 

|?ar .... ]?ar 

J7ar eahte ]?ar ni3ene. 

gan to ride, and spurred their steeds ; they *shook [took] in their hands 
spears exceeding long ; bare their broad shields before breast. ' Soon gan 
to ride the bold earls/ and ever the emperor loud gan to call : " Seize them ! 
slay them ! They have us disgraced ! " There men might hear, who 
were there beside, thousands of the 'people [Rome-folk] call : " Hither, 
hither, weapons ! Go we after them ! Hither our shields ; the 'men 
[knights] will escape ! " Soon after them went weaponed 'warriors 
[knights] ; there six, there seven, there eight, there nine. And ever the 

Sic MS. 

hii habbc)' 


54 LA^AMONS BRUT. [v. 26503— 26526.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

And feuere p>a eorlef:' A., euere l?e eorlesr 

arnde biliuef. earnde^e. 

and aeuere umbe ftunde i 

bife3eii heom bi-hiude. 

and euere ]7a cnihtef of Rome i and ]7e cnihtef of Rome r' 

after biliue come. blip'e after come. 

And ]?er com^ aneoufte:' And ]?ar com on cniht:' 

aire fwiSeft serne. aire fwij^eft earne. 

& euere^ cleopede r and euere he cleopede r' 

kenlich fwi"Se. lo kenliche fwij^e. j 

Wended a^aein cnihtes r' Wende]? a3ein cnihtes r' 

and werie"S eo^ mid fihtef. and vverie]? 30U mid fihte. 

hit if eo^ muchel fcome :! hit his 30U mochel feame r' [c. 2.] j 

J?at 3e wulle^ at-fceken. ]?at 3eo fleon. j 

Walwain icneo j^ene reme :! Waweyn icneu ]>one ream :! 

of ]?an Romanifce me. of |;an Romaniffe men. 

he wende hif ftede :! he wende his ftede :! 

Si, to him gon ride. and to him gan ride. 

& fmat hine jnu'h mid ]'an fpere :' and fmot him ]n)rh m . . ]>an fpere r' 

swa he ifpited weore. 20 afe he ifpeded were. 

8c brfeid to him j^at fpere :' and breid to him j'at fpere t' j 

J?e gume iwat fone. ]>e cniht war)? dead fone. 

& |?af word kende r' and J?es word faide :f 

Walwai ]?e kene. [f. 155. c. 1.] Waweyn |?e kene. 

earls rode quickly, and ' ever awhile looked behind them ; and ever ' the 
knights of Rome quick after came. And there came 'near [a knight], riding | 
swiftest of all, and ever [he] called most keenly : " Turn again, knights, | 
and defend you with fight ! It is to you much shame, that ye ' will ' fly." j 
Walwain knew the shout of the Romanish men ; he turned his steed, and ' 
to him gan ride ; and smote him through with the spear, as if he were 
Pl)ittcd, and drew to him the spear, — the 'man [knight] died soon, — and 
tlicse words said Widwain the keen : " 'Knight, thou rodcst too fast ; better I 



^ comane? " cucre he ? ^ eow ? ! 

[v. 26527—26547.] 




MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

Cniht ]>u ride to fwiSe:' 

betere J^e weore at Rome. 

Marcel hehte ]>e cniht r' 

he3ere monnen. 

pa Walwain ifeh r 

]?at he to grunde bash. 

fone hif fweord he ut abraeid :' 

& fmat of Marcele |?at hefd. 

and |?af word faeide r' 

Walwain )?e fele. 

Marcel far to helle :! 

& tel heom ]'er fpelles. 

and wune |?er to-3ere :' 

mid Quencelien |?in ifere. 

and halde^ ]?er unker nme ^ 

betere inc weoren inne Rome. 

for J?uf we eou fcullen techen :f 

ure Bruttifce fpeche. 

Gerin ifaeh hu hit ferde :f 

hu ]7e ]>e^ Romanifce lai |?er dune. 

and hif horf mune3ede r' 21 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

Li ]?ou )?are of lifue :' 
for l^ou ride to fwi}>e. 
Marcel hehte J?e cniht :f 
of he^ere cunne. 

Wawein his sweord vp breid t' 
and fmot of Marceles hefd, 
and J;us him ]>o faide :' 
Woweyn J^e kene. 
Marcel wend to helle r 
and tel 3am ]>are fpelles. 
and wone |;ar to-3ere :f 
mid Gwencelyn j^ine vere. 
and holde}* }^are woure^ roiin :f 
betere wou^ were at Rome, 
for ]?us we folle 30U teche t' 
Bruttiffe fpeche. 
Gerv'n ifeh fone :' 
ou l^e Romain lay ]?ar dun. 
and his hors mane3ede t' 


were it to thee (haddest thou been) at Rome [Lie thou there slain, for 
thou rodest too fast] ! " Marcel hight the knight, of noble lineage. ' When 
Walwain saw that he fell to ground, soon ' his sword 'he out [Wawein up] 
drew, and smote 'froni Marcel the [oflF Marcels] head ; and 'these words 
[thus him then] said Walwain the 'good [keen] : " IMarcel, go to hell, and 
there tell them tales, and dwell there for ever, with Quencelin, thy com- 
panion ; and hold there your communing, — better it were to you 'in [at] 
Rome ; for thus we shall teach you ' our ' British speech ! " Gerin saw 
'how it fared [soon] , how ' that ' the Romanish lay there down ; and 
spurred his horse, and met another, and smote him through' out ' with his 

3 cure ? 


Superjiuoiis ? 

56 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 26548— 2C570.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

andaenne oderiieMniette. [fperec'and an oj^er imette. 

and fmat hine |?urh ut mid hif and fniot hine J'orh mid his spere ^ 

and |?af word fpilede. and j^es word faide. 

Rid nu fwa Remain r' Rid nou fo Romayn r' 

and reof ]>q to hellcn. and ref nou to lielle. 

and Jnif we fcuUen grundien :! and ]7us we folle 30U farni r' 

^if godd us wule fulften. ^ef god ous wole fulfte. 

nif noht wur^ ]>ratte r' nis noht wor]? j^reat :! 

buten |7er beo dede ajt^. bote ]jar beo deade eak. 

Bof ifteh |;e ohte mo r' 10 Beofs ifeh ]?e ohte man :! 

hu hif iueren hafden idon. ou his iveres hadde idon. 

& hif horf wende r' and his hors wende r' 

wunder ane swi^e. wonderliche fwij^e. 

and mid alle hif mitte :! and mid al his mihte :! 

teh to ane cnihte. [[c.2.] teh to one cnihte. [[f. I24''.c. 1.] 

& fmat hine buuen |;an fcelde :' and fmot hine boue }>an fceakl i 

|?at to-barft hif gode burne. ^ 

& ]?urh ut l^ene fweore r' |>at |;e fpere deore r' 

\q^ fwa3lt ful fone. rof }>orh p'an fwere. 

And puf l^e eorl cleopien agon :! And he cleopie agan r' 

kenliche on hif fere. 20 kenliche to liis fcref. 

Brnttef uf wuUeS fcenden :' Bruttuf ous woUej? fyndc:' 

jif we hconnc wendeS. 3ef we hinne wende]?. 

spear ; and these words ^spake [said] : " Ride now so, Roman, and sink 'thee 
[now] to hell ; and thus we shall 'sink you [serve you], if God will us help ! 
Threat is worth nought, unless there be deeds eke ! " Beof saw, the brave 
man, how his comrades had done ; and turned his horse wondrously quick, 
and with all his might advanced to a knight, and smote him above the 
shield, so that *his good burny burst, aud throughout the neck the 
si)car drove full soon. And thus the earl [the good spear drove through 
the neck. And he] gau to call keenly to his companions : " The Britons 
will us destroy, if we hence go, unless we the better begin ere we hence 

' oSernc ? '^ rcc ? ^ A line seems missing. ^ Ipe fperc ? 

[v. 26571— 2G593.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

3if we bene wended ^ 

bute we bet aginnen t* 

aer we heonene iwende. 

Efne |?ere fpeche i 

]?e ]?e eorl wede^. 

heo bi-wenden heom fone i 

wunder ane fvvi^e. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

bote we bet aginne r' 
are we liene wende. 

po tornden hii fone r' 
wonderliche fwi|?e. 

and ffilc hif fweord fwiSe adroh i and ech his fweord fvvij^e droh r" 
and aslc hif Runiain of-floh. and ech his Roniayn of-floh. 

& feo^Sen heore horf wenden "i and fiij^'p'e hire hors wende "i 
& heore waei heolden. lo and hire way helde. 

And j?8e Romanifce men :^ 
riden eouere after heom. 
ofte heo heom on fmiten i 
ofte heo heom atwiten. 
ofte heo faeiden heom to i 
Abuggen 30 fcullen ]7a dede. 

And Romaniffe men i 
riden euere after heom. 

ofte hii faide ;am to ^ 
Abugge 36 folle |>e deade. 

ah ne mihten heo j^urhnane l^inget^ac ne mihten hii mid none ]?ing 

heore nenne adun bringe. 

no nenne hserm J'er do heom X 

i l^an wi^er-happen. 20 

Ah aeuere umbe whilen :' 

)7e eorlef a3ain wenden. 

and ser heo to-tweinden :' 

none of 3am adun bringe. 
ne nanne harm 3am don i 
in }?an wij'er-happes. 
Ac euere bi eche wile r' 
hii a3en wende. 
and fmite on Rom-cnihtes ^ 

depart ! " *Even with the speech that the earl said, [Then] they turned 
' them ' soon, wondrously prompt ; and each drew his sword quickly, and 
each slew his Roman ; and afterwards their horses they turned, and held 
their way. And ' the ' Romanish men rode ever after them ; ' oft they 
smote on them, oft they them reproached'; oft they said to them : " Ye 
shall pay for the deed ! " but they might not ^through [with] any thing 
any of them down bring, nor any harm ' there ' do to them in the conflicts. 
But ever 'awhile the earls [by each while they] back turned, and 'ere they 

* SxQ MS. ; this line is evidently redundant, and therefore is not numbered. 
' kende ? Cf. I. 26525. 



[v. 26594—26617.] 

MS. Cott. Caljg. A. IX. 

I^e wurfe wef Rom-leoden, 

puf heo iuerden :! 

fiftene milen. 

]?at heo comen to ane ftiide ^ 

vnder ane ueire wude. 

on uaft ]?an caftle ^ 

J^er ArSur lei uafte. [f. iss^.c. i.] 

Preo milen |?er from ^' 

to J'an wuden prungen. 

ni3e ]7ufende r* lo 

)?e Ar^ur ]?ider fenden. 

baldere Brutten i 

]>e bezft J>at lond cneowen. 

heo wolden wite ]?at foSe r' 

of Walwain |7an kene. 

and of hif iueren r' 

hu heo iuaren weoren. 

whaSer heo line weoreren ^ :! 

]?a heo bi wseie Iseien. 

pief cnihtef fi3en purh j^ene wude r" 

wmider ane fofte. 21 

iippe ane hulle :! 

and 3eorne biheolden. 

Heo letten alle ]?a horfm ^ 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

mid bitere hire duntes. 

pos hii ferde :/ 

fiftene mile. 

j?at hii come to one ftude :! 

onder one faire wode. 

fafte bi ]^an caftle :! 

|?ar Arthur lay fafte. 

preo mile ]?ar fram :' 

to ]?an wode |;ronge. 

ni3e j^oufend r' 

)>a Arthur }>ider fende. 

baldere Bruttus ^' 

J'at beft \qX lond cou];e. 

hii wolde witen to fo}>e r' 

of Waweyn |;an kene. 

and of his i-veres :' 

ou hii i-faren were. 

wa}»er hii weren on lifue r' 

o|;er bi weie leje. [c.2.] 

peos cnihtes f i3en .... |7an wode 

wonder fofte. 

and come to ... hulle r' 
and jeorne bi-heolde. 
Hii lette alle ]?e horfnien r' 

separated, the worse was to the Rome-folk [smote on the Rome-knights, 
with their bitter strokes] . Thus they proceeded fifteen miles, until they 
came to a place under a fair wood, hard by the castle where Arthur lay 
fast. Three miles therefrom to the wood thronged nine thousand bold 
Britons, whom Arthur thither sent, who best knew the land ; they would 
learn 'the [in] sooth, of Walwain the keen, and of his comj^anions, how they 
had fared ; whether they were alive, or ' they' lay by the way. These knights 
proceeded through the wood wondrously still, 'upon [and came to] a hill, 
and eagerly beheld. They caused all the horsemen to alight in the wood, and 

' R. weoren. 

[v. 26618—26642.] 




MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

i ]?an Avude alihten. 

and rihten lieore iwepnen r' 

and alle heore iweden. 

buten an hundred monnen :! 

)?e \>ev fculde bi-halden. 

and ^ 3if heo on-3iten mihten r' 

]?urh aeief cunnef J'igen. 

pa ife3en heo feorren r' 

in ane uelde muchelen. 

I^reo cnihtef aernen :' 

mid alien heore niainen. 

After ]>an J>reom cnihten ^ 

pritti ]?er comen. 

after j^an ]?rittie r' 

heo ifejen |7reo j?ufende. 

]?er after comen praften ^' 

|>ritto l^ufen^ anan. 

Romanifce leoden r' 

mid raeue bihonged. 

And Jja eorlef bi-uoren heom :' 

aneufte at-arnden. 21 

euere j^ene rihte wasi :! 

|7e touward ]7an wude lai. [c.2.] 

)7er heore iueren r' 

wel ihudde vveoren. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

in J'an wode a-lihte. 
and rihte hire wepne r' 
and alle hire wedes. 
bote an hundred men r' 
]?at ]?ar folde bi-holde. 
3ef hii of-3ete mihte r' 
];orh eni cunnes ]>inge. 
po ife3en hii ferre :! 
in one brode felde. 
J>reo cnihtes earnne :f 
mid alle hire mayne. 
After ]? . . I^reo cnihtes i 

\v come. 

after Jjan j^ritti r' 

. . . ]?reo ]70ufend. 

J7ar after comen j^reafte r' 

]?ritti |?oufend. 

And euere J'e eorlef:' 
bi p>e ... earnede. 

f'ane ilke way r' 

}>.... ward \q wode lay. 
. . . hire i-veres r' 
w re. 

get ready their weapons, and all their weeds (garments), except an hundred 
men, that there should look out, if they might descry through thing of any 
kind. Then saw tliey afar, in a 'great [broad] plain, three knights ride with / 
aU their main. "After the three knights there came thirty ; after the thirty 
they saw three thousand ; thereafter came thronging thirty thousand ' anon, 
of Romanish folk, clad in armor'. And [ever] the earls 'before them' 
'quickly [by the way'] rode, ever the 'right [same] way that toward the 
wood lay, where their comrades were well hid. The earls rode to the 

^ Superfluous ? 

jjufend ? 


GO LA3AMONS BRUT. [v. 26643— 26G65.J 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

|5a eorlef a^rtlen ' to |>an wuden r pe eorles J?an wode r* 

)?a Romanifce after ride. J?e after ride. 

pa Bruttef to-nefden :! ]?e B refde :^ 

on heore iraefte fteden. vp des. 

and fmiten to a-uorenon / and ..ot a vore... 

and feollen an hundred anan. and fuld. an hundred a-non. 

pa wenden Rom-leoden :' po wende Romleode r' 

j^at Ar^ur come riden. [fwi^e :! j^at Arthur come ride. 

and weoren afered feondliche and tornde J'e rugges :! 

and Bruttef after heo. 10 and Bruttus 3am after. 

and flojen of )?an folke r' and flo3en of )?an folke ^ 

fiften hundred. fiftene hundred. 

pa com heom to fulfte :! po com 3am to fulfte r 

of heore3e^ uolke. of hire owene folke. [f. I25.c.i.] 

)>a Ar^ur j^ider hafde ifend i ]?at Arthur hadde |?ider ifend :! 

fixtene jjufund. fixtene |>oufend. 

baklere Brutten r' baldere Bruttuf r' 

mid burnen bihonged. mid ftele bi-honge. 

pa CO ];er ride :! po com 

|?at waf an eorl riche. 20 j^at was 

Peitreiuf ihate :! Petrius 

heh nion of Rome. of Rome. 

mid fix p'ufend kempeu i mid cnihtes :' 

wood ; the Romanish men rode after ; the Britons attacked them [up] on 
their rested steeds, and smote in front, and felled an hundred anon. Then 
weened the Rome -folk that Arthur came riding, and \vcre very greatly 
afraid [turned the backs] ; and the Britons pursued after them, and slew of 
the folk fifteen hundred. Then came them to help sixteen thousand of 
their own folk, whom Arthur had thither sent, bold Britons, with *burnies 
[steel] clad. Then came there riding one that was a rich earl, named 
Pctreius, a noble man of Rome, with six thousand "warriors [knights], to 

' zornden? 

^ heore aje ? 

[v. 266G6— 26686.] 




MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

]?an Romanifce to helpe. 
& mid niuchelere ftreng^e r' 
leopen to ]>an Brutten. 
and lut ]>er of-nonieii :f 
ah monie heo of-flo3en. 
Bruttef to wude haelden r' 
]?e oSere after wende. 
and ]?a Bruttef auoten :f 
uafte a3aein ftoden. 
%nd |?a Romaifce men :' 
luhten ridende. 
and B^ttef heom to heolden :f 
& heore horf^ flo3en. 
& moni j^er nomen t' 
& in l^ene wude dro3en. 
•^ \ pa iwarS^Petreiuswra'S:^[f. ise.c.i 
)?at hif wes |?a wurfe ]?er. 
and he mid hif uerde t' 
from }?an wude wende. 
and Bruttef heom to bu3en t' 20 
and bi-seften heom flo3e. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

I^an R fee to helpe. 

and mid mochele ftrengj^e :f 
leope to }7an Bruttus. 
and feue hii |;ar nemen r 
and manye hii of-slowen. 
pe Bruttes flo3e .. }pan wode:' 

]?e ou]?.. 3am af de. 

and .... uttuf 

..fte a3an ...,e. 

,e hors flo3 

wode dro3e. 

].. iwar]> Petrius war:' 
... his was l^e worfe |?ar. 
... he mid liis ferdef 
fram |?an .ode he wende. 

and Br to bowen:' 

and 3ani flowen. 

help the Romanish forces ; and with great strength they leapt to the 
Britons, and few there [they] captured, 'but [and] many they slew. [Tlie] 
Britons fled to [the] wood ; the others pursued after [them] ; and the 
Britons on foot firmly against them stood, ' and the Romanish men fought 
riding ; and the Britons advanced to them,' and slew their horses, ' and 
many there took,' and in^o the wood drew. Then was Petreius wrath, 
that his force was there the worse ; and he with his host retreated from 
the wood ; and the Britons followed them, and slew them behind. When 

' Added by a second hand. 

' After these words the scribe, by inadvertence, has repeated the entire passage 
from I. 26663. inclusive, which repetition the second hand has afterwards cancelled, 
by drawing diagonal lines over it. It has not been thought necessary to print here 
the passage thiis repeated, but the orthographical and other variations in it are 
worthy of notice, and will be pointed out in the Notes, 

62 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 26687—26710.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

J)a Bruttuttef ^ weoren ut of wude r'po weren vt of wo . . 

i3eiii to ]7an felde. ut to |?an fekle. 

J'a atftoden Rom-leodeii r" d Romleode r' 

mid rae^e ftren3e. mid he3ere ftreiigj^e. 

pa bi-gon ]?at muchele fiht r' po bi-gan ]?at ftrauge fiht ^ 

\e,v ueollen eorlles & moni god ]?arfeoleorles and many god ciiiht. 

]>er ueollen a dpei r' [cnih^. ])ar foUen a day r' 

fiften ]7ufend. fiftene ]?oufend. 

a^elere monnen r' 

aer hit weore sefen. lo 

per he finde mihte t par he mihte finde :! 

]>& hif main wolde fondien. wofe his mayn wolde fondle. 

bond a^an honde r' [c. 2.] bond a3en bond t' 

ftrongne a3el ftr[ong.] ftrong a3en ftrong. 

fceld a3ein fcelde :' fceald a3en fceald r' 

fcalkef )?er ueollen. cnibtef J?ar folle. 

Vrnen ]?a ftreten r' Vrne ]7e weyef r' 

mid blode ftraemen. of blodie ftremes. [c.2.] 

leien 3eond |?an ueldef r' lei3en oueral ]'e feldes :' 

gold-fa3e fceldef. 20 goldfawe fcealdes. 

al jjene Asei longe t* al J'ane day log :' 

beo heolden j^at febt ftronge. durede |?at fiht ftrong. 

Petreiuf an hif balue:' Petrius in bis balf:^ 

hif folc heold to-fomne. his folk beoP to-gadere. 

the Britons were out of the wood, come [out] in the field, then withstood the 
Rome-folk with fierce strength. Then began the *mickle [strong] fight ! — 
there fell earls and many a good knight ; there fell in the day {or died) fifteen 
thousand ' of noble men, ere it were even.' There might he find, who[so] 
would prove his strength, hand against hand, the strong against the strong, 
shield against shield, knights there fell ! The jiaths ran with bloody 
streams ; gold-colored shields lay over [all] the fields ; all the day long 
*thcy held [dured] the strong fight. Petreius on his side his folk held to- 

3 JR. Bruttef. 

2 cniht? 

3 heold ? 

[v. 26711—26734.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 
]>a. ivvrae (5 ' fone :' 
\fi\t Bruttef hafdeii ]7at vvurfe. 
pat ifaeh )?e eorl he3e t' 
of Oxeneuorde. 
Beof w£ef ilueten :' 
haeh Bruttifc mon. 
I^at a nare wife r* 
ne mihte hit iwur^en. 
]?at Bruttef ne mofte reofen r' 
buten heo reed haueden. lo 

pa eorl ]?a cleopede :' 
cnihtes a'Sele. 
of ]?an aire bezfte :' 
of alle |>an Brutten. 
and of ]?an kenneften :' 
]>e ]>er quike weoren. 
and tuhte liine ut a J?an felde :' 
aneoufte j^ere ferde. 
and ]7uf him ifeide :' 
an heorte him wes unne^e, 20 
Cnihtes hercnie^ nu to me :' 
drihten nf helpe. 
we beo^ hidere icumen t 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

\>o i-war]? it fone r' 

]?at Bruttus hadde }?at worfe. 

pat ifeh Beofs :f 

eorl of Oxeneforde. 

]>nt in none wife :f 

ne mihte hit iworj'e. 

]>at hii ne mofte falle :' 

bote 3ef hi read hadde. 

He cleopede to him cnihtes :f 

\>e befte ]?at he wifte. 

and of ])e aire kenneft :' 

.at ]?are ine fiht we.« 

..d wende 3am vt in ]?a. .elde:' 

a-neoweft J^an ferde. 

. . . )?us him faide t 

fori on heorte. 

Cnihtes hercne]^ nou to me :f 

drihte ous helpe. 

we beo]? hider icome :f 

and|?iffehthabbeo^under-nmnen.and Yis fiht habbep» onder-nome. 

gether ; then [it] soon happened, that the Britons had the worse. 'The 
noble earl of Oxford, who was named Beof [Beofs, earl of Oxford] ' a noble 
British man,' saw that, that in nowise might it be, that 7/ie Britons [they] 
should not fall, unless they had counsel. *The earl then [He] called [to 
him] ' noble ' knights, 'of the best of all, of all the Britons [the best that he 
knew] , and of the keenest [of all] , that there were 'alive [in fight] , and drew 
'him [out] in the field, near the host ; and thus him said, — in heart 'to him 
was uneasiness [sorry] : — " Knights, hearken now to me ; the Lord us 
help ! We are hither come, and have undertaken this fight, without 

' iwar^ ? 



[v. 26735—26759.] 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

boute Arthur his reade f' 
]?at his oure louerd. 
3ef ous wel bi-falle)? :' 
we him ]>e bet cwenie]?. 
and 3ef ous bi-falt vuele r' 
he ous wole hatie. 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

buten Ar^uref rede ^ 
]>e if ure hexte. 
3if uf oht ilimpeS :' 
we him ]>a bet likie^. 

ff ISC'" 

and 3ef uf iJimpeS uuelen " , -i 

he uf wule hatie. 

Ah jif je wulle^ minne rfed :' 

]?enne ride we al glad. 

we beo^ |?reo hundred cnihtes :' We beo}? ]?reo hundred cnihtef : 

ihehnede j^eines. lo 

ohte men and kene :f 

a^ele iborene. 

cu^e^ eouvver cniht-fcipe r' 

we beo^ of are cudSe. 

ride^ }>enne ich ride :f 

and fulieS mine rede. 

AUe halde^ him to :' 

to l^an cnihte ]?a ich do. 

ne nime 36 nenne ftede :f 

no nanef cnihtef iwede. 20 

ah ffiuer aelc god cniht:' 

flten aeuere adun riht. 

-^fne ]?an worde :' 

]>e \>e cniht faeide of Oxene-uorde. 

to hif iueren bifiden :f 

ohte men and wihte. 

cuj^ej? 30ure cniht-fipe ^ 

we beoj? of one cunne. 

ride); wane ich ride t' 

and folwe]? mine reade. 

Alle holdej? him to :f 

to |?an cniht j^at ich do. 

ne nime 3eo none ftede r' 

ne none cnihtef wede. 

ac euerech god cniht:' [f. I25''.c. 1.] 

slea euere adun riht. 

Efne ]?an worde :f 

pat ]>e eorl faide. 

^Arthurs [Arthur his] counsel, who is our *chief [lord] . If to us 'good 
[well] befallcth, we shall please him the better, and if to us befalleth evil, 
he will hate us. ' But if ye will do my counsel, then shall we ride all 
merry.' We are three hundred knights, ' helmed thanes,' brave men and 
'keen [active], 'nobly born'; shew ye your courage, — we are of one 'kith 
[kin], — ride ye when I ride, and follow ray counsel. Advance ye all to him, 
to the knight that I do ; take ye no steed, nor any knights weed, but 
every good knight slay ever downright ! " Even with the words that the 
^knight of Oxford [carl] said ^to his companions beside, then gan he to 

[v. 26760— 267S2.] LA^AMONS BRUT. 65 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiu. 

}>a gon he to riden. 

fefne al fwa swiSe :f hii ride \>o afe fwij^e r* 

swa liund pene heort driue^. so hond ]>'dn heort driue)?. 

and hif iueren after t' 

mid alien hcore mahtcn. 

]}nvh. lit |;ene muchele uehte r' 

al ]}ii eniht-weorede. 

flue an heore fteden r' 

uolc heo ]?ere aqualden. 

Wo' wffif heom iboren ?* lo Welawo waf 3ani ibore r' 

]?ai]?anvveieheomweoren biuoren,];at in hire wey were bi-vore. 

for alle heo hit to-ti'eden :! for al hii to-treade t' 

mid horfen & mid fteden. mid hors and mid ftede. 

and fwa aneoufte heo iwenden :' and fo aneweft come :' 

and Petreium iuengen. and Petrium hii nome. 

Beof ^ him bi-arnde t Beofs to him fwapte :f 

and mid airmen bi-clupte. [c.2.] and mid harmes bine bi-clupte. 

& br.^eid hine of hif ftede :f and breid hine of his ftede r' 

& to eorSe hine iftraehte. and to ear|>e hine fette, 

he wufte him bihaluef ?* 20 he wifte him bi-halues r' 

balde hif cnihte^. buf ie his cnih . . s. 

Bruttef adnn flo3en r" Cnihtes adun sloven :f 

Petreiuf heo dro3en. . . .riuf hii dro3en. 

ride, even all [they rode then] as swift as hound driveth the hart, ' and 
his comrades after, with all their might, throughout the mickle fight, all 
the troop ; they flew on their steeds ; the folk they there killed,' Woe was 
to them born, that were in 'the [their] way before ' them,' for all they ' it ' 
trod down, with horses and with steeds; and so 'they' came near, and 
Petreius [they] captured. Beof rode to him, and with arms [him] clasped, 
and drew him off his steed, and on earth him 'stretched [set] ; he knew 
beside him were his *bold [busy] knights. The 'Britons [knights] down 

* welle, pr. m. ^ Beof? 3 cnihtes ? 




[v, 26783—26805.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

and I'a Rom-leoden :' 

raehliche fuhten. 

and a \>-dn lafte ne niihte mon wite 

wha o'Serne fmite. 

]>er wef muchel blod gute ^' 

balu wef on compe. 

Pa ifash Walwain .*' 

]>er he wes bihalucn. 

mid feouen hundred cnihten r^ 

pider he gon hselden. lo 

in hif waBi3e f he funde :' 

al he hit aqualde. 

and ridende igrap Petreiun r' 

on richen hif fteden. 

and ladde uor^ Pet*^iun :f 

laeS |7eh hit weore him. 

"pat heo to ]?an wude comen / 

per heo^ wel w^ten. 

sikerliche to halden r' 

J?ene riche mon of Rome. 20 

and aeft ut a ]>ene ueld wende :f 

and bi-gonnen to fehten. 

per me ifeon mihte :f 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

and J>. .omleode.*' 

baldeliche f 

r'so J^at at ]?an lafte :f 
no man ]?are nufte. 
wo o]7erne fmite :f 
]?ar was mochel blod igote. 
po ifeh Waweyn iwis :' 
l^ar he was bi-halues. 
mid foue hundred cnihtes r' 
I'ider he gan wede. 
and in his weye ];at he funde r' 
alle he a-cwelde. 
and ridende he nam Petrius :f 
vppe his gode ftede. 

and ladde him to ]?an wode :' 
war he wel wifte. 
sikerliche to holde r' 
]?ane he3e man of Rome, 
and eft vt wende :f 
and bi-gan to fihte. 
par me mihte i-fean :' 

smote ; Petreius they drew along ; and the Rome-folk fought boldly ; *and 
[so that] at the last 'man might not know [no man there knew] who smote 
other ; there was much blood shed, ' mischief was in the conflict ! ' Then 
saw Walwain [truly] , where he was beside ; with seven hundred kniglits 
he gan thither move, [and] what he found in his way, all he it destroyed. 
And riding he took Petreius, on his good steed ; and led 'forth Petreius 
[him] , ' loath though it were to him, until they came ' to the wood, where 
he well knew surely to hold the noble man of Rome ; and eft out ' in the 
field ' proceeded, and began to fight. There men might see sorrow 'enough 

» he? 

[v. 2680G— 26830,] 



MS. CoU. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiti. 

sor3en ino3e. manyfold forewe. 

fceldef fcenen r' scealdes feanende ^ 

fcalkef fallen. cnihtef falleiide. [c.2.] 

lialmef to-hfelden :' 

haehje men to-f\velten. 

blodie ueldef "! blodede feldes .*' 

falewede nebbef. . falewede nebbes. 

Bruttef heom to-vfefden "i And Bruttus to 3ani reamde ^ 

];a flu3en Roai-leoden. and flowen Roni-leode. 

Bruttef heo flo3en "! [f.i57.c.i.] lo and Bruttus 3am 

and monie heo quic nomen. ... monye cwi 

and ]?e daei ende \^'i day ean .... 

wa wes Rom-leoden wa. Romleode ... 

pa bond men uafte i fafte "! 

kempen Romanifce. kemp.. ..maniffe. 

and laedden heom to p'an wude i and leade 3am . . );an wode "l 

biuoren Walwahie. bi-vore Waweyne. 

heom biwakeden a )?ere nihte:^ bi-wakede al j^ane ni... 

twenti hundred cnihten. ..enti hundred cnihtes. 

pa hit dai wes amar3en ^ 20 po hit d.. was a morwe :' 

du3e^e gon fturie. ]7e ..... ga — to ftorie. 

for^ heo gunnen liSe:' for. ... 

to heore kine-hmerde. to liire louerd. 

and f\\ailc lac him brohte:' ... fw him b 

■^ leof hi wes to habben. ... le.. him was to 

[manyfold] ! shields 'break [breaking] ; knights 'fall [falling] ; ' helms drop- 
ping ; noble men dying ' ; bloody fields ; paled faces ! [And] the Britons 
rushed towards them ; 'then [and] the Rome-folk fled ; [and] the Britons 
them slew, and many they took alive ; and when the day ended woe was 
to the Rome-folk, woe ! Then bound men fast the Romanish knights, and 
led them to the wood, before Walwain ; twenty hundred knights watched 
them 'in [all] the night. When it was day on the morrow, the folk gan to 
stir ; forth they gan march to their sovereign, and brought him such offer- 
ing, *that [as] was lief to him to have. Then spake him Arthur thus : 

F 2 



[v. 26831—26852.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

pa spac Ar^ur hi ]?uf r 

Wulcume Petreiuf. 

iiu if ]>e wulle teche r' 

Bruttifce fpjeche. 

pii 3ulpe biforen |?an kaifeifere*:' 

J>at ]}u me woldeft a-quellen. 

nimen mine caftlef alle :' 

and mine kine-riche. 

and muchel J>e fael iwur^en :' 

of |>at ]>n wilnedeft to habben. lo 

Ich wulle bitache ]}e fvil iwif r^ 

minne caftel inne Parif. 

and ]>er |?u fcalt wunien r' 

swa ]?e beo^ aire leoj'eft. 

ne fcalt ]>u nauere mare t' 

Yi lif ]?enne lede. 

Ar|mr ]>-d cnihtef nom :f 

]>e ]>er iuongen weoren. 

j^reo hundred rideref:' 

he nom eke ana. 20 

J7e alle weoren iueren r' [c.2.] 

cnihtes swi^e ohte :f 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

. . fpac Arthur . . . 
..Icome Petrius. 
nou . .f j^e wolle teche t 
Brutiffe fpeche. 

pou e bi-vore |?in caifere:' 

. . . ]?ou me woldeft a-cwe . . . 

.... mine caftles al.. 

... mine kinerich. 

...che |70u .at ha.... 

. . |?an |7at j^ou wilnedeft. 

Ich wole bi-take J?e foliwis :■ 

mine caftel .. Paris. 

and ]?ar ]7ou fait wonie :' 

afe ]>e his aire lo|?eft. 

ne fait )70u neuere more r' 

pi lif ]?anene leade. 

Arthur alle J'e cnihtes nam : 

]mt l^ar inome were. 

]?reo hundred rideref r' 

• hter' [f. 126.C. ].] 

" Welcome, Petreius ! Now is one here that will teach thee British speech. 
Thou boasted before 'the [thy] emperor, that thou wouldest me kill ; take 
all my castles, and my kingdom ; and much good should be to thee of that 
thou dcsiredest to have. I will give thee, full truly, my castle in Paris ; 
and there thou shalt dwell, as to thee will be most loathsome of all ; shalt 
thou nevermore thy life thence lead ! " Arthur took [all] the knights, that 
there were captured; three hundred riders 'he took eke anon, who all 
were comrades,' knights most brave, and keen men in fight ; and bade them 

^ R. kaifere. A line seems wanting here by the break in the punctuation. 

[v. 26853-26876.] LA^AMONS BRUT. 69 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xm. 

and kene men to uihte. and hte. 

and hffihte heoni amor^en r' and rwe r' 

monliche arifen. man 

biden ^ Romanifce men :! 

mid ftronge rake-teh3en. 

and lede Pet^iuf :' 

to )?ere borh of^ Parif. 

Feouwer eorlef he hfehte r' 

forS heo ibringen. 

Cador Borel :! lo 

Bedu and Richer. 

he hehte heo beo iuere r" 

I^at heo fiker weoren. 

and cumen a3ain fone :! 

to heore kine-lavierde. 

pif wef al ]?uf ifpeken :! 

ah hit wes fone under-jeten. 

Haewseref foren r' 

3eond ]>af kingef ferden. rde. 

& iherden fuggen r' 20 and 

fo^ere worden. ..J^ere wordes. 

wilder ArSur wolde fenden:' Arthur wolde fen.. 

pae cnihtef )^e he haf^ i benden. \e cnihtef J'e he had., in bende. 

and \?L hauweref for^ rihte r' and ]7e fpia... for];riht :' 

on the mon-ow manly arise, bind the Romanish men with strong chains, 
and lead Petreius to the burgh of Paris. Four earls he commanded to 
bring them forth ; Cador, Borel, Beduer, and Richer ; he ordered them to 
be companions, so that they were secure, and to come again (back) soon 
to their sovereign. This was all thus spoken, but it was soon known. 
Spies went over the kings host, and heard say sooth words, whither Ar- 
thur would send the knights that he had in bonds ; and the spies forth- 

binden ? 

Interlined by a second hand. 

3 hafde? 

70 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 26877— 26899.] 

MS, Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

wenclen uorS bi nilite. wende a.... al bi niht. 

]?at heo come fone "i j^at hii co . . . . iie i 

to )^au kaifere of Rome. to ]7an caifere of .... 

and talden al heore tale r' and tolde al hire .... 

hu|7affeouwereorlesfculden uare.... j^e four eorles fare. 

and forS lede Petreiuf r' and iox\ trius :' 

to |7ffire biirh of Parif. to ]?an borh of Paris. 

and al heo talden j^ene wsei r' and al hii tolde j^ane waye i 

}>e intowardef Parife laei. ]?at in to Parif lay. 

and whar me heo kepen mihte ^ lo and war me heom kepe mihte ^ 

in ane flade deopen. [f. ijT'-.c.i] in one flade deope. 

and biraiuien of heo r* and bi-nime of 3am ^ 

Petreiun }>ene riche mon. Petrius J'ane riche man. 

& J'a feouwer eorlef ileggen ^ and }?e eorles four awynne :' 

& faften heom binden. and fafte 3am bynde. 

Lucef l^if iherden :^ pis i-horde Luces r' [c.2.] 

J>e kaifer of Rome. )?e cayfer of Rome. 

and he leopt to wepne r' 

fwulc hit a linn weore. 

and te ]7ufend hehte :' 20 

kempe ip'03ene^ 

to horfe & to wepnen r' 

aneoufte foren wenden. 


riglit proceeded 'forth [all] by night, until they came soon to the emperor 

of Rome, and told all their tale, how 'these [the] four earls should march, 
and lead forth Petreius to the burgh of Paris ; and all they told the way 
that in to[wards] Paris lay, and where men might them intercept in a deep 
valley, and take from them Petreius the noble man, and the four earls con- 
quer, and fast them hind. Luces heard this, the emi)eror of Home, ' and 
he leapt to weapon as it were a lion ; and ordered ten thousand chosen (?) 
knights to horse and to arms, quickly forwards to march.' [And] he called 

^ This word in doubtful, and has been partly corrected on an erasure hj a second 

[v. 26900—26923.] 




MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

He cleopetle Sextoriuf :^ 

of Libie lie wef king of Turkic dux 

lie fende after Euander r* 

J?e of Babiloine M'ef icumen ];er. 

he cleopede to j?an feuaturf r' 

Bal Catel Carriuf. 

\>eo( weoren alle kine-borne :" 

& ]>eof weoreoren ' alle icoren. 

aneoufte to riden r' 

and Petreiuin^ aredden. 

Allan fwa hit waf euen :' 

for^ heo iwenden. 

heoni ladden twelue r' 

of ]>aii leod-folke. 

]?a fwi^e warre weoren r' 

and pa \vei3ef cu^en. 

pa rideu Rom-leode :f 

rifeden burnen. 

quahten on hafden r' 

helmef he3en. 

feldef on rugge r' 

rfe3e Rom-leoden. 

Heo ferden alle nihte :^ 

neodliche fwi^e. 


MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

And he cleo.... Sextorius r' 

,of Libie he was king and dux. 

he fende after Euander :' 

|>at of Babylone was come J>ar. 

he cleopede to ]?an senaturs t' 

Balten Catel and Cariu.s. 

|7es weren alle kinebore t' 

and .... weren alle icore. 

fwi)?e to riden :f 

and Petriuf aredden. 

And hii an hi3igge :f 

for]; 3am iwende. 

3am ladde twealf cnihtes f 

of |nin ilke loiide. 

}?at fwi|?e war weren :' 

and ]?e weyes cou]?e. 

po ride Romleode :f 

rufede wepne. 

fetten an hire h . . edes :' 

he3e hire healmes. 


. den al niht :' 

Sextorius, of Lybia he was king, 'of Turkey [and] duke ; he sent after 
Evander, who from Babylon was come there ; he called to the Senators 
Bal, Catel [and] Carrius, — these were all of royal birth, and these were all 
chosen, — promptly to ride, and to liberate Petreius. *Anon as it was even 
[And they in haste] forth they marched ; twelve [knights] them led of the 
^people [same land], that were exceeding wary, and knew the ways. When 
the Rome-folk rode, resounded 'burnies [weapons] ; they set on [their] heads 
[their] high helms ; ' shields on their backs, — the valiant Rome-folk.' They 



^ Petreiun, pr. m. 



[v. 26924— 2C947.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A, ix. 

]7et heo comcn in ]?e wai i 
j^a in to Parife lei. [c. 2.] 

)?a weoren heo biuoren i 
and Bruttef biaften. 
Ah wale ]7at hit nufte "i 
Cador |?e kene. 
}?at }?a Rom-leoden i 
he5 for-riden hafueden. 
Heo come in senne ^^^.lde ":! 
on aenne fvvi^e faire ftude. 
in ane dale deope i 
di3elen bihseluef. 
fweoren heora bitwsenen :' 
J>at ]?er heo wolden kepen. 
per heo leien ftille ^ 
ane lutle ftunde. 
& hit agon dai3en "! 
and deor gunnen wa3e3en. 
pa come ArSuref men r^ 
quecchen aft ftreten. 
riht l^ene ilke waei i 
}>er |?e o^er nerde Ifei. 
heo riden f inginge r' 
fegges weoren blide^ 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

I^at hii come in ];an way ^ 

|?at touward ..rif lay. 

\o weren hii bi-vore r' 

and Bruttus bi-hinde. 

Ac wala wo )?at hit nufte r' 

Cador \q kene. 

]?at ]?e Rom-leode r' 

3am for-ride liadde. 

Hii comen in one wode "^ 
10 in one wel faire ftude. 

in one dale deope i' 

di3ele bi-halues. 

and feide 3am bi-twine :' 

l^at ]?ar hii wolde akepe. 

pare hi le3en ftille ^ 

one lutele ftunde. 

and hit gan to da3e3e :' 

and ]?e deor to pleoye. 

pocomen Arthuref men :'[f. 126''. c. 
20 fafte in J^an weye. 

riht )?ane ilke way i 

.ar J?e o|?er ferde lay. 

hii fingende :' 

]?e cnihtes weren bolde. 


marched all night, exceedingly fast, until they came in the way that *into 
[toward] Paris lay; then were they before, and the Britons behind. But 
alas ! that Cador the keen knew it not, that the Rome-folk had hefore-rode 
them ! They came in a wood, in a spot 'exceeding [well] fair, in a deep 
dale, dark on the sides ; ^they swore [and said] between them, that there 
they would engage. There they lay still a little while ; and it gan to dawn, 
and [the] beasts ' gan ' to stir [l)lay] . Then came Arthurs men *ad- 
vancing by [fast in the] way, right the same way where the other host lav ; 
they rode singing, — [the] "men [knights] were 'blithe [bold]! Neverthe- 

\m& ? 

[v. 2G948— 26969.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

Neo]?elef Cador wef j^er r' 

fwi^e wis & fwi^e war. 

he and Borel j^e eorl riche :' 

bu3en heo to-gaederef. 

& nomen heom bitweonen :^ 

fif hundred cnihtef. 

and biuoren wenden "i 

iwepnede kempen. 

Richer and Beduer i 

wenden heom bafte |?er. lo 

and ]?a cnihtef fereden f" 

]m heo iuogen hafden. 

Petreium and hif iueren "i 

j?a iwunne weoren. 

pa heo comen riden "i 

uppe Rom-leoden. [f. I58.c. i.] 

& Rom-leoden rsefden to i 

mid rfe3ere ftrengSen. 

and fmiten a ]?an Brutten "i 

mid fwiSe bitele'* dutef. 20 

breken Bruttene trume :' 

bahi wef on folke. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

No|?eles Cador was |?ar :' 
fwi]?e ' and fwij^e war. 
he and Borel l^e riche r' 
wende 3am to-gadere ]>ar. 
and nemen heom to honde i 
fiftene hundred cnihtes. 
and bi-vore' 
iwepnid under fealde. 
Richer and Beduer :^ 
wende 3am bi-hinde |'ar. 
and |?e cnihtes ladde r' 
f'at hii ifunde^ hadde. 
Petrius and his iuere "^ 
]7at inome were, 
po hii come ride r' 
vppe Romleode. 

and hii 3am to-reafde r' 


and . . . te to |?an Bru . . . . 
... hire bitere dun... 

...u ]7ar was riue. 

less Cador was there, most wise and most wary ; he and Borel the ' earl ' 
rich, advanced them together [there], and took between them five [them 
in hand fifteen] hundred knights, and marched before, weaponed *cham- 
pions [under shield] . Richer and Beduer came behind them there, and led 
the knights, whom they had captured, Petreius and his companions, who 
were taken. Then came they riding upon the Rome-folk ; and 'the Rome- 
folk [they] rushed towards them 'with fierce strength,' and smote on the 
Britons with 'exceeding [their] bitter blows ; ' brake the Britons ranks,' — 

1 fwij^e wis 

^ ji line seems to be omitted. 

' ifonge.' 
* bitere? 



[v. 26970—26992.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

]>e wude braftlieii gon :! 
beornef ' })er feolle. 

Bruttef heom wiS-ftoden r' iif 3eam wi|>-ftode i! 

and ftaercliche heom weoreden. and ftarcliche ^ani weorede. 

pat iherde Richer :! pat ihorde Richer :! 

& |7e eorl Beduer. and J>e eorl Beduer. 

hu heore iueren r' hou hire iueres :! 

lieom bouoren^ fuhten. 3am bi-vore fohte. 

Petreiun heo nomen :! Petrius hii nemen r' 

& heore inume alien. 10 and his iveref alle. 

and mid J^reo hudred'' f\yeinen :' and mid J^reo hundred fweynef :' 

in to wude fenden. 3am to wode fende. 

And heom feolue fufden r' And hii 3am feolue wende r' 

to-^yard heore ifaeren. touward hire i-veref. 

and fmiten a Ro-leoden r' and fmote on Romleode :! 

mid ra3ere ftrengSen. mid re3ere ftreng]7e. 

}?er wef moni dunt i3euen ^ }?ar was mani dunt i3eue :! 

and moni mon \qv wef ifla3en. and many man a-falled. 

pa under38et Euander r' po onder-3eat Euander r' 

J?e he^ene king wef fwi^Se war. 20 |?e heaj^ene khig J^ar. [c.2.] 

J?at heore uolc gon waxen :' gan wex r' 

and Bruttef gunnen wonien. wanien. 

and bu3en heom to-fomne r' 

mischief was among the folk [there was rife] — ' the wood gan resound, 
warriors there fell ! ' The Britons withstood them, and strongly defended 
thevciselves . Richer heard that, and the earl Beduer, how their comrades 
before them fought. Petreius they took, and all 'their prisoners [his com- 
panions] , and with three hundred swains sent [them] ' in 'to the wood. And 
[they] themselves advanced toward their comrades, and smote on the Rome- 
folk with fierce strength ; there was many a blow given, and many a man 
there was slain [felled] . Tlien perceived Evander, \vho was a [the] heathen 
king most wary [there], that their folk gan wax, and the Britons gan wane ; 

^ beoncf. pr. m. 

biuoren ? 

' R. hundred. 

[v. 26993— 27015.] LAjAMONS BRUT. 75 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

his cnilitef felefte. 

and uuenon pan Brutten :f 

fwulc heo heom woldeii abiten 

Bi'iittef wokeden j^a r' 

& heore wes |?at wurfe. [c 2.] 

lieo flo3en heo nomen r' 

al |?at heo neh com. \ 

Wa wef Brutten l^ere r' 

bute ArSure. 

heore hele' wef to lutel |?ere r' lo 

at he^ere neode. 

per wef Borel (>f-fla3en :' Borei. 

and idon of lif-da^en. 

Euander king bine aqualde :f Euan[der.^ 

mid bi^ere his crafte. 

and l^reo Bruttef eke :f ... Bruttus . . . 

he3e men iborene. . 

per ifla3e weoren :f 

];reo hundred of heore iueren. J'reo h hire ivere. 

and monie quike nomen t" 20 and man nemen :^ 

& narwe heo ibuden. and fafte he., bunden. 

}'a n^ten heo godne raed nanne t' ]>o hii nuften :f 

for alle heo wenden beon dede. read godne. 

and his best knights approached them together, and advanced upon the 
Britons, as if they would them bite. The Britons then were weakened, 
and theirs was the worse ; they (the Romans) slew, they took all that they 
came nigh. Woe was there to ^Ae Britons, without Arthur! Their remedy 
was too little there, at their great need. T'here was Borel slain, and de- 
prived of life -day. Evander the king him killed with his wicked craftTancP" 
three Britons eke, high men horn. There were slain three hundred of their 
'companions ; and many thet/ took alive, and fast them bound ; — then 
knew they not any good counsel, 'for they all weened to he dead; ' never- 

' heJ, pr. m. 


76 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 27016—27038.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xtii. 

neoJ>elef heo fuhten r^ no]7e... hii fohten r' 

fwa ohtliche fwa heo malite. fo hahtl hii mihten. 

pa wef ut ifaren t' J?o waf ... .wend r' 

from Ar^uref ferden. fram Arthur de. 

]?8e king of Peytouwe r' \>e king of P 

har mon iblowe. .... man iblowe. 
Guitard he hehte :' 
Gafcune he ahte. 

he haefde to iueren :' h i-vere t' 

fif hundred rideren. lo fif hundred rideres. 

])veo hudred fcuhten r' |?reo hundred fcuttes r' 

kene men to uehten. kene men to fihte. 

and feouen hudred auoten :f and foue hundred a fote t' 

]>a. fufe weore to harmen. ]?at vvilde were to harme. 

Heo weoren ifaren into ]?anlonder'hii wende afor.ged in ]^at lond:' 

fodder to biwinnen. for to feche^ mete hom. 

fleij'er uodder and mete :f 

to lasden to heore ferde. 

pa hiden heo iherde :' pane cry hii of-horde t' 

of |;an Rom-leoden. [f. iss^.c. i.] of f'an Romleode. 

lieore dede heo bi-lafden :' 21 hire pu... hii bi-lefde :' [f.] 

and l^idervvard gunen li^en. and J'idc.ard gonne ride. 

ftiS imodede men & swifte :f 

thelcss they fought as bravely as they might. Then was (had) out marched 
from Arthurs host the king of Poitou, hardy man renowned ; ' Guitard he 
bight ; Gascony he possessed'; he had for companions five hundred riders, 
three hundred archers, keen men to fight, and seven hundred on foot 
that were ^prompt [wild] for harm. They were (had) gone in 'to' the 
land 'to obtain fodder [for to fetch meat home], ' both fodder and meat, to 
carry to their host.' The 'clamor [cry] they heard of the Rome-folk ; their 
deeds they rebnquished, and thitherward gan ride ' the strong-mooded 

feche ? 

[v. 27039— 27063.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

flau)?e bidffiled. 
|>at heo conien fone r 
an neoufte p»an fehte. 
Guitard and hif cnihteff' 
f'er riht for^ rihtef. 
igrippen heore fceldeff 
swi^e balde cnihtef. 
and alle \q fcutten r' 
fcuuen heom bifidef. 
and )?a men auoten ^ 
to gunne fufen. 
and alle fomed fniiten on i 
mid fniarten heore dute. 
At }>an uorme fmoellen r' 
Romanifce veoUen. 
fiftene hundred :' 
folden to grunden. 
J^er wes iflae3en Euander "! 
\t king wef ful fturne £er. 
Catelluf of Rome "i 
forjaet hif domef J^aere. 
p<e aftalden j^er flem i 
l^at fer fta^el heolde. 
]7a ruggef to-wenden i 
& flu3en Rom-leoden. 


MS. Cott. Otho, C. xni. 

J>at .ii come fone ^' 

ane \?a\ fihte. 

Gwitard and his cnihtes :^ 

]?ar anon for|? 

igr re fcealdefr 


..ftene hun.... 
.... to ... grunde. 
]?.. was iflawe Euander:^ 
... king was wel fteorne. 
20 Catellus of Rome i 
for3e.. ]7are his domes. 

po tome . . hii }>e rugges r' 
and flo3en riht fwij^e. 


men and swift, of sloth devoid,' until they came soon near to the fight. 
Guitard and his knights there 'right [anon] forth-right grasped their 
shields, knights most bold ; and all the archers pressed them beside ; and 
the men on foot gan advance ; and all together they on smote, with their 
smart blows. At the first onset the Romanish men feU ; fifteen hundred to 
the ground ; there was slain Evander, who was 'ere' king *full [well] stern ; 
Catellus of Rome forgot there his decrees ! Then ' made they there flight, 
who ere held conflict'; *the Rome-folk [they] turned the backs, and fled 

78 LA3AMONS BRUT. [v. 27064— 27086.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

Bruttef heom after bu3en t' and Bruttus 3ain after :f 

& mid baluwe heom igraetten, and mid balw. 3am grette. 

and fvva monie heo ]>ev nomen :! and fo man., j^ar flowen :' 

and fwa monie heo j?er flo3en. and fo man., j^ar nome. 

]?at no mihte Bruttene uerde :' J?at ne mihte Bruttus r' 

bi-ueolen no na^ mare. bi-valen no m... 

And ]?a Romanifce men:' And 'pe Romaniffe me. 

J>e ]>er at-faren mihten. [c.2.] ]?at at-flowen were, 

at-arnede ful fone t' vvel fone :' 

to ];a kaifere. 10 to )>an cayfe.. of Rome, 

and talden him tidende r' and tolde him tydinge r' 

of ArSure ]?an kinge. of Arthur ]>an kinge. 

for heo wenden to foSe i' for hii wende to fo]>e :' 

];at ArSur J^ider comen. ]7at hit Arthur were. 

]?er wes auared fwiSe r' ]7o was aferde fwi]^e r' 

])e kaifere & hif ferde. ];e cayf ferde. 

pe Bruttes iria3e hafden :' s if hiwe hadde t' 

]?at heom fel ]7uhte. m god |?ohte. 

a3einward heo bu3en J?a :' a^en wende :f 

mid baldere bijete. 20 mid baldere bi-3eate. 

and to ]?an ftude wenden a3ffiin :f and to ]?an ftude wende a3ein :'[c.2.] 

per ];at feht hafde ibeon. par pat fiht hadde ibeon. 

and burede pa dede :f and burede pe deade r" 

[right quickly] . [And] the Britons ' pursued ' after them, and greeted them 
with mischief; and so many there 'they' took, and so many there 'they' slew, 
that the Britons ' host' might not fell any more ! And the Ilomanish men, that 
*there might escape [were fled], rode 'full [well] soontothe emperor [of Rome], 
andtold him tiding of Arthur the king; — for they weened in sooth, that Arthur 
'thither were come [it were] ; then was the emperor and his host greatly 
afraid, whom the Britons had slain, — that to them seemed good. Backward 
they (the Britons) ' then ' went, with hold booty, and came again to the 
place where the fight had been, and buried the dead, ' and ' the alive [they] 

Siiperjiuous ? 

[Y. 27087— 27109.] LA3AM0NS BRUT. 79 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott, Otho, C. xiii. 

and ]?a quike gunnen forS leden. ]>e cwike i^ gonne for)? leade. 

And fenden after Petreiun t* And fuj^J^e after r' 

]>se heo asr nomen. j^at hii raj?er ne... 

& after hif iueren r' ... after ..s ivere r' 

]78e ser inumen weoren. d hini .... 

and fenden heo alle fuliwifr' ohte :^ 

into ]>agre bur3e of Parif. to pan 

and I'reo caftles fulden :! and |? 

and fafte heoni biclufden. 

after Ar^uref hefte ^ lo Arthu 

a^eleft kingen. re kinge. 

Alle Brut-leoden r' de r' 

luueden ArSuren. of Arthur 

alle heom ftod him geie to i' 
^ wuneden a |?an asrde. 

fwa dudfe |?an kaifere :f ... dude j^an 

of .ErSur he hafde muchele kare. 

and alle Rom-leoden :' ... al his Roma re r' 

of ArSure weoren a-faerde. 

pa wasf mid foSe ifunde :f 20 pat was fo}^ 

pat Meerlin faeide whilen. . .t Merlyn faide 

l^at fculden for Ardure V[f.i59.c. i.]]?at folde for Arthure r' 

Rome ifullen afure. ...e alle fare. 

gan forth lead. And ^they sent [then tvent'\ after Petreius, whom they previ- 
ously captured, and after his companions, that were previously taken, and 
*sent [brought] them all full truly ' in 'to the burgh of Paris ; and filled 
three castles, and fast them inclosed, after Arthurs command, noblest [of 
all] kings. All the Britons "loved Arthur [of Arthur had dread] ; ' to all 
of them stood dread of him, that dwelt in the land'; so did it to the em- 
peror, ' of Arthur he had mickle care ; ' and all ^the Rome-folk of Arthur 
were afraid [his Romanish host] . "Then [That] was ' it in ' sooth found, 
wha t Merlin whilom said, that Rome should for Arthur fall in fire (}), and the 

^ tii ? : B, ArSure. 



[v. 27110—27133.] 

MS. Cotl. Calig. A. ix. 

aiul j/a wal of ftane r' 

ffkien and fallen. 

paf ilke tacnige^ fculde beon :' 

of Lucef J?an kfEifertMi. 

& of |?an fenature i 

Ya. mid him com of Rome. 

and of J>an feolue wifen "i 

|7ae ]7er gunnen refen. 

]7at Merlin i furn da3en feide "i 

al heo hit funden |?ere. lo 

fwa heo duden sere :^ 

and seo^^en wel iwhare. 

ger Ar^ur iboren weore ^ 

Merlin al hit bodede. 

pe kaifere iherde fuggen i 

foSere worden. 

hu hif men weore inunen^ i 

and hu hif folc aec of-fla3en. 

pa weore ihe hif ferde '^. 

feole valde for3e. 20 

summe msenden heore freond r* 

fumme j^rsetteden heore ueond. 

summe bonneden wepnen :! 

balu heom wes jeue^e. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

and .. ..lies of ftone:' 
cwak.. ..d falle. 

peos ilke de beon ^ 

of Luccf l^an ...ser. 

and of ]?an senaturs of Rome i 

)?at mid him J?ider come. 

I^at Merlyn .aide in vorne da3e:' 
al hii ... ifunde J>are. 

so de eare:^ 

and suj^l^e wel ..are. 

ear Arthur ib . . were i 

al his hit bode.. 

pe cayfer ihorde fegge i 

fo...e wordes. 

hou his men were inome r' 

and eake i-flawe. 

po were in his ferde i 

falefold forewe. 

somme mende hire frend i 

fomme ]?rettede hire feond. 

walls of stone quake and fall. This same token should be of Luces the 
emperor, and of the Senators [of Rome], who with him came *from Rome 
[thither] ; ' and in the same wise, they there gan fall ;' what Merlin in fore- 
days said, all they it found there, as they did ere, and subsequently well 
evirywhere ; ere Arthur were born, 'Merlin it all [all it is] predicted. The 
emperor heard say sooth words, how his men were taken, and ' how his folk 
was ' eke slain. Then were in his army manyfold sorrows ; some lamented 
their friends ; some threatened their enemies ; 'some got ready ?Ae/r weapons, 

' tacninge? 

It. iiiuinen. 

[v. 27134— 271 'jS.I 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

pa ifeh Luces r' 

■|3 latere him ilimped vvaef. 

for aelche daei he lofede r' 

of hif leod-folke. 

ah he herm iuredder 

hif he3e men he lofede. 

He iwfer^ ifered j^a r 

wiinder ane fwi^e. 

and nom him to raede i' 

& to fom rune. 

]?at he wolde to ^Euft :' 

mid alle hif iuerde. 



forS bi Lengres he wolde uare :' 

of ArSure he hafde muchele kare. 

Ar^ur hafde hif hauwaref :^ 

an hirede j^af kaiferef. 

and fone duden him to witen :f 

whuder he wolde wenden. 

ArSur lette fone r' 

fomnien hif ferde. 20 

stilleliche bi nihte t^ 

hif cnihtes felefte. 

and for^ )?e king wede r' 

mid fele hif folke. 

An his riht honde :' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xTii. 

po ifeh Luces :' [f. 127". c. 1 .] 

];at lu]?er him bi-falle was. 
for eche day he lefede :' 
of his leod-folke. 

. . he iwarj* afere . . t' 
wonderliche fwi|;e. 
..d nam him to reade:' 


j'at he Aufte :f 

m.. alle his 

«*ll/ L/C •••• 1 vJo • • • • 

de ]>n 

... fone dude h 

..der he wold 

..thur lette .... 



... no man hit nuft. 

]>G king wende :^ 

his folke. 

On nder' 

— mischief was given to them ! ' Tlien saw Luces, that evil was befallen 
to him, for each day he lost of his people ; ' but be the barm felt, bis noble 
men be lost.' He became then afraid wondrously much, and betook bim 
to counsel and to some communing, that be would march to Aust, with all 
bis host ; forth by Lengres be would proceed, — of Arthur he bad mickle 
care ! Arthur bad bis spies in the army of the emperor, and they soon 
caused bim to know whither he (the emperor) would go. Arthur caused 
soon bis host to be assembled, stilly by night Miis best knights [that no man 
should it know] ; and forth the king marched, witb bis good folk. On bis 




[v. 27159—27181.] 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

lie lette Lengref ftonde. 
and i ]) waci biforen ferdc t' 
]>e Liicef faren wolde. 
pa he com in ane dale :f 
vndcr ane dune. 
|>er he go at-ftonden :' 
kenneft aire kigen. 
pat dale if mid fo'Se :' 
Sosie. Sofie ihaten. 

Ar^m' per adii lihte :' 
and hffihte al hif duje^c. 

grap;Sien heom to fihte :' 

fwa fcolden cnihtef ohte. 

•p Avhenne Rom-leoden ^ 

per comen riden. 

pat heo uengen heom on r" 

swa ohte cnihtes fculden don 

AUe pa fweinef :^ 

& pa unwraerre ' peinef. 

& of pan fmale uolke :^ 

feole pufunde. 


MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

he lette Len de. 

In pane way b rde i^ 

pat Luces come ..Ide. 
po he com in one dale :! 
vnder one doune. 
par he gan at-ftonde :! 
...neft aire kinge. 
pse dal. his mid fope:' 
Sofie iho.. 
Arthur par adun li... 

an. hehte alle his en 

pat hii an hi3eng \f 

...en hire wepne. 

and greipede 3am to filite :' 

fo foldc cnihtes ohte. 

pat wane Romleode :^ 

pare come ride. 

pat hii fette 3am on :! 

afe gode cnilites folde don. 

Alle pe swenes r' 

and pe ..ftrange^ poines. 

•and of pan fmale folke :! [c.2.] 

fale pou..ndes. 

right hand he let Lengres stand, ' and ' proceeded forward in the way that 
Luces would *pass [come] . When he came in a dale, under a down, there hq 
gan halt, keenest of all kings ; — the dale is in sooth named Sosie. Arthur 
there alighted down, and ordered all his people, [that they in haste should 
get ready their weapons, and] prepare them to fight, as hrave knights 
should ; so that when the Rome-folk there should come riding, that thejri 
should 'attack [set on] them, as 'brave [good] knights should do. All the 
swains, and the impotent thanes, and of the small (base) folk many thou- 

vnwrasfte ? 

^ i?, onftrange. 

[v. 27182—27205.] LA3AMONS BRUT. 83 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

]7C king heom fette in ane hulle :' |^e king he.. ..tte vp on an hulle ." 

mid feole here-marken. [f. iso^c i.].id mony penfiles. 

)^at he dude for ^epfcipe :' ])i\.t he dude for 3eapfipe :' 

]>er of he 3elpen J^ohte. j^r of he 3elpe \> 

al fwa ivvar^ feo'S^e :f 

}?er after ful fone. 

ArSur ten )nifend noni :! 

of a^clen hif cnihten. 

fende a riht honde :f 

mid raue bihonge. 10 bi-honge. 

he lette o^ere ten Jjufende :' he let.. oJ»er ten ]?oufend t' 

an hif lift honde. an ... laft honde. 

ten l^ufed biuoren r* ten |^oufend ..vore:' 

ten pufend bifeften. ten j^oufend bi....e. 
mid heom^ feohien heo^ heolde r' mid him seolue he heohlt' 

sixtene |?ufund. fixtene }?oufend. 

bi-haluef he fede r" bi-halues he fende r' 

in to ane vvude hende. in to an wode hende. 

seouentene j/ufed i' fceouentcne ]?oufcnd :'' 

felere cnihten. 20 bohlere cnihtes. 

wel iwepnede men i' wel iwepnede men :f 

]>ene wude to bi-witte3en. j^ane wode to v/itie. 

])ixt heo mihte ]?ider uare 'J |7at hii mihte ]?ider fare if 

^if him neod weore. ^ef ... neod were. 

sands, the king set them [up] on a hill, ' with many standards'; — that he 
did for stratagem ; thereof he thought to boast, as it afterwards happened, 
thereafter full soon. Arthur took ten thousand of his noble knights, and 
sent on the right hand, clad in armor ; he caused other ten thous and to 
march on his left hand ; ten thousand before ; ten thousand behind ; with 
himself he held sixteen thousand ; aside he sent into a fair wood seven- 
teen tliiiu*and 'good [bold] knights, well weaponed men, the wood to 
guard, so that they might fare thither, if to liim were need. Then was of 

» him? 


G 2 



[v. 2720G— 27227.] 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

pa wes inne Glouceftre r' 
an eorl mid j^an bezfte. 
[Mor]ui^. MorulS wef ihate t' 
mon fwi^e kene. 
him he bi-tahte :' 
l^ene wude ik, |?a ferde. 
And 3if hit ilimpe-S r 
fwa wule ]>e liuiede godd. 
I^at heo ouer-cume beon i:^ 
and biginnen to fleo. 
fetteS heoni after r' 
mid alien eeouwer mahten. 
and al ]>a.t -^e of- take ma3e :f 
doh hit of lif-dajen. 
\>d uatte & ]7a lene :f 
J?a riche and |?a bene. 
For no beo in nau nare leode^ r' 
no in none leode. [c. 2.] 

cnihtef al fwa fele r' 
fwa beo^ mid me feolue. 
cniiitef al fwa raeje :' 
cnihtef al fwa riche. 


MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

po was . . . Glouceftre :' 

on eorl mid j^an befte. 

Morewi]^ was . . .te r' 

man fwi}>e kene. 

.im he bi-tahte t' 

J^ane wode and |?ane ferde. 

par 3ef hit bi-valle|? :f 

afe god him seolf haue|> idiht. 

]?at hii ouer-come beone :^ 

and fette to fleonde. 

wende]? ^eom . . ter :' 

mid alle ^ure mihte. 

and al f-take maye:' 

|?a fatte and 

]>e riche and ]>e he.. 

For ne beop* in none londe :^ 

. . in nauere [f. 12s. c. ].] 

d ml 


Gloucester an earl with the best, Moruith /«ewas named, a man exceeding 
keen ; to him he committed the wood and the host. — " 'And [There] if it 
befalleth, as 'the living God will [God himself hath appointed], that they 
be overcome, and 'begin [set] to flee ; pursue ye after them, with all your 
might, and all that ye may overtake, deprive it of life-day ; the fat and 
the lean, the rich and the poor. For in 'never any [no] land, nor in [ever] 1 
any nation are knights all so good as are with myself; knights all so brave, ! 

' Thin line is written on an erasure, and the one ivhich follows has been struck out 
by a seco)id hand, hut is required to complete the distich. The cause of error is the 
reju'l it ion of the word leode, for ivhich probably we should read j-codc in the first\ 

[v. 27228—27252.] LA^AMONS BRUT. 85 

MS. Cott. Ccalig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

cnihtcs al fvva ftronge .-^ ....tef 

in nauer aiie londe. e no 

3e beolS under crifte i 

cnihten aire kenneft. 

and ich asm rihcheft aire kinge i 

vndcr gode feolue. 

Ado we wel paf dede i 

I godd uf wel fpede. 

Cnihtef J>a andfwarede i 

ftilleliche under lufte. lo 

AUe we fcullen wel don "! 

and alle we fcullen to-uon. 

nixing wur^e j?e cniht:' 

]?e ne cu^e hif mahten her riht 

pa faende heo a ba fiden ^ 

al f'a men auoten. 

p'a lette he fette up ]7ene drake f 

heremserke unimake. 

bi-tffihte hine ane kinge i 

J^e wel hine cu^e halde. 20 

Angel kinge of Scotlonde "! 

]>a uormefte uerde heold an honde 

Cador |>e eorl of Cornwaille i ... eorl .... 

];a uerde heold baften. had 

Bof hafde ane i de one i 

knights all so powerful, knights all so strong, in ever any land ! Ye are 
under Christ knights keenest of all ; and I am mightiest of all kings under 
God himseli. Do we well this deed; God us well speed ! " The knights 
then answered, stilly under heaven : " All we shall well do, and all we 
shall undertake ; nithing be the knight, that sheweth not his might here 
right ! " Then sent they on both sides, all the men on foot ; then caused he 
the Dragon to be set up, the matchless standard ; delivered it to a king who 
well could it hold. Angel, king of Scotland, held in hand (commanded) 
the foremost troop ; Cador, the earl of Cornwall, held the troop behind ; 

86 LA3AM0NS BllUT. [v. 27253-27275.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. , 

]>e eorl of Oxon-uorde. tie. i 

pe eorl of Ch;t^ftre Gerin :' pe aryn r^ j 

|7a ueor^e uerde heold mid him. ]> de mid him. j 

pa uerden uppen ]>eve dune :' pe ferde .... ]>iiy doune :' | 

lieold Efcil kig |;e' Deiiifce. heold ])e ki.. of Denemarche. j 

Lot heold ]fa. ane :f Loth h . aid }>ar one :' 

]>e leof waf |7an kinge. [f. ico.c. i.] pat leof was j^an kinge. 

Howel of Brutaine :f Howel of Brutayne t' j 

heold ane o^ere. . . held an o|?er. | 

Wahvain ]>e kene f' lo Waweyn .. ..ner j 

\vef bi ]?a kinge. was bi |>an kinge. ] 

Kai wufte ane rf ... awifte one :' 

ftiward wfef |7af kingef. stiward was j^e- kinges. 

Bediier ane o^er t' Beduer . . . of>er t' \ 

]?e wef }?ef kingef birle. ]^at was j^e kingef borle. I 

pe eorl of Flandref Howeldin :f pe eorl of Flandres Holdeyn if [c. 2.] ! 

ane uerde hefde mid him. [card'^ r^ one ferde ladde mid him. 1 
Ane muchcle uerde hefde Gui- One mochele ferde'* Gwitard t' 

])c king of Gafcunnes terd. king of Gafcoyne. i 

Wigein eorl of Leiceftre :f 20 Wygein eorl of Leyceftre :f j 

and Jonatan eorl of Dorcheftre. . . . Jonathas eorl of Dorcheftre. • 

hco wuften ]?a twa uerde :f . .i wifte j)e tweye ferdes r' j 

ye ])ei' weoren auoten. ]?at |>ar weren a fote. 


Beof had one, the earl of Oxford ; the earl of Chester, Gerin, the fourthi 
troop held with him. The force upon the down held ^scil, king of Den-j 
mark. Lot held the one, who was dear to the king ; Howel of Britannyj 
held another. Walwain the keen was by the king. Kay commanded one, 
who was steward of the king; Beduer another, who was the kings cup- 
bearer. The carl of Flanders, Howeldin, 'had [led] a ti-oop with him. A 
mickle troop had Gwitard, ' the ' king of Gascony ' land '. Wigein, earl of 
Leicester, and Jonatlias, earl of Dorchester, they commanded the two troopd 
that there were on foot. The earl of Chester, Cursaleyn, and the carl of 

'of? ^ Jcs? 3 ij. Guitard. » Icrdchadde? i 

[v. 27276— 27201.1 LA3AM0NS BRUT. 87 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

pe eorl of Chaftre Curfelein :f ]7e eorl . . Ceftre Curfiilcyn :' 

and eorl of Babe |?e hehte Urgein. and ]ye of Ba|;e Vrgeyn. 

Ho^ bi-wuftcn ba ]>a ucrden :' liii bi- j^are ferdes r" 

|>a weoren ]?aer auoten^. ]mt were ... bi-halues. 

J^eof fculde a twa haluen t' |?at folde a two 

haldeii to |?an uehte. holden to fihte. 

to ]/iffen twam eorlen:^ to eic eorles:' 

):'a ohte cnihtef weoren. j^at ohte 

hafden ArSur treou^e :f . . Arthur hii 

\>c eorlef weoren treowe. lo . .^ . . . . hire 

pa weoren alle ]?a uerden ifette r' e ]?e 

alfe ArcSur fel jndite. wille. 

|>a cleopede him to r' |?o ur t' 

]:»e king of Brutaine. 

hif red3iuen alle t' his read 

|?a raei3eft weoren to dome. 

& J'uf feide Ar^ur anan r' and )?us faide 

to aSelen his monnen. to his gode 

Hercne^ nu touwardef me^ r' ...cne]^ nou toward .. 

mine winef deore. 20 .... cnihtes deore. 

ireefed ^e habbeo^ tweien r' [c. 2.] hi- habbe]? twie:' 

to Romanif monnen. to cnihtef. 

Bath, ' who hight ' Urgein, they commaaded both the troops that were 
there beside ; these should on two sides advance to the fight, with these 
two earls, that brave knights were ; — Arthur had troth the earls were true*. 
When all the troops were set 'as Arthur thought good Softer his will] , then 
called to him 'the king of Britain [Arthur] all his councillors, ' that were 
skilfullest in judgement ' ; and thus said Arthur anon to his 'noble [good] 
men : " Hearken now towards me, my dear 'friends [knights] ; ye have twice 
attacked the Romanish 'men [knights] , and twice they are overcome, and 

^ heo ? ^ bi-halues ? ^ Interlined. 

* The second text appears to vary, but is too much injured to be restored. 

8S LA^AMONS BRUT. [v. 27298-27321.] 

MS, Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS, Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

and twien heo beoS oucr-cumcn i and twie ... beo)? ouer-comc :' 
and iflajen and inumen. and ifla.e and inonie. 

for heo al mid wronge i for he^ al mid wronge "i 

wilneden of ure londe. Avilnejp of oure 

and min heorte fei^ me "i and min heorte fai)^ .... 

jjurh ure drihte hehne. [men "i mid help of oure drihte. 
}^at 3et heo fcuUen beon ouercu- ]7at 3et hii foUe beon oner-come i 
ba^e iflse3en and inumen. bo|?e iflawe and 

3e habbeoS ouer-cume Noreine i 3e habbe}? ouer-come Noreine ^ 
3e habbeo^ ouercume Denene. 3e habbe]^ ouer-come Denene. 
Scotlond & Irlod "i ii Scotlond and Irlond "! 

al ivvunen to eouwer heond. al a-wonne to 30ure bond. 

Normandie and France r' Normandie and France "l 

biwunnen mid fehte. bi-wonne mid fihte. 

]?reo & |?ritti kinelond i ich nou^ in mine hondr 

ich halde a mire a3ere bond. |7reo and J^ritti kinelond. [f. 128'". t. i.J 

)?£e 3e hit^ under funnen "i ]?at 36 onder fonne r' 

habbeob me biwumien. habbe]? me bi-wonne. 

And \\{ beo5 J^a for-cuSefte men r'xVnd };is beo|^ [^e forcouj^elte men "i 
of alle quike monnen. 20 of alio cwike manne. 

haeSene leode i heaj^ene houndes i 

godd heo feondeS laSe. god hii beo}^ lo|?e. 

ure drihten heo bi-laeue^ i 
and to Maliune heo tuhte^. 

slain, and captured, because they all with wrong covet our land. And my 
heart saith to me, 'through our high [with hclj^ of our] Lord, that yet they 
shall be overcome, both slain and captured. Ye have overcome Norwe- 
gians ; ye have overcome Danes ; Scotland and Ireland ye have all won to 
your hand ; Normandy and France rje have conquered with fight. Three 
and thirty kingdoms I hold in mine ' own ' hand, that ye have won for me 
under the sun ! And these are the worst men of all men alive ; heathen 
'people [hounds] ! To God they are loathsome ; ' our Lord they desert, 
and to Mahouu they draw.' And Luces, the emperor, of Gods self hath 

' liii? 2 holdc nou .' ' Superjlaous ? 

[v. 27322—27340.] LA3AMONS BRUT. 89 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

& Lucef ]>c kagifere :' And Luces ]>c caifere :f 

of gocld feolf naueb nane care, of god seolf naucj? none ca.. 

I^at hafueb to iueren :' |;at bauc}> to i-vere r' 

ha^ene hundef. 

goddef wi Sei'-iwincn :' god . . . wij^erwynnes. 

we heoni fcullen awelden. 

leggen heom to grander' we fol l^gge to gnuide t 

and uf feoluen beon ifude. an. ous seolf ifunde. 
mid drihtenef willen :' [f. Kio^c. 1.] mid ....tene wille :f 

J'e waldeb alle deden. 10 |?at wal le deades. 

pa andfwarede eorlef |;are r' po anfw les J»are r' 

AUe we beob ^arevve. .... w 

to libben and to liggen :' mid )? 

mid leouen vre kinge. ... ueft o 

pa |?af ferde wes al idibt t" was 

]?a wes hit dai-liht. liht. 

Luces at Legeref bo3ede r' and Lu test' 

& al hif Ro-leode. 

lie hehte hif men blawe :' 

hif gvddene bemen. 20 

bonnien hif ferden r' greij'cd de. 

forS he woldc ride. 

from Lengref to Aufte t Aufie. 

swa hei hif weie rihte. 

ForS gunnen riden f And for|> 

no care, who hath for companions ' heathen hounds,' Gods enemies ; we shall 
' them destroy, and ' lay them to ground, and ourselves be safe, with the 
Lords -^vill, that ruleth all deeds ! " Then answered the earls there : " All 
we are ready, to live and to lie with our 'dear [dearest] king ! " When 
this army was all prepared, then was it day-light ; [and] Luces ' at Lan- 
gres moved, and all his Rome-folk ; he commanded his men to blow his 
golden trumpets,' get [got] ready his host, '/o;- forth he would march 
from Lengres to Aust, as his way right lay.' [And] forth gan ride the 

90 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 27347— 273G9.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

Romanifce leodeii. Romaniffe leod. 

)^at heo ane mile comen r' mile come:' 

neh ArSure. iieh 

pa ihcrde Rom-lcode:' .. ihorde Romaniffe:^ 

rse3e tiSenden. tydinge. 

ife3en alle |?a dalef:' hii feh dales:' 

alle ]^a dunef. 

alle J>a hullef :' alle j^e hulles :' 

mid helmef bi]^ahte. mi. helmes blikiende. 

he3e hare-marken :! 10 

haele^ef heom heoldeii. 

sixti l^ufende r' 

praiiwen mid wide, 

fceldef blikien :! 

bm-nen fcinen. ftede. leopiiige. 

pallef gold- fa3e :' palles gold-fa . . 

gumen fwi^e fturne. cnihtes wereren' fturne. 

fteden lepen :! 

fturede ]^a eor^e. 

pc kcifer ifah j^a^ne king fare :! . . caifer ifeli j^ane king fare :' 

l^er be waf bi wude fca3e. 21 J?ar be was bi wode faye>, 

he Lucef ]?a f^eide :' Luces |?o faide :' 

]ree. laiierd of Rome. pe louerd of Rome« 

Ilomanish people, until they came a mile near to Arthur. Then heard the 
'Rome-folk [Romanish meri] hard tidings ; [they] saw all the dales, ' and 
all the downs', and all the hills 'covered [glittering] Avlth helms; 'high 
standards, warriors them held, sixty thousand waving with the wind; — shields 
glitter,' 'burnics shine [steeds leaping] ; gold-colored vests, 'men most 
[knights were] stern ; ' steeds leap, — the earth stirred ! ' The, emperor 
saw the king fare, where he was by the wood-shaw ; then said ' he ' Luces, 
the lord of Rome, and spake with his 'men [knights], with loud voice : 

' li. wcren. 

[V. 27370-27393.] LA^AMONS BRUT. 91 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. Jtiii. 

& fpac wis hif monne r' and fpac \v\]> his ciiilites r' 

lud'^'^ ftefnen. loudere ftemne. 

What beoS |?eof ut-la3en t' [c.2.] Wat beo]' ]ns vtlawes :' 
}>a]?ifne weiuf habbeoS for-iiaren.|?at l^ifne wey vs habbe|j forfarc. 

nime we ure wepnen :f nime we oure wepne :' 

& heom to wenden. and heoni to wende. 

heo fculle^ bcon if lajene r' hii folleu beon iflawe :f 

and fume quic iula3ene. dper cwic i-fl... [f—.j 

alle heo fculle beon dede :' .... hii 

mid wite fordemde. lo 

Efne ]?an worden r' 

heo iuegen heore wepnen. 

pa heo igRM'ed weoren t" 

mid gode heore wepnen. 

]7a fpac Luces fone r' 

]>se lauerd of Rome. 

Biliue we heom to f* 

alle we fcullen wel do. 

per weoren icumen mid him :' 

fif & tweti kingen. 20 

heSene uolc alle t 

]>ii heolden of Rome. 

eorlef and dukes eke if 

of aeftene weorlde. 

" What are these outlaws, that have preceded us in this way ? Take we our 
weapons, and march tve to them ; they shall be slain, and some alive flayed ; 
they all shall be dead, with torment destroyed ! " Even with the words 
they seized their weapons. When they were arrayed with their good 
weapons, then spake soon Luces, the lord of Rome : " Quickly advance 
we to them ; we all shall do well ! " There were come with him five and 
twenty kings, heathen folk all, that held of Rome, earls and eke dukes, of 
the eastern world. " Lordings," quoth Luces then, " Mahoun be gracious 

' lud, /»r. m. li. ludcre. 

92 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 27394— 27419.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C xiii, 

Laiierdingof quae^ Lucef |'a :^ 

Mahun eou beo li^e. 

3e beo^ kingef riche :^ 

& hereS into Rome. 

Rome if mi rihtc :' 

rihccheft aire bur3e. 

and ich ah haexft to beon :' 

of alle quike mone. 

3e ifeo^ her on uolden :! 

J>a ure ifan funden. 10 

heo ]?enche^ to rixlien he3e :^ 

ouer ure riche. 

halden uf for haenen :f 

heom feoluen riche ivvur^en. 

Ah we heom fcuUen forbeoden r^ 

mid baldere ftreg^en. [f. ici.c. 1.] 

for ure cun hfexft waf r' 

of alle quike monnen . 

and alle ];a lond biwinng .*^ ..d all 

yci heo on lokeden. 20 .e hii 

and into Brutlonde r' us j^'e . . . . 

ferde Juliuf }>e ftronge. rutlonde. 

and bi-won him to hondef r' 
fcole kinelondef. 

Nu wolden ure underlinggef:' onderlin... 

beon ouer uf kinggef, beon ouer ous kingcs. 

to you ! Ye are powerful kings, and obey unto Rome. Rome is my right, 
richest of all burghs ; and I ought to be highest of all men alive. Ye see 
here on the field those who are our foes ; they think to rule highly over 
our realm ; hold us for base, and themselves become rich. But we shall 
oppose them with bold strength ; for our race was highest of all men 
alive, and won all the lands that they looked on ; and Julius the strong 
marched into Britain, and won to his hands many kingdoms. Now would 
our underlings be kings over us, but they shall buy it with their bare 'backs 

[v. 27420—27444.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

ah heo hit fcuUen a-buggen :! 

mid heore bare ruggen. 

no fcullen heo nauere liSeii :^ 

a3aein to Brutale. 

Mh\e ]?an worde i 

]?a fturede ]?a uerde. 

bi }nifend & bi |7ufcde :^ 

heo l^ruggen to-fomne. 

a;lc king of hif folke :! 

jarkede ferde. 

pa hit al vvaf ifet :! 

& ferden ifemed. 

Ya weoren |;ar riht italde t" 

fulle fiftene ferden. 

twein kingef ]?ere r' 

SBuere weoren ifere. 

feouwer eorlef and a due t' 

dihte lieo to-gadere. 

and \e kseifere him feolf r' 

mid te j^ufed kcpen. 

pa gon J'at folc fturien r 

]7a eoSen ' gon to dunien. 

bemen ]?er bleowen r* 

bonneden ferden. 

hornef ^er aque^en r' 



MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiir. 

.. hii hit folle a-bugge:' 

mid hire bare lifue. 

ne follen hii neuere wende r' 

a-3en to Brutayne. 

Eafne j^an worde ^ 

]?o wend. J>e ferde. 

bi )?oufend j^oufend:' 

hii |?ronge. ..-gaderes. 
ech king of ... folke ^' 
makede his fer.. 
po hit was . . ifet :! 

at ]7e caifere [f. I29.c. 1.] 

];ar on 



eu , 



fer h 


]?at folk ft.... 

gan to dunie. 

blewen r' 

banie hire 

homes j^ar acwej'en ^ 

[lives] ; never again shall they return to Britain ! " Even with the words 
then moved the army ; by thousands and by thousands they thronged to- 
gether ; each king 'prepared [made his] host of his folk. When it was all 
formed, 'and the army appointed [at the emperors wiW] , then were there right 
told full fifteen hosts ; two kings there were ever comrades ; four earls and a 
duke disposed them together ; and the emperor by himself, with ten thousand 
champions. When the folk gan to stir, the earth gan to din ; trumpets there 
blew ; [their] hosts were arrayed ; horns there resounded with loud voice. 

^ R. eortfen. 


LA3AM0NS nnuT. 

[v. 27445— 274C8.] 

T.a Bat- 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

mid haeli3ere ftefncn. 

f ixti |?ufede r' 

bleowen to-fomne. 

Ma \qv aque^en :^ 

of Ar^uref iueren . [c 2.] 

]?ene fixti j^ufende r' 

feggef mid home. 

J7a wolcne gon to dunien :' 

\vi eo^e^ gon to biuien. 

To-fomne heo heolden i 

fwulc heouene wolde uallen. 

£erft heo lette fleon to t' 

feondliche swi^Se. 

flan al fwa |^icke :! 

fwa ]?e fnau adun ualleS. 

ftanef heo lette feoSSen :! 

fturnliche winden. 

feoS'Sen fperen chrakcdcn :' 

fceldef braftleden. 

hehncs to-helden r' 

he3e men uellen. 

burnen to-breken ^' 

blod ut 3eoten. 

ucldef falewe wurSe :' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

mid L.dere ftemne. 
anc ' fixti };oufend ^ 
bleouwen to-gadere. 
Mo |;ar acwe|7e ^ 
of Arthur his iveres. 

\q wolkne gan to buuie :^ 
]?e eor|?e gan to dunie. 
10 To-gadere hii heolden i 
afe heauene wolde falle. 
eareft hii lette fleon to r' 

flon fwi]?e ]?icke. 

ftones ]?ar after :! 
biterliche winde. 
su)'}?e sealde ..raftlyr 
fpeares ftrange craky. 
20 healmcs {^ar heolde ^ 
many men )?ar f.Ue. 
brunies ];ar breke ^ 
blod }>ar gon ^eote. 
falewede feldes ^ 

sixty thousand blew together. More there sounded of 'Arthurs [Arthur 
his] comiianlons ' than sixty thousand men with horns ; ' the welkin gan 
to Vlin [tremble], the earth gan to "tremble [din] ! Together they charged 
as if heaven would fall ! First they let fly, ' exceedingly quick ' darts 'all as 
[exceedingly] thick ' as the snow down falleth'; stones ' they let' afterwards 
sternly [thereafter bitterly] wind through the air. Then ^cracked [shivered] 
spears ; "shivered [cracked strong] spears; — helms [there] rolled; noblemen 
fell ; — burnies [there] brake ' in pieces/ blood "out flowed [there gan flow] ; 
— the fields were discolored ; standards fell ! ' Wounded knights over all 


- 7?. cortJe. 

[v. 27469—27492.] LAjAMONS BRUT. 95 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

feollen here^-niaerken. folic hire markes. 

Wondrede 3eond ]?ut wald \! 

iwundede cnihtef ouer al. 

fixti hudred );ar weoren / aji fixti hundred were f 

to-tredene mid horfen. to-treode mid |;aii ftedes. 

beoref j^er fwelten r Cnihtef |^ar afwalten r' 

blodef at-urnen. blodes vt hurnen. 

ftrashten after ftretef f vrnen in ]^an wcyes r' 

blodie ftremef. blodie ftremes. 

balii wef on uolke r' lo wo ]?ar was mid folke ^ 

l^e burft wef vniniete. ]mt fiiht was onimete. 

Swa al swa suggeS writcn r' For al fo iegge J^e writes :! 

I^ffi wite3en idihten. j^at witty men dihte. 

I^at wes |?at ]n'idde ma'ftc uiht :! j^is was ]?at ]>ridde mefte fdit i [c. -2.] 

]7e auere wef here idiiit. J^at euere here was idiht. 

\e.o at |7an lafte r' so |?at at ]7an lafte :' 

nufte nan kempe. J>ar no cniht nufte. 

whae. he fculde flaen on :! wam he folde fmite :! 

and wha he fculde fparien. i9 ne wan he folde fparie. 

for no icneou na man oSer |?ere :f for ne cnew no man o]?er :! 

for vnimete blode. [f. igp.c. i.] for onimete 

pa haef ]?at fiht of |?an ftude "^ po heaf j?at fiht . . . an ftude ^ 

|>er heo aer fuhten. j^ar hi ear ...ten. 

and bigunnen arum^e i and bi-gonne afo . . . r' 

wandered over the weald'; [and] sixty hundred 'there' were trodden to 
death by 'horses [the steeds] ! Knights there perished ; blood out ran ; — 
flowed 'by [in the] paths bloody streams ; — woe was [there] among the folk, 
— the 'harm [fight] was without bounds ! 'So [For] all as say [the] writings 
that skilful [men] made, 'that [this] was the third greatest battle that 
ever here was fought, [so] that at the last no \varrior [knight] knew ' on ' 
whom he should smite, 'and [nor] whom he should spare ; for no man 
knew other ' there,' for the quantity of blood ! Then removed the fight 
from the place where they ere fought, and they began widely to rush 

* heore. pr. m., hut o expuncted, end. m. 



[v. 27493—27517.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

raefen to-fomne. 

and neouwe ueht bi-gunen ^ t' 

narewe i|?rungen. 

J>er weoren Romleoden :f 

reouliche iladde. 

pa comen |7er kinges ]?reo r' 

of hffi^ene londe. 

of Ethipe^ wef ^e an :^ 

pe o^er wef an Aufrican. 

]?e l^ridde wef of Libie r 

of hffiSene leode. 

heo comen to ]7ere uerde :' 

a ]>ere a?ft aende. 

h |?ene fceld-trume broken ^ 

)7e Bruttef |>er heolden. 

and ana f widen ^ 

fiftene hundred. 

bakiere j^einen :' 

of Ar^uref ];eoden. 

|?a wenden Bruttes r' 

sone to ]?a ruggef. 

pa comen }>er riden ^ 

tweien eorlef kene. 

)7at waf Beduer & Kaei ^ 

Ar"Suref birle and hif ma3i. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiir. 

reafe to-gadere. 

and neuwe fiht bi-gonne r' 

narewe hi-]^ronge. 

|>ar were Romleode f 

rouliche ilad. 

po comen J»ar kinges ]?reo ^ 

of hea]:'ene londe. 

of Ethiope was |^e on t' 

]7e o])er was of Affrican. 
10 |;e ]?ridde waf of Libie :' 

of hea]?ene londe. 

hii comen to f»an ferde :! 

at ]?an eaft eande. 

and fultrome breke r' 

j^at Bruttuffe hel.e. 

and anon f.lde :! 

fiftene himdred. 

Ixddere Bruttus :! 

of Arthures ferde. 
20 |?o wenden Bruttus t' 

sone to ]7e ruggcs. 

Ac }?o com jjar ride r' 

twei eorles kene. 

|7at was Beduer and Kay :! 

Arthur his borle and his may, 

together ; and a new conflict began, narrowly contested ; — there were the 
Rome-people grievously treated ! Then came there three kings, of heathen 
land ; of Ethiopia was the one ; the second was *an African [of Africa] ; 
the third was of Lybia, of heathen land. They came to the host at the 
east end, and brake ' the ' body-of-troops that the Britons ' there ' held, 
and anon felled fifteen hundred bold 'thanes [Britons] of Arthurs 'folk 
[army] ; then the Britons turned the backs soon. But then came there 
riding two keen earls, that was, Beduer and Kay, 'Arthurs [Arthur his] 

' biginnen, pr, m. 

' Ethiope i 

[v. 27518—27540.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

heore Bruttef heo ifehjen :' 

mid broden to-hawen. 

per ivvurSen to-burften :' 

eorlef fwi^e balden. 

mid ten J^ufend cnihten :! 

haslden to }>an uihten. 

amidden ]>an ]?ninge :! 

|?er heo l^ihkeft weoren. 

and f lo3en Romleoden r' 

reouliche swi^en. lo 

& 3eod l^an uehte wenden :^ 

after heore iwillen. 

pa weoren heo to J?rifte t' 

and to ufele heom biwufte. [c. 2 

wala wa wala wa ^ 

|?at heo neoren war ]7a. 

|?at heo ne cu^en bi-witen heom 

wis heore wiSer-iwinnen. 

for heo weoren to kene t' 

& to aer wene. 20 

and to fwISe fuhten :' 

and to ueor wende. 

and fpradden to wide t 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

hire Bruttns ife3en' r' 

mid brondes to-hewe. 

par iwor]?en wrap'eft:' 

cnihtef aire boldeft. 

mid ten )7oufend cnihtes :! 

heolde to j^an fihte. 

amidde j^an j^ringe i 

]?ar hii J'eckeft were. 

and flo^en Romleode :! 

rouliche fwi|?e. 

and oueral |;an fihte wende r* ^^^ 1 j * 

after hire wille. 

po weren hii to |?rifte r^ 
.] and to vuele 3am wufte. 

wolawo wolawo r' 

J?at hii neoren war |70. 
r'jjat hii ne cou]?e bi-wittie heom .*' 

wi|? hire wi)^..-iwinne. 

for hii were to k... 

and to forre wende. 
a . . fpradde to wide r" 

cup-bearer and his relative ; their Britons tliey saw hewed in pieces 
with swords. There became ^enraged [wrathest] the *earls most bold 
[knights boldest of all], ««f/with ten thousand knights pressed to the fight, 
amid the throng, where they were thickest, and slew the Rome-folk very 
grievously ; and went over [all] the fight, after their will. Then were they 
too daring, and ruled them too evilly ; alas ! alas ! that they were not then 
wary ; that they could not guard themselves against their enemies ! For 
they were too keen, ' and too presumptuous, and fought too rashly,' and 
too ar advanced, and spread too widely over the broad conflict. Then 


' hii fe3en ? 



[v. 27541—27563.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix, 

360111! I^at feht brade. 
pa com J^e kig of Mede r' 

Boccus. }7e muchele & ]?e brade. 
heSene here-Jrihng"^ r' 
]>ev he haerm wrohte. 
he ladde to iueren :' 
twenti J>ufend ridere. 
he heold on hif honde :' 
aenne gare fwi^e ftronge. 
pene gare he uor^ ftrahte t' 
mid ftroge hif maiiie. 
and fmat j^ene eorl Beduer r' 
forn a ]?an breofte. 
]^at j>a bnrne to-barft fone :' 
biuoren and bihinde. 
a^ opened wef hif breofte :f 
]>a, blod com forS hike. 

Beduer. per feol Beduer anan :f 
deS'* uppen uolden. 
J^er wef farincffe :f 
forre^en ino3e. 
per Kai funde Beduer t' 
ded liggen him |;er. 



MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

and' ]>.. fiht brode. 

po com |?e kin. of Mede :' 

Boccus ]>e mochele. 

he hidde to iveres r' 

twenti ]?oufend rideres. 

he heold on his honde :f 

one fpere ftronge. 

pane fpere he for]^ ftrahte ^^ 

mid ftronge his mayn. 

and fmot J?an eorl Beduer :' 

a-forn nejen |?an breofte. 

I^at his brunie to-barft:' 

bi-fore and bi-hinde. 

and |>at breoft was iopenede :' 

]7at blod gan to wende. 

par ful Beduer anon :f 

dead vppe Jian grunde. 

]?ar was wowe ?' 

and foriniffe inowe. 

po Keay funde Beduer r* 

dead ligge him ]^ar. 

came the king of Media, 'the mickle and the broad [Boccus the mickle] ; 'a 
heathen chief, — there he harm wrought ' ; — he led for comjianions twenty 
thousand riders ; he held in his hand a spear ' exceeding ' strong. The 
spear he forth thrust with his strong might, and smote the earl Beduer 
before 'in [nigh] the breast, so that 'the [his] burny ' soon ' burst, before 
and behind, and 'his [the] breast was opened; the blood *came forth luke- 
tvarrn [gan to flow] . There fell Beduer anon, dead upon [the] ground ; 
there was ^misery [woe and] sorrow enow ! *There [Then] Kay found 

ouer ? 

^ here-Jring? 

3 Mi 


[v. 27564—27580.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

Sc Kai J^at lich wolde :' 
leden mid him feolue. 
mid tvventi hudred cnihten :' 
he haelde j^er a-buten. 
and feodliche feuhten :! 
& falden Rom-Ieode. 
& of Medie ])er flo3eii :' [f. 162. 
moni hundred monen. 
]nit ueht wef ftrog fwi^e t' 
and heo weoreu ]>ev to longe. 
pa com ]?er liSen :' 
a fvviSe ladlic king an. 
mid fixti j^ufed monnen r 
fele of hif Ion den. 
Setor l^e kene :' 
]>e com him from Libie. 
per ]>e king ftronge r 
wid^ Ksei him gon fehte. 
and forwundede Kai fvvi^e :' 
inne ftronge |7an fehte. 
to ]?an bare de^e t' 
reoulich wef ]ja dede. 
Hif cnihtef \>er rihte :' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xni. 

and Kay ]7at lich wolde :f 

leade mid him seolue. 

mid twenti hundred cnihtes if 

I?. .• he heold |jare aboute. 

and ftranliche fohten :' 

and falde Romleode. 
. i.]and of Medie ];ar slowen :' 

mani J'oufend mannen. 

)?at fiht was fwi)?e ftrong r' 
10 and hii weren ]?ar to longe. 

po com |?ar riden :' 

an king of mochel prude. 

mid fixti [c. 2.] 

of his owe 

ihote r' 



..]> Kay . . . . 


20 in 

.. .n ba 

was ]>e 

tes J>ar rihtt 




Beduer lie him dead there, and Kay would carry mvay the body with him- 
self ; with twenty hundred knights he approached thereabout, and strongly 
fought, and felled the Rome-folk, and slew there many thousand men of 
Media ; the fight was exceeding strong, and they were thereat long. Then 
'arrived [came riding] there a king 'most hateful [of great pride], with 
sixty thousand ' good ' men of his [own] land ; Setor 'the keen [named] , 
who came him from Lybia. There ^the [this] strong king gan him fight 
with Kay, and wounded Kay sorely in the strong fight, to the bare death, — 

' StqjprJI uous i 

witJ ? 

H li 



[v. 27587—27610.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

hine ladden of J^aii uihte. 

mid muchelere ftrengSe ^ 

\\\v\\ }>at feht ftrgehteii. 

wa wef ArSure kiiige r' 

for l^a tidige. 

paet ifeh |?e riche J'ein :' 

llidvva^elan wefihaten. 

Beduerref fufter fune ^ 

of he^e Bruttef he wef icume. 

)>at Boccus mid hif fpere ftronge :! 

Bedv hafde iftunge. ii 

wa waes hi on Hue i 

|?a hif 86 m wef an de^e. 

for he of alle monne r 

maeft hine lufede. 

He cleopede of hif cunne t^ 

cnihtef fwi^e gode. 

& of )?an aire leofefte ^ 

]?e he on Hue wufte. 

fif hundred bi tale r' 20 

fufden to-fonme. 

Riwa^SIan ]?a faeide :! 

riche mon of B'^ttene. 

Cnihtef 36 beo^ of mine cunne ^' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 
, of ]?an fihte. 

wo .as Arthur j^an king r 
for l^an ilke tyding. 
pis ifeh J?e bolde r 
RidwalJ?an ... ihote. 
Beduer his fofter fone :! 
of he3e Bruttus icome. 
]7at Boccus ]>Q ftronge :' 
Beduer hadde of-ftonge. 
wo was him . . Hue :! 
J?o he i-feh Beduer deade. 
for he of alle manne f 
moft hine louede. 
He cleopede of his cunne ^ 
cnihtef f\vi]?e gode. 

fif h . . dred bi tale :' 
wenden to fihte. 
po faide Ridwalj^an :! 
to lefue his manne. 


grievous was the deed ! His knights there right carried him from the fight ; 
'with mickle strength through the fight they pierced.' Woe was to Arthur 
[the] king for 'the [that] tiding ! 'That [Tliis] saw the Vich [bold] ' thane,' 
wJio was named Ridwathlan, *Beduers [Beduer his] sisters son, of noble 
Britons ' he was ' descended, that Boccus \vith his [the] strong ' spear ' 
had slain Beduer. Woe was to him alive, when 'his uncle was [he saw 
Beduer] dead; for he of all men most him loved. He called knights most 
good of his kindred, ' and of the dearest of all that he knew alive ' ; five 
hundred by tale advanced 'together [to the fight]. Then said Ridwathlan, 
'noble man of Britain [to his dear men] : " ' Knights, ye are of my kindred. 

[v. 27611— 27632.] LA3AMONS lillUT. 101 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C, xni. 

ciiaieS hidere to me. 

and wreke we Beduer nihi vem:f Wreke' wel Beduer:' 

Jni bezft wef of ure cune. 

]?a Buccuf hafd of-ftungen z' J^at Boccus of-sloh her. 

mid hif fpere ftrongen. 

fufe we alle to-fomne :! wende we alle to-gadere :! 

& ure ifan feoUen. and ou.. fon fallen. 

-^fne ]?an worde :' Eafne )7an worde :f 

for^ he iwende. bliue hii for]? wende. 

and alle mid him anan r' 10 

aSele hif iueren. 

and Buccuf |;ene kig icneowen r' and Boccus hii icnewe t' 

])er he waf i com pen. war he was in fihte. 

mid hif fpere and mid hif fcelde f mid his fpere and mid his feald :' 

monine king^ he aqulde^. [fone^' many cniht he leide in feld. 

Riwas^^lan braid ut hif fweord Ridwal]?an his fweord droh :f 

and hi to sweinde. and fwipte to }?an kinge. 

and fmat |?ane king a j^ene helm :' 

|?at he a twa to-ueol. 

and sec j^ere burne-hod r' 20 and fmot hine )>orh ]>e brunie-hod r' 

]7at hit at |;e to^en at-ftod. )?at hit at |?an t [f. iso.c.i.] 

and \>e he^ene king:' hea}>e 

come ye here to me, and ' avenge *we [well] Beduer, ' mine uncle, who was 
best of our race,' whom Boccus 'hath slain [slew here] 'with his strong 
spear.' Go we all together, and fell our foes ! " Even with the words *he 
[they quickly] forth pushed, 'and all his noble companion* with him anon'; 
and Boccus ' the king' [they] knew, where he was in the 'combat [fight]; 
with his spear and with his shield many a knight he 'killed [laid on the 
field]. Ridwathlan drew ' out' his sword ' soon,' and struck at 'him [the 
king], and smote 'the king on [liim through] ' the helm, so that it severed 
in two, and eke ' the burny-hood, so that it (the sword) stopt at the teeth ; 
and the heathen king fell to the ground, and his foul soul sank into hell ! 

' Wreke we ? - cniht > ^ aqualde ? 



[v. 27633—27056.] 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

hselde to grude. 

& hif fule faule :! 

feh ill to helle. 

RivvffivS Sla J>a feide :' 

raeh he waf on mode. 

Boccuf ' nu I'u hafft abohtr' 

Beduer |;ii flo3e. 

and Yx i^iule fcal to-3ere "i 

beon ]?af wurfe iuere. 

-'Efne ]?an worde :' 

fwulc hit l^e wind vveore. 

he ]?rafte to ]7an fihte i 

fwa ]?ode do^ on felde. 

}>ene he j^at duft he3e :! 

a3iue"S from |7ere eorSe. 

al fwa Riwab^lan :! [f. 1 62". c. i 

rsefde to hif feonden. 

Al heo hit f lo3en :! 

])at heo an eh comen. 

pe while )>e heo mihte walden r' 

heoren kiewurSe wepnen. 

neoiiren in al |?an fihte r 

cnihtef iiane betere. 

pe while j^at heom ilafte ^ 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiit. 


Boccus n 
Beduer .. 

I^an worde :' 

afe were. 

he l^rafte to j^an fih.. 

afe a ]?odde do]? in felde. 

wan. }>at douft he3e:' 

heue]? fram |>an grunde. 
.] al fo RidwalJ'a:' 

reafde to his feondes. 

Al hii hit of-slawen r' 

]7at hii neh come. 
20 \q wile hii miht welde r^ 

hire kiiiewor|>e wepne. 

neore in al J?an fihte ^ 

cnihtef none betere. 

\e wile Vat hit lafte :! 

• Ridwathlan then said, — cruel he was in mood,' — " Boccus, now thou hast 
bought dear, that Beduer thou slew ; ' and thy soul shall now be companion 
of the Worse ! ' " Even with the words, as ey it were the wind, he pressed to 
the fight; as [a] whirlwind doth in the field, when 'it' heaveth the dust 
high from the earth [ground], all so Ridwathlan rushed on his enemies. 
All they it slew that they came nigh, the while ' that' they might wield 
their noble weapons ; in all the fight were no knights better, the while 

' Buccuf, pr. m. 

[v. 27657— 27680.J 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xni. 

]fdt lif on heore breofte. jmt lif in hir 

Bocc^' ]?ene king heo of-flojen :' Boccus hii of-slow:^ 

and a ]>ufend of hif cnihten. J^oufend of his en.... 

J?a wes Beduer awrseke :' ]>o was Beduer a-wreke r' 

vvel mid j^an bezften. wel mid ];an befte. 

per wef an oht eorl r' par was an oht eorl :! 

ancles eunnes. Leayr was ihote. 

Leir wef ihaten r' louerd of Boloyne t 

lauerd of Buluine. cniht mid ]?an befte. 
he ifaeh i }?a fihte :' lo 
enne ueond fufen. 

]?at on admirail :' he ifeh on admirel ^ 

of Babiloine he wef eeldere. lau loyne. 

mucliel uolc he aiialde :^ moche folk r' 

uolde to grunde. folde to grunde. 

And l^e eorl ]7ut bihsedde :' 

an heorte him wef unne^e. 

he braeid an hif breofte :' 

senne fceld bradne. eald. 

and he igrap an hif hod r' 20 ... he ig 

a fper ]?at wef fwi^e ftrong. an fpere 

& hif horf mune3eden r" ..d his 

mid alle hif imaine. mid 

and \>ene admiral hitte :f ... ]7ane 



that the life [it] lasted ' them ' in their breasts. Boccus ' the king ' they 
slew, and a thousand of his knights ; then was Beduer avenged well with 
the best ! There was a brave earl, ' of noble race,' who was named Leir, 
lord of Boulogne ; he beheld ' in the fight an enemy advance, that was ' 
an admiral, of Babylon *he was prince [lord] ; much folk he felled down 
to the ground. And the earl that perceived ; in heart was to him uneasi- 
ness ; he drew to his breast a broad shield, and he grasped in his hand a 
spear that was most strong, and spurred his horse with all his main, and 
hit the admiral with a smart blow under the breast, that the burny gan to 

' Buccus, pr, tn. 



[v. 27681—27704.] 



MS. Colt. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otlio, C. xiii. 

mid fiiiferten ane dunte. ... fmorte 

viider |?ere breofte :f .nder ]>a.n breofte r" 

J;at J?a burne gon to berfte. }?.. J'e briinie gan to berfte. 

pat him ]>ev baefte t 

]7at fper jmrh raehte. j^at pe fpere )?oi'h rof. [c.2.] 

fulle ane ue^me r' [c.2.] 

I^e ueond feol to grunde. and he ful to grunde. 

pat ifah fone :f pif ifeh Getron :' 

)7eof admirale fone. |?at waf rale his fone. 

Gecron if ihate r' lo he eorlef 

and hif fpere grap ana. mid alle 

and fmat Leir \>ene eorl ftere:' and fmot hine .... 

a l^a lift fide. .. \>an lift fide. 

]?urh ut j?a heorte :' orte:^ 

\>e eorl adim halde. ]?at he 

Walwain ]7at bihedde :' Waweyn ];at 

];er he vvef on uehte. ' ... he waf in )7an fih.. 

and he hine iwra^ede :' 

wunder ane fwi^e. 

]7at ifaeh Howel :' 20 .nd Howel J>e hende :f 

haeh mon of Brutte. pat was his ivere. 

and he pider halde t mid fiftene hmulred cnihtef r' 

mid fiftene hundred monnen. hii heol.. to pan fihte. 

herde here-kenpen^ :' 

burst, so that the spear pierced through ' there behind him full a fathom ; ' 
'tlie wretch [and he] fell to the ground ! 'That [This] saw 'soon the ad- 
mirals son, who is named Gecron ; and grasped his spear anon [Getron, who 
was the admiral his son ; he advanced to the earl with all his might], and 
smote'Leir the earl [him] sore on the leftside, throughout the heart, — 'the 
earl [so that he] down fell. Walwain perceived that, where he was in the 
fight ; ' and he wrathed him wondrously much'; 'that saw Howel, noble man 
of Brittany, and he thither [and Howel the fair, wlio was his com])anion ; 
they to the tight] advanced, with fifteen hundred 'men [knights] ; ' hardy 

' kempen ? 

[v. 27705—27727-] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

mid Howele fufden. 

and Walwain heo uaenon r^ 

fwiSe fti^ imoded mon. 

he hcfde to iferen :! 

fif and twenti hundred. 

baldere Brutten :' 

j^a bigunne heo to fehten. 

per weoren Rom-leoden r' 

reouliche iledde. 

Howel heom kepte ^ lo 

Walwain heo imette. 

]?er wef wunderlic grure :! 

I^a welcnen aqueSe. 

]7a eor^e gunnen to buuie :! 

ftanef j^er burften. 

urnen ftremef of blode ^ 

of sermen ]7an folke. 

J7at wel wef unimete r* 

]?a weoren Bruttef werie. 

Kinard j^e eorle of Strugul r 20 

bilefde ]?ene king Howel. [f. 163. c. i 

& inom mid him Labi^ ^ 

Rimarc & Bocloui^. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

and Waweyn ^eom oiienon :! 
fwi|?e moded man. 

pa. w... Romleode :! 


Howel 3am kepte r' 
...eyn 3am imette. 

]?ar w rfolle cry:' 

|>e wolc.. ..we|)e. 

oiirne grete ftremes r' 
of Romaniffe blodes. 

Kinarj? j^e eorl of Strogoylle t' 

nam mid him Jabius :' 
Rimarc and Boclouius. 


warriors with Howel Avent '; and Walwain before them man most ' stern ' 
of mood ; ' he had for comrades five and twenty hundred bold Britons, — 
then began they to fight ! ' There were the Rome-folk grievously treated ; 
Howel them attacked, Walwain them met ; there was wondrous cry, the 
welkin resounded ; ' the earth gan to tremble, the stones there shivered ! ' 
[Great] streams of [Romanish] blood ran ' from the wretched folk, the 
slaughter was immense, then were the Britons weary ! ' Kinard, the earl 
of Striguil, left the king Howel, 'and' took with him 'Labius [Jabius], 

' A line is here missiHij. 



[v. 2772s— 27752.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

pif weore j^a kenefte men i 

]?at asi kig ahte. 

]?eof weoren on moncunne "l 

eorlef main ftronge. 

heo naldcn for heore mucle mode 

fulien Howele \^\\ gode. 

ah bi heom feoluen heo flo3en i 

alle }>e heo neh come. 

pat ifeeh a riche mon r' 

of |?an Rom-leoden. 10 

hu Kinard J^e kene :' 

heore uolc \&x aqualde. 

and \q. cniht gon him alihten i 

of leofuen hif fteden. 

and nom him on his honde :' 

a fpere imaked of ftele. 

& bi-walede hine a blode:^ 

& bi-haluef him eode. 

^ he com a ]?an ende r^ 

J>er fieht Kinard )?e ftronge, 20 

Kinardef burne he up ahof:' 

and he ]?ene eorl J^er of-floh. 

pa 3eiden lude :' 

alle Rom-leode. 

and bujen to |?an Brutten :' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

pes were ]?e kennefte men i 
... eni king hadde. 

r'hii ....e for hire mo r 

folwy Howel ]?.. go.. 
.... 3am seolf f lowe i 

al \ come. 

pat ifeh a rich ....:' 

.. .an Romleode. 

ou Kinarp \. kene "i 

hire folk ]7ar acwelde. 

and ]7e cniht gan him alihte ^ 

of leoue hif ftede. 

and nam him an hond :l 

a fpere imaked of ftele. 

and he bi-halues gan gon i 

}nir faht Kinar]? J^e ftronge. 
Kinar); his brunie he vp ahof ^' 

and )>ane eorl he [f. l30^c. 1.] 

po gradde loude i 


and tornde to tus r' 

Rimarc, and Boclovius. These were the keenest men that any king had ; 
' these were among men earls mighty strong ! ' They would not, for their 
mickle mood (pride), follow Howel the good, but by themselves 'they' 
slew all that they came nigh. That saw a powerful man of the Rome- 
people, how Kinard the keen killed there their folk ; and the knight gan 
him alight from his dear steed, and took him in ' his' hand a spear made of 
steel, ' and bathed it in blood'; and he aside 'went [gan go], ' until he came 
to the spot ' where Kinard the strong fought. 'Kinards [Kinard liis] burny 
he up raised, and he the earl there slew. Then shouted loud all the Rome- 

[v. 2^753—27774.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii, 

& hcorc trume brekc. and hire tr 

& feollen here-marken t' ... folle heh3e ma.... 

uolc adun Ijekleii. j?e bufie cnih... 
fceklef ]7er fcenden i 
fcalkef l^er feoUe. 

]?er ueollen to grunde:^ to |?an grunde r' 

fiftene ]?ufende. fend. 

baldere Brutten:' balder 

balii \tx wef riue. J?ar was vine. 

Svva ilafte longe f [c.2.] lo te lange :^ 

J'at uiht fwi^e ftronge. j^at fih ftrange. 

Wahvain gon 3eonge i Waweyne wende oueral ":! 
3eond )7at wagl niuchele. 

and fomnede hif cnihtef alle ^ an fohte his cnihtef r' 

J^er he heom funde i fihte. and gader..e alle. 

Aneoufte ]:>er com ride i! \<\X a- line weren ..lefde :^ 

Howel |;e riche. [anon :' and Howel his 

heo fomneden heore beire* uolc 

& for^ heo gunnen fiifen. al forthe gonne^ wende. 

and riden to Rom-leoden r' 20 ... riden to Romleode:' 

mid ra3ere wra^^en. ... strangere wrej'l^e. 

& faftliche heom to bu3ent' a rle forfte come?' 



folk, and turned to the Britons, and brake their troops ; and ^felled the 
standards [the busy knights felled the high standards] , ' the folk down 
sank ; shields there shivered, warriors there fell ' ; there fell to ground 
fifteen thousand bold Britons, — mischief there was rife ! So lasted long 
the fight exceeding strong. Walwain gan pass over [all] ' the mickle 
slaughter,' and 'assembled all [sought] his knights, Vhere he found them 
in the fight [and gathered all that were left alive]. *There near came 
riding Howel the mighty; they assembled their fair (?) folk anon, and 
[and Howel, his companion ; all] forth they gan wend, and rode to the 
Rome-folk with strong wrath, and ^quickly approached them [. . . first 

' veire ? Perhaps stiperfiuons ? 

hii gonne ? 



[v. 27775—27797-] 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

and breken |?erc Freinfce triunen 
Waiwain. Aiul Walvvaiii for^ rihte r' 

\ev he ifunde. 
Luces. Lucef |?ene kaifer r' 

leoulen under fcelde. 

& Waiwain him to fvveinde r' 

mid ]7e ftelene fweorde. 

and J?e kaifere hine r' 

|?at com^ wef fwi^ fturne. 

fceld a3ein fcelden r* 

fciuren ]?er wunden. 

fweord a^ein fweorde "i! 

fweinde wel ilome. 

fur fleh of |?e ftelen :! 

J'a ueond weoren abol3en. 

per wef uiht^ fwiSe ftrog :! 

ftureden al ]7a ferden. 

]7e kaifere wende :! 

WalwaT to fcende. 

]?at he mihte an uuere da3e i! 

^elpen uor |?ere deden. 

Ah Bruttef him jn'ungen to :^ 

l^rsefliche fwi^e. 


MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

b.... hire ful-trome. 
And Waweyn riht )?er r' 

ifeh Luces ]7an cayfer :' 

and Waweyn to him fvveinde r' 
mid ftelene fweorde. 
and |?e cayfer him :! 
]?at gome was wel kene. 

fw..rd a3ein ..eord r' 
fweynde ..1 ilome. 

.at fur fprang vt 

]7e cnihtes wer e. 

par was fih ong r' 

aftored w rde. 

]?e cayfer wen.. 

Waweyn to fcende. 

|>at he mihte j^ar after :' 

3elpe for \e dede. 

Ac Bruttus heom )>ronge to :! 

wro]?liche fwip'e. 

came], 'and' brake their 'French' ranks. And Waiwain 'forth [there] 
right, 'there he found [saw] Luces the emperor 'live under shield'; and 
Waiwain struck at him with ' the ' steel sw'ord, and the emperor struck at 
him, who was man exceeding 'stern [keen] ; ' shield against shield, the 
pieces (?) there flew ' ; sword against sword clashed well often, [so that] 
fire 'flew from [sprang out of] the steel ; the 'adversaries [knights] were 
enraged ! There was fight most strong, — ' all ' the host [was] stirred ! 
The emperor weened to destroy Waiwain, that he might 'in after days 
[thereafter] boast for the deed. But the Britons thronged towards them. 

gome ? 

fwi) c ] 

^ viht, sec. m. 

[v. 27798—27820.] 




MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 
& pa Romanifce men :! [f. iC3".c. i 
aruddeii heore keeiferen. 
and heo to-fomne heolde r' 
fwulc heouene wolde ualle. 
Alle ]?ene dai-liht :f 
heo heolden feoSSen ]?at fiht. 
ane lutle ftude r' 
aer j^e funne eode to grunde. 
ArSur }>a cleopede t' 
aSeleft aire kinge. 
Nu we heo to alle :' 
mine cnihtef ohte. 
& godd feolf uf fulfte :f 
ure feod to afallene. 
-^fne ]?an worden :' 
]>a bleou men }>a bemen. 
fiftene j^ufend an an t 
]?rafte to blauvven. 
hornef and bemen :' 
]?a eorSe gon beouien. 
for l^an vnimete blafe ^ 
for ]?an mucle ibeote. 
Romleoden wenden ^ 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

] and [>. Romaniffe men:' 
hire cayfer a-redde. 
and hii to-gaderef heolden :' 

afe heuene wokle f [c.2.] 


hii h fihte. 




.. alle:' 


and god fulf 

heora forto falle. 
. afne ]7an worde :' 
\>o blewe men ]>e bnmes. 
fiften ])ovifende :f 
J>rafte to blowend. 
homes and bumes :' 
)>e ear];e gan to biuie. 
for ]7an grete bafte ^ :f 
for ]7an grete drede. 
Romleode vvende :' 


most angrily, and the Romanish men Hberated their emperor; and they 
charged together as if heaven would fall ! All the day-light they held 
afterwards the fight, a little while ere the sun went to ground (set). 
Arthur then called, — 'noblest of all kings [with loud voice] : — " Now go 
we all to them, my brave knights] ! And God himse\{ aid us *our enemies 
[them for] to fell ! " Even with the words then blew men the trumj^ets ; 
fifteen thousand 'anon' thronged together to 'blow [blowing], horns and 
trumps ; the earth gan to tremble for the great blast, for the 'mickle clamor 
[great dread] ! The Rome-folk turned [the] backs to 'the fight [the Bri- 

- blafte ? 



[v. 27821—27843.] 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

rug to }>an feohten. \>e rugges to Bruttus. 

feollen here-marken :' 

he^e men fwulten. 

flu3en \>a ]>e mihten r' flo3en liii }7at mihte t' 

]7a ueie^ ])ier feollen. ]>e. weyes weren folic. 

Muchel mo-flaeht wef ]^ere :' Moche man was ]mre ^' 

moche moche care. 

ne mihte hit na man tellen :^ ne may no ... telle t' 

ine boke ne in fpelle. 

hu feole hundred monnen t' lo of alle j^an hundredes r' 

to-heouwe ];er vveoren. }»at to-hewe were. 

i J>an mucle }>runge :f in ]7an mochele }?ringe :' 

i I'an mon-flaehte. of |?an man-fleahte. 

Wef |?e kaifere of-flae3e t' Was ]?e cayfer of-slawe :' 

a feolcuSe wife, felcou}je wif. 

pat nufte hit nauer feo^en :' ... .ufte hit no man su]?.. 

na mon to fugen. .. ..uere none cu|')>e. 

of nauer nare cuSde^r' beon r' 

wha l^ene kaifere qualde. ]?at 

Bute|?a|?et feht waf al idonr'[c.2.]Bote ):'o 

and |?at folc wef al ibliffed. 21 

]>a funde men \>ene kaifere r' 

of-ftungen mid ane fpere. 

tons] ; ' standards fell, — noble men perished,' — 'those [they] fled who 
might, — the 'fated there fell [ways were full] ! Much man-slaughter was there 
[much sorroiv, much care] ; 'might it [may] no man tell [in book or in 
speech] ,'how many hundred men [of all the hundreds that] were there hewed 
in pieces in the mickle throng, 'in [of] the man-slaughter ! The emperor 
was slain in strange manner, so that no man of ever any country afterwards 
ever knew it 'to say, who [it shoiddhe, that] killed the emperor. But when 
the fight was all done, and the folk was all in joy, then found men the em- 
peror pierced through with a spear. Word came to ^Vrthur, where he was 

' ueien, pr. m., htd the last letter erased. 

' cuStfe ? 

[V. 27844— 278GG.] LAJAMOxNS BRUT. IIJ 

MS, Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

Word com to ArSure "i 

I^er he wef on telde. 

|?at \q kaifere wef of-fla3en i 

and idon of lif-dae3en. 

ArSur lette flaen an teld r' Arthur 

a-midden genne bradne ueld. aniidde .ne br 

& jnder iberen letter' and )?ider in lette .... 

Lucef |?ene kaifere. Luces j;an cayfere. 

and lette hine bitillen -! and lette hine helye :^ 

mid gold-fa3e pallen. lo [f.lSl.c.l.] 

and biwite hine |?er lette i 

JH'eo da^ef fulle. 

|>e while he wurchen lette "! tie :' 

an were fwid^ riche. .. ..ork fwi 

ane chefte longe:^ .ne ch... lange:' 

and wreon heo al mid golde. iwr... al mid golde. 

And lette legge |?er inne "i And letten do |?ar ine r' 

Lucef of Rome. Luces of Rome. 

^ wef a fvyiSe duhti mon "! ... was a doh.. man :' 
]?a while hif da3ef ilaften. 20 wile ... dawes were, 

pa 3et dude ArSur masre :' 3et dude A.thur more 'l 

a^eleft aire Brutte. hendeft aire kinge. 

Ar^ur afechen lette :^ he lette feche kinges r' 


in his tent, that the emperor was slain, and deprived of life-day. Arthur 
caused a tent to be pitched, amidst a broad field, and thither [in] caused 
to be borne Luces the emperor, and caused him to be covered with gold- 
colored clothes ; and caused him there to be watched three full days, the 
while he caused to be made a work exceeding rich, a long chest ; ' and it 
to be' covered all with gold. And he caused to be laid therein Luces of 
Rome, who was a ' most ' doughty man, ' the ' Avhile his days lasted [were] . 
' The ' yet did Arthur more, 'noblest [fairest] of all 'Britons ; Arthur [kings ; 
he] caused to be sought ' all the powerful men,' kings ' and ' earls. 

fwiSe ? 



[v. 27867—27890.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

allc ]>a riche. 

kingef and eorles r' 

and |?a ricchefte beornes. 

];a i }?an fehte weoren i-fla3cn :! 

and idon of lif-d^3en. 

he lette heom burien ^ 

mid baldere pruten. 

Buten }?reo kingef he beren lette 

to" Lucef ]?an kaifere. 

and lette makien beren t' lo 

riche and fvvi'Se maren. [f- 164. c. i 

and lette heom foe r' 

fenden to Rome. 

And grette Rom-weren alle r' 

mid grffite ane huxe. 

and feide p'at he heom fende if 

]?at ganel of hif londe. 

and efte wolde heo alfwa r' 

fenden heom gretinge ma. 

^if heo 3irnen wolde r^ 20 

of ArSuref golden. 

and j^er after wuUe^ fone f" 

riden into Rome. 

and tellen heom tiiSinge "^ 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

eorles and heredrlngges. 

jmt in J?an fihte vveren ifla3e :' 

and idon of lifda3e. 

he lette 3am burie t' 

mid moclielere prude. 
^ r'Bote |n-eo kinges he lette here r' 

Luces ]?an cay fere. 

and lette makie beres r' 
•] riche and fvvi]?e meare. 

and lette 3am fone :! 

fende to Rome. 

And grette Rom-cnihtes ^ 

... his grim reases. 

an ]?at he 3am fen.. 

... ga... of his londe. 

and ... he wolde al fot' 

fende gretinge mo. 

3ef hii 3eorne wolde r' 

of Arthures golde. 

And her after fone t 

ich wolle come to Rome. 

and telle 30U tydinge :! 

and 'the richest barons [chieftains], who in the fight were slain, and de- 
prived of life-day; he caused them to be buried with great pomjj. But 
he caused three kings to bear Luces the emperor, and caused a bier to be 
made, rich and exceeding lofty ; and caused them soon to be sent to Rome. 
And greeted all the Rome-people with ^a great taunt [his grim assaults], 
and said that he sent them the tribute of his land, and eft [he] would also 
send ' them ' more greeting, if they would yearn of Arthurs gold ; and 
^thereafter [hereafter] full soon 'ride into [I will come to] Rome, and tell 

* lette be- re ? 

Superfluous ? 

fulle ? 

[v. 27891— 27910.] LA3AM0NS BRUT. 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

of Brutlondef^ kinge. of kinge 

and Rome wallef rihteii r' and Rome 

]?e 3are weoren to-fallen. .. jare were 

and fwa ich wuUe^ awelde:^ an. .. ich wolle a 

])e wode Rom-leodcn. .. wode Romleode. 

Al |?if jelp wef idel ido:' was idon r" 

for eoSer weif hit eode. ac o]>er .... hit code. 

al oSer hit itidde :f .e leode he bi-lefde :' 

]>e leoden he bilasfden. ]>oy\\ luj^er tidinge. 

al J?urh Modred if mffiin^ ?' lo al J^orh Modred his may:^ 

for-cu^eft alle monnen. for..u];eft manne. 

A ]>a. muchele fihte :f A ]7an mochele fihte r' 

Ar^ur of his cnihtef lofefede'*. Arthur lofede tes. 

fif and tweti }7ufend :f fif and twenti ]?oufend r' 

a uolden to-havvven. he funde to-hewe. 

of Brutten fwi^e balde ^ of Bruttuf fwi|?e bolde :' 

biraeued at line. bi-reafed of lifue. 

Kaei wef forwunded feore r' Kay w nded ];are .*' 

wunder a^ fwi^e. wonder on 

to Kinun he wef ilad r' 20 .o Kynu he was il.. 



'them [you] tidings of the king of Britain, and Rome-walls repair, that 
were of yore fallen down; — " And so will I rule the fierce Rome- 
folk ! " All this boast was ' idly ' done, Tor [but] otherwise it fared, all 
otherwise it happened: — the people he left [through wicked tiding], all 
through Modred his relative, wickedest of * all ' men ! In the mickle 
fight Arthur lost of his knights, five and twenty thousand, hewed in 
pieces 'on the ground [he found], of Britons most bold, bereaved of Hfe. 
Kay was wounded 'sore [there] , wondrously much ; to Kinun he was 
carried, and soon thereafter he was dead. He was buried there beside the 

' Brutteflondes, pr. m. 

^ wuUen, pr. m., but struck out by the same hand, and awelden added in the 
^ maei ? * R. losede. * ane ? 




[v. 27911—27933.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

and fone ]?cr after he wes ded. 
bi-bured he wes J'ere ^ 
bi-hahie |?an caftle. 

imong heremiten ^ :! 


)?at waef |?e riche mon. 

Kaei hehte |?e eorl ^ 

Kimm ]?e caftel. 

Artiur 3aef him j^ene tun :' 

and he ]?er to tumde^. 

and fette ]?er ]?ene nonie r' 

after him feoluen. 

for Keifes dee^e r' 

Kain he hit hehte. 

nil and auere mare r' 

fwa hit liehte J>ere. 

Seob^en Be^uer wef ifl8e3en ^ 

and idon of lif-dah3en. 

Ar Sur hine beren lette ^ 

to Bfeiof his caftle. 

and biburied he M^ef j^ere 

inne |?ere bur3e. 

wi^ uten j^an fu^ 3fete r 

in eor^e me hine fette. 



MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

ne ]?ar after he w 

hi-bured he was );are :^ 

bi-fides |?an caftle. 

heremites a-mong f 

Kay jjat was J>e riche man. 

Key hehte ]?e eorl :! 

Keynun ]?e caftel. 

Arthur 3ef him ]?ane toun ^ 

wile he was on liue. 

and he fette J^are ]>aue nome 

after him feolue. 

no. and eueremorer' 

]>. nam. .. .dep ]>are. 

Suj^p'e Beduer was of-slaAve t' 

and ido of lifda3e. 

Arthur liine here lette ^ 

to Roios'^ his caftle. 

and ];ar he was ibured r' 

in |7are borwe. 

wdth houte .e su|>3eate:' 

in eor|7e hii yde. 

castle, among hermits, [Kay,] who was the noble man. Kay hight the 
earl, Kinun the castle ; Arthur gave him the town, 'and he thereat was 
entombed [while he was alive] , and [he] set there the name after himself; 
' for Kays death he named it Kain ' (Caen) ; now and evermore 'so it hight 
[the name standeth] there. After Beduer was slain, and deprived of life- 
day, Arthur caused him to be borne to his castle Baeios (Bayeux), and there 
he was buried, in the burgh ; without the south gate in earth 'men [they] 
him laid. Howeldin was 'floated [carried] forth into Flanders ; and all 

' heoren . . . . u, pr. vi. 

tumbede, pr. m. 

3 Baios? 

[v. 27934—27956.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

Hovveldiii iulut^ wefr' 

forS into Flundi*ef. 

and alle hif bezfte cnihtef r' 

]>ev flatten uor^ rihtef. 

in to J^an eorldomen :f 

pine lieo per comen. 

and alle ]?a dede t' 

in eorSe me heoni leide. 

inne Teruanet' 

heo liggeoS alle clane. lo 

Leir pene eorl me ladde :' 

in to Buluine. 

& ArSur ]?er eefter feoS^e :' 

wunede in ane londe. 

inne Burguine r 

per him bezft j^uhte. 

pRt lond he al biwufte t' 

and alle pe caftles fette. 

and feide j^at he wolde t' 

him feolue f lond holde. 20 

And feoSSen he his beot makede t 

a lumere )?at he wolde. [[f.i()4b.c. 1.] 

faren into Rome :f 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

Holdeyn Had 

for}> into Flandref. 

and e cnihtes r' 

]7ar htes. 

in to pan 

... Iiii her .... 


in uane:' 

Leyr . . . eorl me ladde t' 

in to Boloyne. 

And Arthur J^ar after :' 

on wile wonede. [f. lap.c. i.] 

J?at lond he al wifte t' 

and fette. 

and feide }>at .. wolde :' 

him seolf I? habbe. 

and ]7ar in wonie :' 

. ..te fomer come. 

and ]?anne he wolde fone t' 


his best knights there floated forth-right into the earldoms whence they 
'there [here] came. And all the dead in earth men them laid ; in Terou- 
ane they lie all clean. Leir, the earl, men carried into Boulogne ; and 
Arthur ' then ' thereafter dwelt 'in a land [awhile] ' in Burgundy, that to 
him seemed best'; the land he all ruled, and all the castles appointed; 
and said that he would himself 'hold [have] the land. *And afterwards he 
made his threat, that he would in summer march into [and therein dwell 
until summer came, and then he would soon march to] Rome, ' and ac- 

' Written on an erasure by a second hand. 
I 2 

116 LA3AMONS BRUT. [v. 27957— 27979] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

& ahnienien^ al J>a riche. wende to Rome. 

and beo him feolf kaiferer and seolf caifer r' 

Jje Luces wuneden fere. |?e wonede her. 

And monie of Rom-leoden r' And m Romleode :^ 

wolden pat hit fwa eoden. wolde 3eode. 

for heo weoren adradde "^ for hii weren adrad r' 

to heore bare deSe. to hire bare dea|>e. 

)7at monie J^er awsei flu3e r' and manye awcy wende r' 

and heore caftlef bibu3en. and hire caftlef lete ftonde. 

and moie fende fonde :! lo and manie fende fonde r' 

to Ar^ure ]^an ftror)ge. to Arthur )?an ftronge. 

and monie him fpeken wiS :! and 3eorife'^ fpeke him wi]? r' 

& 3irnden ArSures griS. and 3ornde Arthur his gri]>. 

and fumme heo wolde :! and fomme hii wolde i' 

a3ein ArSure halden. ...n Arthur ftonde. 

and halden wiS him Rome:' and n wij? him Rome:' 

& weren^ j?a leode. and werie ]?e riche. 

and neo^eles heo auered weoren :' and noJ?eles a-fered weren :' 

for heore uaeie-fi^en. alle J^at ]?ar woned.n. 

]?at nuften heo under crifte :' 20 p»at nuften hii onder crifte :' 

nenne reed godne. godne read nane. 

pa wef hit itimed )?ere :' po was hit ifunde :' 

]?at Merlin faide while. j^at Merlin faide wile. 

quire all the realm,' and himself be emperor where Luces ere dwelt. And 
many of the Rome-folk would that it so should be, for they were adread to 
their bare death, ''so that [and] many away ' there ' fled, and their castles 
'abandoned [let stand] ; and many sent messengers to Arthur the strong ; 
and 'many [earnestly] spake with him, and yearned 'Arthurs [Arthur his] 
peace ; and some they would against Arthur 'hold [stand] , and hold Rome 
against him, and defend the realm. And nevertheless ' they ' were afraid 
'for their destruction [all that there dwelt] , so that they knew not under 
Christ any good counsel. Then was it there 'come to pass [found], what 

' ahnien ? 

' jeorne ? 

werien ? 

[V, 27980— 28002.] LA^AMONS BIIUT. 11/ 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

f Rom wallef fculden r' ]>.. Rome walks folde :' 

n^ein Ardure' to-uallen. a.... Arthur to-falle. 

f'at waf agan |7fere :' a-gon ]?are :f 

bi l^an kaifere. bi pun re. 

]?a iieol ]>er ine fehte :' pat full 

mid fifti l^ufund monne. mid fixti ]> 

ruren J?er to grunde r' 
riche Rom-leoden. 

pa ArSur vvende to fo'Ser' po A 

to a3ein al Rome. lo to w 

& wunede iniie Burguine :' nede 

richeft aire kinge. aire 

pa com l^er in are tiden r' [c. 2.] po ridinge r' 

an oht mon riden. 

and brohte tidinge :' and brohte Ar . . . . tydinge :' 

Ar'Sure ]?an kinge. 

from Moddrede hif fufter fune:^ fram Modred hif [c.2.] Modred. 

Arbure he wes^ wilcume. 

for he wende pat he brohte ^ 

boden fvvi^e gode. 20 

ArSur lai alle loge niht r' Arth 

and fpac wiS j^ene jeonge cniht. .,d fpac \v\p cniht. 

swa nauer nulde he him fugge:' ac no weis he n er' 

Merlin^ said ere-while, that Rome-walls should fall down before Arthur ; 
that was fulfilled there by the emperor, who fell there in the fight, with 
fifty thousand men ; ' there sank to the ground the rich Rome-people ! ' 
Then Arthur weened in sooth to win all Rome, and dwelt in Burgundy, 
noblest of all kings. Then came there ' on a time a brave ' man riding, 
and brought tiding to Arthur 'the king', from Modred, his sisters son; 
to Arthur he was welcome, for he weened that he brought news most good. 
Arthur lay all the night long, and spake with the young knight ; 'so never 

' R. Ar?Jure. ^ we, pr. m. 



118 LA3AMONS BRUT. [V. 28003— 28024.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

foS hu hit ferde. here ou hit ferde. 

pa hit wef dsei a mar3en :' po . . . was dai . .orwe ^ 

and du3e^e gon fturie. and .e do^ej^e gan to ftorie. 

ArSur ]?a up araf r' Arthur ]?o vp a-ros r' 

and ftrehte hif eermes. and ftrahte mid harmes. 

he araf up and adun fat :' he a-rof vp and adun fat :/ 

fwiilc he weore swi^e seoc. afe he were fwi|?e feak. 

pa axede hine an uaeir cniht :! po axede him ]?e cniht ^ 

Lauerd hu haueft |>u iuaren to- Louerd ou haueft J^ou fare to-niht. 

Ar^ur ]?a andswarede :' [niht. Arthur him anfwerede t' 

a mode him wes uneSe. 11 mid eh. wordes. 

To niht a mine flepe ^ To niht in mine bedde r' 

]7er ich laei on bure. )?ar ich lay in boure. 

me imsette a fweuen :' me imette a fweuen r' 

J?er \iore ich ful fari^ sem. )?ar fore ich fori ham. 

Me imette ]?at mon me hof r' Me mette J'at men me fette:' 

uppen are halle. vppen one halle. 

\a, halle ich gon bi-ftride r' .e halle ich gan bi-ft... 

fwulc ich wolde riden. h wolde ride. 

alle I'a lond pa ich ah:' 20 a def J?at ich had.. 

alle ich |7er ouer fah. h 3am ifeh );are. 

and Walwain fat biuoren me :' and Wawein fat bi-vore me :^ 

[but in no wise] would he say ' to him ' ^sooth [here] how it fared. When 
it was day on the morrow, and [the] people gan to stir, Arthur then up 
arose, and stretched [with] ' his ' arms ; he arose up, and sate down, as if 
he were exceeding sick. Then asked him *a fair [the] knight: "Lord, 
how hast thou fared to-night ? " Arthur *then [him] answered, — 'in mind 
he was uneasy — [with mild words] : " To-night in my 'sleep [bed], where 
I lay in chamber, I dreamt a dream, — therefore I am ' full ' sorry. I dreamt 
that men ^raised [set] me upon a hall ; the hall I gan bestride, as if I 
would ride ; all the lands that I 'possessed [had] , all I there 'overlooked 
[them saw]. And Walwain sate before me; ray sword he bare in hand. 

la, pr. m. 

[v. 28025-28047.] LAjAJMONS BRUT. 119 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

mi fweord he bar an honde. min fweord he bar an honde. 

pa com Moddred fare ]>ere :' ^[^_fj po com Modred wende ]?are :f 

mid unimete uolke. mid onimete folke. 

he bar an hif honde :' he bar on his 

ane wiax ftronge. .ne hax fwi|?e ftr... 

he bigon to hewene r' . . bi-gan to hewe i' 

hardliche fwiSe. he fvvi]? . 

and ]^a poftes for-heou alle :! s for-he w 

j^a heolden up j^a halle. )?at ppe pan halle. 

per icli ifeh Wenheuer eke ^ lo par eake r' 

wimmonnen leofueft me'. Gwenayfer j^e cwene. 

al J»ere muche halle rof:' al mochele alle^ rof:' 

mid hire honden^ heo to-droh. mid hire bond ^eo to-droh. ^^i , r 

)?a halle gon to haelden .*' ]?e halle gon to holle :' 

and ich haeld to grimden. ..d ich ful to griide. 

]7at mi riht at^rm to-brac:^ riht arm to-br.. 

I^a feide Modred haue }?at. . o faide Modred h . ue ];at. 

Adu ueol ]>a. halle i' Adun ful |^e halle t' 

& Walwain go to ualle. ... Waweyn was of-falle. 

and feol a |7ere eorSe :' 20 ]?are eor]?e ^ 

hif eermef brekeen beine. his ar ke beyne. 

& ich igrap mi fweord leofe r^ And ich ig... my gode fweord :' 

mid mire leoft honde. mid mine luft honde. 



Then approached Modred there, with innumerable folk ; he bare in his 
hand a ' battle '-axe [most] strong ; he began to hew exceeding hardily , 
and the posts all hewed in pieces, that held up the hall. There I saw 
Wenhaver 'eke [the queen], ' dearest of women to me'; all the mickle hall 
roof with her hand she drew down ; the hall gan to tumble, and I tumbled 
to the ground, so that my right arm brake in pieces, — then said Modred, 
' Have that ! ' Down fell the hall ; and Walwain 'gan to fall [was fallen] , 
and fell on the earth ; his arms both brake. And I grasped my 'dear [good] 
sword with my left hand, and smote off Modred his head, so that it rolled 

* me leofueft i 

2 halle J 

^ hondeden, pr. m. 



[v. 28048—28070.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

and fmaet of Modred if hafd :' and fmot of Modred his hefd ^ 
)?at hit wond a J^ene ueld. |?at hit vvefde a. ... felde. 

And ]?a quene ich al to-fna"Sde :! And j?e cwean un 

mid deore mine fweorede. 

and feod^en^ ich heo adum^ fette r' 

in ane fvvarte putte. in one f 

And al mi nolc riche :' . . . al mi 

fette to fleme. fleonde. 

Jjat nufte ich under crifte f crifte :! 

"vvhar heo bicumen weoren. lo war ]?at re. 

Bute mi feolf ich gond^ atftonde t' Bote mi seol aftonde r' 

uppen ane wolden. vppe on. ..... 

& ich |?er wondrien agon ^ 

wide 3eod |?an moren. 

]7er ich ifah gripef r' 

& grifliche fu3elef. [c.2.] 

pa com an guldene leo :! 

li^en ouer dune. 

deoren fwi^e hende r' 

]7a ure drihten make''. 20 

J)a leo me orn foren to :' 

and iueng me bi |?an midle. 

& for^ hire gun 3eongen :' 

)^ar ich ifeh gri . . . 
. . . wonderliche fo . . . . 
po com a guldene . . . 
lij^e ouer doune. 

]?is leo ... an fwi)?e to r' 
and nam bi )?an midd.. 
and for]? he me gan leode r' 

on the field. And the queen I ' cut all in pieces with my dear sword, and 
afterwards I ' set ' her ' down in a black pit. And all my good people set to 
flight, so that I knew not under Christ, where [that] they were gone. But 
myself I gan stand upon a weald, ' and I there gan to wander wide over 
the moors'; there I saw gripes, and *grisly [wondrous] fowls! Then ap- 
proached a golden lion over the down ; — ' a beast most fair, that our Lord 
made'; — 'the [this] lion ran 'towards [quickly to] me, and took 'me' by 
the middle, and forth ^gan her move [he gan me carry], and to the sea 

' feobfeen? 

' gon ? 

* R. adun. 
■• makcde? 

[v. 28071—28093.] 




MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

& to ]>ere fe wende. 

And ich ifseh |;ae v^en :f 

i j^ere fe driuen. 

and J?e leo i jjan iilode ^ 

iwende wi^ me^ feolue. 

]7a wit i fee comen :' 

I'a vSen me hire binomen. 

c5 j;er an fife liSe r' 

and ferede me to londe. 

]?a wef ich al wet r' 

& weri^ of for3en and feoc. 
' ]7a gon ich iwakien t 
Vfwi"Se ich gon to quakien. 

]7a gon ich to biiiien :' 

swulc ich al fur burne. 

And fwa ich habbe al niht r' 

of mine sweuenene^ fwi^e i]?oht 

for ich what to iwiffe :f 

agan if al mi bliffe. 

for a to mine Hue :f 20 

for3en ich mot dri3e. 

wale ]?at ich nabbe here t 

Wehauer mine quene. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 
and to l^are fee wende. 

A. . .e leo in |?an flode r' 

mid mi feolue. 

)?o see come:^ 

]>e beares me hire bi-nome. 
com ]7ar a fife fwemme t' 
and brohte me to londe. 
J^o was ich al wet r' 
wery and fwi|?e feak. 
]>. gan ich to wakie t' 
]>o ga. ich to cwakie. 

And l^us ich ha... al nih r' 
of mine fweu... moche i|?oht. 
for ich wot al mid iwiffe :' 
agon hif al min bliffe. [c. 2.] 
for auere to mine lifue :! 
forewe ich mot drihe. 
wele Jjat ich nadde her r' 
mine cweane Gwenayfer. 

went. 'And I saw the waves drive in the sea'; and the lion in the flood 
went with myself. When we came in the sea, the waves took her from 
me ; but there ^approached [came swimming] a fish, and brought me to 
land ; — then was I all wet, ' and ' weary ' from sorrow,' and [very] sick. 
When I gan to wake, 'greatly [then] gan I to quake ; ' then gan I to 
tremble as if I all burnt with fire.' And "so [thus] I have all night of my 
dream much thought ; for I wot [all] with certainty, gone is all my bliss, 
for ever in my life sorrow I must endure ! Alas ! that I 'have [had] not here 
Wenhaver, my queen ! " Then answered the knight : " Lord, thou hast 

* wide mid, pr. 


were, pr. m. 

sweuene ? 



[v. 28094— 281 IG.] 




MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

pa andfvvurede |?e cniht r 

Lauerd |?u haueft un-riht. 

ne fculde me nauere fweueii i' 

mid forjen arecchen. 

]7U iert ]>e ricchefte mon :f 

)7a rixleoS on londe. 

and l^e aire wifefte :' 

]>e wuneS under weolcne. 

3if hit weore ilimpe r' 

fwa nulle^ hit ure drihte. 

]7at Modred p>ire fufter fune :' 

hafde J^ine quene iniune. 

and al )?i kinehche lod t' 

ifaet an hif a3ere hond. 

]>e ]>u. hi bitahteft r' 

]7a ]>\i to Rome |7ohteft, 

and he hafde al ]?uf ido r' 

mid hif fwikedome. 

]>e 3et ]>u. mihteft ]?e awrekeii r' 

vvurSliche mid wepnen. 20 

& seft Yi lond halden :' 

and walden )?ine leoden. 

and ]?ine feond falle :f 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

po anfwerede j^e cniht :' 
Louerd ]?ou haueft onriht. 
ne folde me neuere fvveuen :f 
to hame* teorne. 
]7ou hart ]>e richeft man :f 
]mt rixle]? in londe. 

peh hit bi-falle :' 
afe nele hit oure drihte. 
pat Modred l^in softer fone r' 
hadde |?in cweane inome. 
and al ]nne lond :' o. ... owe hond. 
I^at |?oa hi. ..-tahteft:' 
]>o |?oii to Rom. c.hteft. 

3eot |7ou mihteft ]>e awreke :! 

..rj^liche fwi|?e. 

and eft .in lond holde:' 

and alle leode. 

and J?ine fon fal.. 

wrong ; 

men should never a dream \vith sorrow interpret [turn to harm] . 
Thou art the mightiest man, that reigneth in land, ' and the wisest of all 
that dwelleth under heaven.' 'If [Though] it were hefallen, — as will it 
not our Lord ! — that Modred, thy sisters son, had taken thy queen, and 
set all thy ' royal ' land in his own hand, that thou to him committedest, 
when thou thoughtest to go to Rome ; ' and had he done all this with 
his treachery, the ' yet thou mightest thee avenge \vith weapon [exceed- 
ing] worthily, and eft thy land hold, and 'govern [all] thy people, and thine 

' harrae ? 

wullc, 2»'. m. 

[v. 28117-28138.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

]>e ]>e iifel uimen. 

and fhen heo alle clane :' 

\>et ]>er no bilaue nae. 

ArSur )?a andfwarede :' 

a'Seleft aire kinge. 
' Longe bi^ aeuere :f 
Jf>a,t no wene ich nauere. 

]?at seuere Moddred mi mfei r 


').'■' wolde me bifwiken :' 
for alle mine i-ichen. 
no Wenhauer mi quene :' 
wakien on J'onke. 
nulle]? hit biginne :' 
for nane weorld-monne. 
Mine ]>a.n worde for^ riht r' 
]?a andfwarede j^e cniht. 
Ich fugge ]7e fo^ leofe king :f 
for ich aem j^in vnderling. 
]7us hafe^ Modred idon r 20 
pine quene he hafe^ ifon. 
and ]?i wuliche lond :f 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xni. 

• leane to grunde. 

)?at ]?ar ne .. ..fde none ^' 

of |?ine wi]?er- f. 

Aarthur ]>o anfw . . . . e r' 
wifeft aire kinge. 

L beo]? euere :' 

]>a.t ne wen ich neuere. 

]7at Modred my meay r' 

J>at man his me leoueft. 

wolde me bi-fwike r' 

for al mine riche. 

ne Gwenayfer min cwean :' 

.. al l^at ich wene. 

nolle]^ hii hit bi-gynne t' 

for none worle-]^inge. 

Eafne J^an worde for]?riht :f 

\>o anfwerede 'pe cniht. 

Ich wolle fo]? fegge king :f 

for ich ham ]7in onderling. 

]>os haue]; Modred idon :^[f. 132''. d.] 

|?ine cweane he haue}> inome. 

and al Brutlond :f 

*enemies [foes] fell, Vho did evil to thee, and slay them all clean, that there 
remain not one [clean to ground, that there should not remain one of 
thy adversaries] ," Arthur then answered, 'noblest [wisest] of all kings : 
" i<Q long as is ever, weened I that never, that ever Modred, my relative, 
who is man dearest to me, would betray me, for all my realm, nor Wen- 
haver, my queen, 'weaken in thought; [in all that I ween; they] would 
it not begin, for any worldly 'man [thing] ! " Even with the words 
forth-right then answered the knight : "I [will] say ' thee ' sooth, ' dear ' 
king, for I am thy underling. Thus hath Modred done ; thy queen he 
hath taken, and 'thy fair land [all Britain] set in his own hand. He is 

A line is here wanting. 

124 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 28139— 28161.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

ifet an hif a3ere hond. ifet to his owene bond. 

he if king & heo if que^ i he his his^ king and 360 cweane :' 

of |?ine kume nis na wene. [c 2.] of J'ine keome nif no wene. 

for no wene^ heo nauere to fobe ^ for hii wene]? al to fo]?e "i [Rome. 

]?at l^u cnmen a3ain fro Roe. j^at ]?ou ne comeft neuere fra 

Ich asm |?in a3en mon i Ich ham j^in owe man :' 

& ifeh ]?isne swikedom. ich feh ]?ane fwikedom. 

and ich aem icumen to )?e feoluen "i 

so^ ]?e to SLiggen. 

min hafued beo to wedde i 10 min heued ich legge to wed . . r* 

J>at ifaeid ich J'e habbe. fo|> j^at ich \q. segge. 

so^ buten lefe :' 

of leofen |>ire quene. 

& of Modrede ]?ire fufter fune :^ 

hu he hafued Brutlod |?e binume. 

pa seet hit al ftille i po fat hit al ftille i 

in ArSuref halle. in Arthur his halle. 

J»a wes l^er seerinaeffe ^ \o was J?ar moche foriniffe :! 

mid fele )?an kiiige. mid r ]7.n kinge. 

}?a weoren Bruttifce menr^ 20 \o wer.. ..uttuffe men:' 

swi^e vnbalde uorj^aen. fwi|?e onb..d for j^an. 

pa umbe ftunde r' po bi an ftunde "! 

ftefne ]7er sturede. fterane |?ar ftorede. 

king, and she ' is ' queen ; of thy coming is there no expectation, for they 
ween 'not ever [all] in sooth, that thou [never] shalt come ' back ' from 
Rome. I am thine own man, 'and [I] saw 'this [the] treason ; ' and I am 
come to thyself, to say thee sooth.' My head 'be [I lay] in pledge, that 
I 'have said [say] thee sooth, ' without leasing, of thy loved queen, and of 
Modred, thy sisters son, how he hath taken Britain from thee.' " Then 
sate it all still in ^Arthurs [Arthur his] hall ; then was there [much] sorrow 
with 'the good [Arthur the] king , then were the British men therefore 
exceedingly dispirited. Then after a while voices there stirred; wide men 

* R. quenc. ' Sic MS. 

[v. 28162—28185.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

wide me mihte iheren r' 

Brutten iberen. 

and gune to tellen ?' 

a feole cunne fpellen. 

hu heo wolden for-deme f* 

Modred & j^a queue. 

and al f moncini for-don :' 

|?e mid Modred heolden. 

ArSur j^a cleopede :' 

hendeft aire Brutte. 10 

Sitte^ adun ftille :' 

cnihtef inne halle. 

and ich eou telle wulle:' 

fpellef vncii^e. 

Nu to-maer^e j^ene hit dsei bi^ :' 

& drihten hie fende. 

forS ich wulle bu3e :' 

in toward Bruttaine. [[f. 1 G6. c. 1 .] 

and Moddred ich wulle fcaln^ :f 

& ]?a quen for-berne. 20 

and alle ich wulle for-don :' 

J?a biluueden ]?en fwikedom. 

And her ich bileofuen wulle :! 

me leofueft monne. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

wide me mihte . . .re f 
Bruttune beare. 
hii to telle:' 
of fale cunn . . . . le. 
hou hii wolde ford. me:' 
Mordred an. .. cweane. 

and al |;at for- don r* 

J'at mid M eolden. 

Arthur )?o fa... 

hendeft aire Brutte. 

Sitte]? adun ftille :' 

cnihtes in halle. 

and ich 30U telle wolle :' 

fpelles oncou]?e. 

Nou to-morwe wane hit dai beoj^ :' 

and drihte hine fende]?. 

fo wolle wende :' 

into Brutayne. 

and Modred ich wolle slean :' 

and for-bearne ]>e cweane. 

And her ich wolle bi-leaue :' 
Howel ]7an eande. 

might hear the Britons clamor, *and [they] gan to tell in speeches of many- 
kind, how they would destroy Modred and the queen, and slay all the people 
that held with Modred. Arthur then 'called [said], fairest of all Britons : 
" Sit ye down still, knights in hall, and I will you tell strange discourse. 
Now to-morrow, when it is day, and thehord it sendeth, forth I will march 
'in toward [into] Britain ; and Modred I will slay, and burn the queen ; 
' and all I will destroy, that approved the treachery.' And here I will 
leave the dearest of men to me, Howermy loved relative [the fair], noblest 

fclean ? 


126 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 28186— 28208.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xm. 

Howel niinne leofue maei:' heheft of mine cuiie ^ 

hexft of mine cunne. manne me leoueft. 

and lialf mine uerde :! and half mine :^ [c.2.] 

ich bilaefue a f'iffen a?rde. ich bi-leaue in JjIs ea... 

to halden al J?if kine-lond i to holde al j?is kinelon. 

\a. ich habbe a mire bond. habbe in mine bond. 

& ]?enne |;af ]nng beo^ alle idone :^ A. . .ane J^eos |?inges beo|? idon :! 

a3an ich wulle to Rome. a-3en ich wolle toward R... 

& mi wunliche lond bitataeche^ :! and mi lond bi-tak. 

Walwaine mine maeie. lo n mine meaye. 

and iuorjje mi- beot seodSe^:' 
bi mine bare life. 

fcullen alle mine feond :! folle a fon :! 

weei-fi'S make3e. }?is fvvikedom'*. 

pa ftod 111 up Walwain r' po ftod vp Waweyn :' 

l^at wef AriSuref maji. J^at was Arthures cun. 

and j^af word faide :' and |>eos word :' 

J^e eorl wef abol3e. pe cniht was ..ol.. 

-^Idrihte godd :! . . drihtene . . . 

donief waldend. 20 ouere^. 

al middel-ferdef mund :' 

whi if hit iwm'^en. 

}?at mi broker Modred :' red r' 

of my kin ; and half my army I will leave in this land, to maintain all this 
kingdom, that I have in my hand. And when these things are ' all ' done, 
back I will co7ne to [ward] Rome, and deliver my 'fair' land to Walwain 
my relation ; ' and afterwards perform my threat, by my bare life'; all my 
^enemies [foes] shall 'be destroyed [pay for this treachery]!" Then stood 
him up Walwain, who was Arthurs relative, and said these words, — the 
'earl [knight] was incensed : " Almighty God ! Vuler of dooms [comforter 
of mankind] , ' guardian of all middle-earth ! ' Why is it befallen, that my 

' R. bitaeche. 
■• abugge ? 

^ uoreni, jv. m. ' feotitfe ? 

* mancunnes frouere ? 

[v. 28209—28230.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

J'if niorS hafueS itimbred. 

Ah to daei ich at-fiike hine here:' h hine fake' ^ 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 
pif itimbred. 

biuoren ]?iffere du3e^e. 

and ich hine for-demen wulle / 

mid drihtenef wille. 

mi feolf ich wulle hine an-hon :! 

haxft aire warien. [Ia3e:' 

J^a quene ich wulle mid goddes and )?e cwea 

al mid horfen to-dra3e. [[e.2.] 

hi- is do3e|je. 

and ich wolle :' 

mid drihte 

.. seolf ich wolle n :' 

For ne beo ich nauere bli^e i 
l^a wile a^ beo^ aliue. 11 

and ]:'at ich habbe minne aem ^ 
awraeke mid ]?an bezfte. 
Bruttes j^a andfwarede t' 
mid baldere ftefne. 

for ne worj^e lij^e:' 

ear come .. time. 
|?at ich habbe min earn r' 
awreke mid ]?an ..fte. 
Bruttus ]?o anfwe.... 
..d cwikere ftem.. 

Al ure wepnen funden 3arewe:' Al o... wepne his 3are r' 

nu to-mar3en we fcullen uaren. nou to-morewe we follen vare. 

A mar3en |>at hit deei wes :! 
& drihten hine fenden. 
Ar^u'^ uor^ him wende :! 
mid a^elen hif folke. 
half he hit bilsefde "^ 

A morwe ]?o hit dai was :' 
and drihte hine fende. 
20 Arthur him for]? wende i 
..d gode his cnihtes. 
halue . . ]?are lefde r' 

brother Modred this sin has wrought ? But to-day I forsake him ' here,' 
before this assembly ; and I will him destroy with the Lords will ; myself 
I will him hang, ' highest of all wretches ; ' [and] the queen ' I wiU, with 
Gods law', Mraw all in pieces with horses [destroy]. For may I never be 
blithe, 'the while I am alive [ere the time shall come] , until I have avenged 
mine uncle with the best ! " Then answered the Britons with 'bold [quick] 
voice : " All our 'weapons are [weapon is] ready ; now to-morrow we shall 
march ! " On the morrow when it was day, and the Lord it sent, Arthur 
forth him moved, with his good 'folk [knights] ; half he 'it [there] left, and 

* asake ? ^ cweane for-don ? ^ ich i 

* R. ArSur. 



[v. 28231—28253.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

& half hit for« ladde. 

For(S he wende |7urh |>at lond i 

\dX he com to Whit-fond. 

fcipen he hsefde fone :! 

monie & wel idone. 

ah feowertene niht fulle r' 

J^ere laei j^a uerde. 

]?eos wederef abiden :! 

windef bi-delde. 

Nu waf fum for-cu^ kempe i lo 

in Ar^uref ferde. 

anaen fwa he demen iherde r' 

of Modredef ^e^e^ 

he nom^ hif swein aneoufte:^ 

and fende to ]>iffen londe. 

and fende word Wenhaueren r' 

heou hit waf iwur^en. 

and hu ArSur wef on uore i 

mid muclere ferde. 

and hu he wolde taken on :' 20 

& al hu he wolde don. 

pa queue com to Modred ^ J j -1 ' 

|?at waf hire leofueft monnef. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

and halue he for]? ladde. 
For]; he wende ]?orh ];at 1 . nde i 
J?., .e com to Witfond. 
s . . . f he hadde fone i 

manie and [f.iss.c. 1.] 

ac fourtene niht 


weder a- . . . . 
wyndes bi-dealed. 

s fom forcou]; cniht r' 

ures ferde. 

pat \o erne i 

of Modred 

he nam his fw.yn one "i 

, . . fende to londe. 

..d fende word Gwenayferr 

was iwor]>e |?ar. 

a Arthur was on vore :^ 

m lere ferde. 

pe cwea o Mod . . . 

... was 

half 'it [he] forth led. Forth he marched through the land until he came 
to Whitsand ; ships he had soon, many and excellent ; but ' full ' a fort- 
night there lay the host, abiding * the ' weather, deprived of wind (be- 
calmed). Now was there some wicked knight in Arthurs army, *anon as 
[who when] he heard it determined of Modreds death, he took [one] his 
swain ' quickly,' and sent to ' this ' land ; and sent word to Wenhaver, how 
it had [there] happened, and how Arthur was on his march, with a great 
host; ' and how he would take on, and all how he would do.' The queen 
came to Modred, who was to her dearest of men, and told him tiding of 

» R. deSe. 

' men, pr. m. 

[v. 28254— 28276.] LA3AMONS BRUT. 129 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xni. 

and talde hi tidende ^ tydinge :/ 

of Ar Sure J>an kinge. of nge. 

hu he vvolde taken an:' ou wohl 

& al hu he wolde don. and al ou he 

Modrted nom hif fonde :' . . dred nam his 

and fende to Sex-lond. de to Saxlond. 

after Childriche r driche il [ChPidric 

pe king we.s swi^e riche. }?ane )?an riche. 

and bfed hine cume to Brutaine r' and b me to Brutlonde '/ 

])ev of he bruke fculde. 10 be folde. 

Modraed bad Childriche :f 
]>ene ftronge & |?ene riche. 
weide fenden fonde r 
a feouvyer half Sexlonde. 
and beoden pn cuihtef alle r' 
|?at heo bijeten mihte. 
];>at heo comen fone :' 
to J>iffen kinedone'. 
and he wolde Childriche :f 

3eouen of hif riche. 20 al bond. 

al bi3eonde |?erere'^ Humbre t' a3endalf '^ berlond :f 

for he him fcolde helpe. 
to fihten wi"S hif aenie :f 

Arthur the king, how he would take on, and all how he would do. Modred 
took his messengers, and sent to Saxland, after Childrich, 'who was king 
most [the strong and the] powerful ; and bade him come to Britain, — 
thereof he should have possession. ' Modred bade Childrich, the strong 
and the rich, to send messengers wide, on the four sides of Saxland, and 
bid all the knights that they might get, that they should come soon to 
this kingdom ; ' *and he would to Childrich give part of his realm, all be- 
yond the Humber ; [all in his own hand possess half Northumberland.] ' be- 
cause he should him help to fight against his uncle king Arthur.' Childrich 

' R. kinedorae. " Jieie? ^ a;en half? 


130 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 28277— 28300.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

Ar^ureu kinge. 

Childrich beh foe:' Cheldrich 

in to Brutlonde'. .. to Brutlonde. 

pa Modred hafde hif ferde t' p 

ifomned of monnen. his cnihtes. 

I^a weoren J^ere italde ^ . . weren J7ar 

fixti ]?ufende. oufend. 

here-kempen harde i! 
of he^ene uolke. 

J?a heo weoren icumen hidere r' lo }^at were b me r' 

for Arduref ^ baerme. for Artbur his arme. 

Modred to belpen r' . . . .ed to helpe i 

forcu^eft monnen. forcou]7eft 

pa ]7e uerde wef ifome ^ po j^e ferde . .s igadered r' 

of aelcbe mon-cunne. of alle m.. ..nne. 
]?a heo weoren \qv on bepe :'[c.2.])?o were par to beape r' 

an hunddred pufende. an hundred poufend. 

he^ene and criftene ^ heapen. ..d er* 

mid Modrede kinge. mid Modred 

Whiifond. Ar^ur lai at Whit-fond :" 20 Arthur lay at nd r' 

feouwertene nibt him pubte to log.fourte niht h . him pobte to long, 
and al Modred wufte r' and al Modred wifte ^ [[c.2.] 

wat Ar^ur pser wolde. pat Arthur pare wolde. 

aelcbe dai him comen fonde :f for eche dai him com fonde :! 

proceeded soon into Britain. When Modred had assembled his 'host of men 
[knights] , then were there told sixty thousand ' hardy warriors of heathen 
folk,' 'when they [that] were come hither, for ^Arthurs [Arthur his] harm, 
and to help Modred, wickedest of men ! When the army was gathered of 
'each [all] people, then were ' they ' there in a heap an hundred thousand, 
heathens and christians, with Modred [the] king. Arthur layat Whitsand ; a 
fortnight seemed to him too long ; and Modred knew air what [that] Arthur 
there would ; [for] each day came messengers to him from the kings army. 

^ Bruttlonde, J3r. m. - B. Ar&uref. 

[v, 28301—28324.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix, 

from ]'af kingef hirede. 

pa ilomp hit an one time r' 

muchel rein him gon rine. 

& ]>ie wind him gon vvende ^ 

& ftod of J7an aeft ende. 

and ArSur him ot fcipe fufde t 

mid alle his uerde. 

and hehte |?at hif fcip-men t' 

broliten hine to Romerel. 

|?er he j^ohte up wende t' lo 

in to l^iffen londe. 

pjB he to |jere hauene com r' 

Moddred him wef auornon. 

afe |>e daei gon Hhte t 

heo bigunnen to fihten. 

alle |?ene longe daei :' 

moni mon j^er ded l^ei. 

fumme hi fuhten a londe :f 

summe hi |?an ftronde. 

summe heo letten ut of fcipen / 

fcerpe garen fcrij;en. 21 

Walwain bi-foren wende :' 

and ]?ene waei rumde. 

& f loh \>er a-neufte :' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

fram |;an kingef ferde. 
po bi-fallet^ in on tyme :f 
nioche .... hit gan ryne. 

an gan wende :' 

and eaft eande. 

and Arthur to f ipe wende wende- r' 

mid alle his cnihtef. 

and hehte j?at his f ipmen :' 

brohte hine at Romelan. 

]?ar he )7ohte vp wende :f 

into l^iffe londe. 

po he to |?ar hauene com :f was aforn.3eon. 

ul fo |?e day gan lihte r^ 

hii bi-gonne to fihte. 

al l^ane lang. day f' 

mani man ]?ar dead lay. 

somme hi fohte a londe :' 

somme hi fee 

Waweyn wende hi- . . . e r' 
and j^ane way rumde. 


Then befell it on a time, much rain it gan to rain, and the wind it gan to 
turn, and stood from the east end. And Arthur proceeded to ship (embarked) 
with all Ids 'host [knights] , and ordered that his shipmen should bring him 
to Romney, where he thought to come up into this land. When he came to 
the haven, Modred was opposite to ' him ' ; as the day gan light, they be- 
gan to fight, all the day long ; many a man dead there lay ! Some they 
fought on land, some by 'the [sea] strand ; ' some they let fly sharp spears 
out of the ships,' Walwain went before, and cleared the way ; and ' slew 

» bi-fallehit? 

Sic MS. 

K 2 

132 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 28325— 28347.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiir. 

)?einef elleouene. 

he floli Childrichef fune t' and he floh Cheldrich his fo.. :^ 

J?e was ]>er mid hif fader icume. ]?at was mid ]?an fa... come. 

To refte eode ]>a, funne r' To rafte 3eode e r' 

was wef |>a monnen. [f. 167. c. i.] wo was j?o |? 

Waiwain. j,pj. -yyef Walwaiii afl£e3e ^' j^ar was Waweyn of-slawe :' 

& idon of life-da^e. and idon of lif-da3e. 

J7urh an eorle Sexifne :' ]7orh one eorl Sexifne r' 

faeri wur^e hif faule. sori w..]?e his faule. 

pa wef Ar^ur fasri :' lo po was . .thui- sori :' 

& forhful an heorte for}?i. and forj^folle ,. .eorte. 

& ]?af word bodede :! and ]7eos wo de r' 

riccheft aire Brutte. richeft aire Brut... 

Nu ich ileofed habbe ^ Nou ich i-lore habbe r' 

mine fweinef leofe. Waweyn J>at ich louede. 

ich wufte bi mine s\^euene r ich wifte wel bi min fweuen t' 

whffit sorjen me weoren 3eueSe. ]?at for)?we me was 3euen. 

i-fla3en if Angel ]?e king ^ i-f lawe his Angel \e king .' V 

l^e wef min a3en deorling. |?at was min owe deorling. 

& Walwaine mi^ fufter fune r* 20 and Wawein mi fofte^ fone r' 

wa if me ]?at ich waf mon iboren. wo his me for )?ai-e leore. 

up nu of fcipen biliue :' vp nou of fipe bliue :f 

mine beornef ohte. mine cnih..s ohte. 

there soon eleven thanes;' he slew *Childrichs [Childrich his] son, who 
was come ' there ' with *his [the] father. To rest went the sun ; woe 
was [then] to the men ! There was Walwahi slain, and 4 gpri^'ed of life-_ 
.day, through a Saxish earl, — soiTy be his soul ! Then was Arthur sorry, 
and sorrowful ' therefore ' in heart ; and these words said, mightiest of all 
Britons : " Now I have lost *my loved swains [Waiwain that I loved] ! I 
knew [well] by my dream, \vhat [that] sorrow "were [was] given to me ! 
Slain is Angel the king, who was mine own darling, and Waiwain, my 
sisters son, — woe is me 'that I was born man [for the loss] ! Up now from 
ship, quickly, ray brave knights ! " Even with the words sixty thousand 

' Interlined hy second hand. * R. fofter. 

[v. 28348—28370.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

-^fne ]>a worde :' 

wen den to fihte. 

fixti l^ufend anon :' 

felere kepe. 

and breken Modredef trume :' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiu. 

Eafne pan worde ^ to ..hte. 

sixti }>ou :f 

baldere Bruttus. 

and breke Modred his tronie :' 

and wel neh him feolue wef iiiome.and wel neh him seolf was inome. 

Modred gan to fleonde :f 
and his folk after. 


Modred bi-gon to fleon :' 

& hif folc after teon. 

flu3en ueodliche r' 

feldef beoueden eke. 

3urre |?a ftanef z' 

mid ]>an blod-ftremef. 

per weore al j^at fiht i-don :' 

ah |7at niht to raSe c6. 

3if |?a niht neore r' 

ifla3e hi weoren alle. 

|?e niht heom to-delde :' 

^eond fladef & ^eon' dunen. 

and Modred fwa vor^^ com :' [c. 2.] and Mod . . d fo fov]> com :^ 

|?at he wef at Ludene. 20 ]>a,. he was at Londen. 

Iherden ]?a burh-were :' Hi-horde pe borh-men :f 

hu hit waf al ifaren. al ou hit was ifaren. 

and warnden him in3eong ^' and wornde him .in-gonde.*^ 

par was al |>at fiht idon r' 
ac |?e niht to ra}>e com. 
3ef l^at niht neore t' 
afla3en alle hii were. 

'good warriors [bold Britons] , pressed anon to the fight, and brake 'Modreds 
[Modred his] ranks, and well nigh himself was taken. Modred ' be 'gan 
to flee, and his folk ' to follow ' after ; ' they fled exceedingly, the fields eke 
trembled ; the stones jar with the blood-streams ! ' There 'would have 
been [was] all the fight ended, but the night came too soon ; if the night 
had not been, they all would have been slain ! ' The night separated them 
over slades and over downs '; and Modred came so far forth, that he was 
at London. The burgh-men heard how it had all fared, and denied him 

' 3eond ? 

worK, pr. m. 



[v. 28371—28393.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

& alle hif folke. 
Modrled.l Modred l^eone wende :f 
toward Wiuchaftre. 
and heo hine underuengen r' 
mid alle hif monnen. 
And Ar^ur after wende :' 
mid alle hif niahte. 
);at he com to Wincheftre :' 
mid muchelre uerde. 
& ]?a burh al bireed :' 
& Modred ]?er inne abeod. 
pa Modred ifaeh :' 
f Ar^ur hi^ wef fwa neh. 
ofte he hine bij^ohte r' 
waet he don mahte. 
pa a J?ere iike nilit :f 
he hehte hif cnihtes alle. 
mid alle heore iwepnen :' 
ut of burh3e wende. 
and faside ]?at he weolde r' 
mid fihte |?er at-ftonden. 
He bi-hehte j?ere burje-were :' 
aiier mare freo la3e. 

MS, Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

and alle his folke. 

Modred Jeanne wende :' 

in to Wync.eftre. 

and hii him onder 

mid alle his manne. 

An. ..thur after for]? riht:' 

mid alle his mihte. 

)^at he ..m to Wyncheftre :f 

mid alle his 
10 ... ]?e borh al b-ir... 

... Modred p>ar ine ab... 

.... dred ifeh r^ 

]7at Arthur was fo neh. 

ofte he hine bi-]?ohte :f 

wat he don mihte. 

..d he in ]>a,n ilke niht:^ 

he h.... alle hif cnihtes. 

mid alle pne :f 

vt of borewe wen . . 
20 ..d faide j^at he wolde r 

mid ...te ]7ar at-ftonde. 

entry, and all his folk. Modred thence went 'toward [into] Winchester ; 
and they him received, with all his men. And Arthur 'jDursued [forth-right] 
after, with all his might, until he came to Winchester, with 'a mickle [all 
his] host, and the burgh all besieged ; and Modred therein abode. When 
Modred saw, that Arthur was so nigh ' to him ', oft he bethought him what 
he might do. 'Then [and he] on the same night, he ordered all his knights, 
with all their weapons, to march out of the burgh ; and said that he would 
with fight there make a stand. ' He promised the burghmen free lawever- 

* hit, pr. hi,, hill t expuncted. 

[v. 28394—28415.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xin. 

wi^ ]?an J7a heo him heolpen i 

at hejere neoden. 

pa hit wef daei-liht ^ po hit was day-liht i 

yxxw^ |7a wes heore fiht. \o was 3aru hire fiht. 

Ar^ur ]?at bi-hedde r' Arthur )>at bi-hedde :' 

l^e king wef abol3e. king^ was abo... [c.2.] 

he lette bemen blawen i blowe buiiies r' 

and beonnen men to fihte. filite. 

he hehte alle hif |7einesr[f. l67^c.l.]he hehte al eynes t' 

& aSele hif cnihte. lo and alle his 

fon fomed to fihte f healpe him at )7an i 

and hif ueod^ auallen. ... his feondes fa... 

and \q, burli alle for-don i borh al for-don r' 

and ]7at burh-folc ahon. a al an-hond'*. 

Heo to-gadere ftopen :' h.. ..-gadere ftopen f 

and fturliche fuhten. and hardeliche foht.n. 

Modred |?a |?ohte i Modred \o |7ohte "i 

what he don mihte. ... .e don mihte. 

& he dude J'ere i and he j^are i 

alfe he dude ellef whare. 20 afe he dude w re. 

swikedom mid |?an msefte "i s mid j^an mefte i 

for auere he dude unwr"fte. for onwrefte. 

more, on condition that they should help him at Ms great need.' When it 
was day-light, then ready was their fight. Arthur that perceived, — the king 
was enraged ; — he caused trumpets to be blown, and men to be assembled 
to battle ; he commanded all his thanes, and [all] his ' noble ' knights, 'to- 
gether to take the [to help him at the] fight, and fell his enemies, and the 
burgh all to destroy, and hang [all] the burgh-folk. They stept together, 
and ^sternly [hardily] fought. Modred then thought what he might do ; 
and he did there as he did 'else where [well every where], treachery with 
the most ! For ever he did wickedly ; he betrayed his comrades before 

^ Apparently written at first fari. 
^ li. ueond. 

* \>e king ? 
"• an-hon ? 



[v. 28416—28439.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

he bifwac ^ hif iueren t 

biuoren Wiiicheftren. 

and lette hi to cleopien :f 

hif leofefte cnihtef anan. 

and hif leouefte freod alle :* 

of alien hif folke. 

and bi-ftal from |?aii fihte :f 

]>e feod hine a^e. 

and J?at folc gode lette / 

al |>er for-wur^e. lo 

Fuhten alle dasi :' 

wenden ]?at heore laud J^er laei. 

and weore heom aneoufte r' 

at muchelere neode. 

pa heold he ])ene wai :' 

l^at touward Hamtone lai. 

and iieolde touward hauene :' 

forcu^eft h«le^e. 

and nom alle j^a fcipen t' 

pa yer oht weore. 20 

and |?a fteormen alle :' 

to J7an fcipen neodde. 

and ferden into Cornwalen t' 

forcu^eft kinge a j^an da3en. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

feres f' 


• nd cleopede 

..s leuefte cnih... 

, . al fram ]>an . 
, d hine teahte. 

an gode folk r' 


,n alle lange . , 

,at hire louerd 

. . . were 3eom 

at mochelere neo.. 
.... heold |?ane way r* 

rd Hamtone 1.. 

and o J^an haue.. 

for re cnihte. 


p'at l^ar .oht were, 
and ]?e fteorme . alle :' 
to |?an fipes neo.. 

and wen Cornwal.. 

onwreft in ];ane da^e. 

Winchester, and ' caused ' his dearest knights ' to be ' called to him ' anon, 
and his dearest friends all, of all his folk'; and stole away from the 
fight, — the fiend him 'have [instructed] ! — and let the good folk all there 
perish. 77; ey fought all day [long] ; they weened that their lord there lay, 
and were near them at their great need. Then bent he the way that toward 
Hampton lay ; and bent toward the haven, — wickedest of [all] men, — and 
took all the ships that there good were, and all the steersmen, to the need 
of the ships ; and proceeded into Cornwall, — wickedest of kings in those 

At first written bifpac. 

[v. 28440—28463.] 





MS. Cott. Calig. A. IX. 

And ArSur Wincheftre :' 

]?a burh bilai wel fafte. 

& al •]3 inoncun of-floh r' 

per wef for3e inoh. 

)?a 3eonge and |>a aide i 

alle he aqualde. 

pa )7at folc wes al ded i 

]7a burh al for-fwelde. 

]7a lette he mid alle "i 

to-breken ]?a walles alle. 

pa wef hit itimed ];ere i 

]7at M^liii feide while. 

^rm wur^eft \\x Winchseftre "! 

]7ae eor^e \q fcal forfwal3e. 

swa Merlin faeide i 

J7e witeje wes maere. 

pa qne laei inne Eouwerwic i 

naBf heo naeuere fwa farlic. 

^ wef Wenhauer }>a quene r' 

fHer3eft wimmonne. 

Heo iherde fugge i 

so^^ere worden. 

hu ofte Modred flah i 

and hu Ar^ur hine bibah. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

And Arthur Wyncheftre r' 
.. ..rh bi-lay fafte. 

and mancun of-sl.. 

s forewe inoh. 

I^an holde i 

alle he a.. aide. 

po ]?at folk was al dead :'[f.i34.c.i.] 

J'e toun he for-fvvealde. 

1^0 lette he mid alle i 

to-breke ]?e walles alle. 

po was i-funde |>are :' 

J^at Merlyn faide wile. 

Wyncheftre wo ]7e come}> to :^ 

]je eor]7e |^e fal for-fwol3e. 

so Merlyn fayde i 

l^at wifeft waf of manne. 

pe cweane lay at Euerwich i 

na. 3eo neuere so forlicii. 



3eo ihorde fegge ^ 
so]7ere wordes. 
ou lome Modred fl . 
.nd ou Arthur h... 

days ! And Arthur besieged ' well ' firmly Winchester the burgh ; and slew 
all the people, — there was sorrow enow, — the young and the old, all he 
killed. When the folk was all dead, and the 'burgh all [town he] burnt, 
then caused he withal all the walls to be broken in pieces. Then was it 
there ^corae to pass [found], that Merlin whilom said: "'Wretched shalt 
thou be [Woe cometh to thee] , Winchester ! the earth shall thee swallow ! " 
So Merlin said, who was 'a great prophet [wisest of men] . The queen lay 
'in [at] York ; never was she so sorrowful ; ' that was Wenhaver the queen, 
most miserable of women ! ' She heard say sooth words, how often Modred 
fled, and how Arthur him pursued ; woe was to her the while, that she 



[v. 28464—28486.] 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

wa wes hire ]>ere while :! 

|?at heo wef on life. 

Ut of Eouerwike r' 

bi nihte heo iwende. 

& touward Karliun tuhte r' 

swa fwi^e fvva heo mahte. 

j^ider heo brohten bi nihte i 

of hire cnihten tweije. lo 

and me hire hafd bi~wefde r' 

mid ane hali rifte. 

and heo wes J>er munechene :' 

kare-fulleft wife. 

pa nuften men of |?ere quene r' 

war heo bicumen weore. 

no feole ^ere feo^Se r' 

nufte hit mon to fo^e. 

whaSer heo weore on det)e r ^ j -, 

1 20 

]7a heo here feolf weore :! 
ifunken in \e watere. 
Modred wes i Cornwale :! 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

wo was hire 

... 3eo was on 


bi niht 

and toward droh r' 

fof\vi)?e fo ... mihte. 

for 3eo nolde Ar..ur more ife :' 

for al ]?an ..orle-riche. 

to Cayrl com bi nihte:' 

mid twey. .ire cnihtef. 
and |?are me hire hodede r' 
an. ..nechene makede. 

And .. no man nufte r' 

war 360 bi-come were. 

ne of hire eande :! 

ne can no boo telle. 

in woche wife 3eo was dead :! 

and ou 360 hinne .ende. 

Modred was in Co.. wale :^ 

was alive ! Out of York she went by night, and toward Kaerleon drew, as 
quickly as she might ; 'thither she brought by night [for she would not 
see Arthur more, for all the worlds-realm ; to Kaerleon she came by night, 
with] two of her knights ; and [there] men ^covered her head with a holy 
veil, and she was there a nun [hooded her, and made her a nun] ; ' woman 
most wretched ! ' Tlien men knew not of the queen, [And then no man 
knew] where she were gone, nor 'many years afterwards man knew it in 
sooth, whether she were dead, or whether she herself were sunk in the water 
[of her end can any book tell, in what wise she was dead, and how she 
hence departed] . Modred was in Cornwall, and gathered many knights ; 

' // line ig here wantiiuj. 

[v. 28487—28509.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

& fomiiede cnihtef feole. 

to Irlonde he fende t' 

a-neofte hif fode. 

to Sex-londe he fende r' 

aneoufte hif fonde. 

to Scotlonde he fende :^ 

aneoufte hif fonde. [anan :' 

he hehten heoni to cume alle 

]?at wolde lond habbe. 

o^er feoluer o^er gold r' 10 

oder^ ahte oder' lond. 

on aelchere wifen :! 

he warnede hine feolue. 

swa de^ {file witer mon :' 

]?a neode cume^ uuenan. 

Ar^ur |?at^ iherde :' 

wra^eft kinge. 

]?at Modred waef i Corwale r' 

mid muchele monweorede. 

& \ev wolde abiden r' 20 

J>at Ar^ur come riden. 

Ar^ur fende lode r' 

3eond al hif kine-londe. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xm. 

... gadere cnihtes fale. 

to Irlonde he fende his fonde r' 

and to Scotlonde. 

to Saxlonde he fende r' 

after cnihtes hende. 

];at wolde awinne to hire bond t' 
feo seoluer oj^er lond. [c.2.] 

Arthur ]7is ihorde r' 

wro]?eft aire kinge. 

|7at Modred was in Cornwale t 

mid mochele manferde. 

and |?ar wolde abide r^ 

]?at Arthur come ride. 

Arthur fende fonde r' 

into al his kinelonde. 

to Ireland he sent his messengers 'quickly [and to Scotland] ; to Saxland 
he sent 'his messengers quickly [after knights fair] ; ' to Scotland he sent 
his messengers quickly ; he ordered them all to come anon,' that would 
'have land, or silver, or gold, or possessions [win to their hand fee, silver], 
or land ; ' in each wise he warned himself (each individual) ; — so doth 
each prudent man upon whom cometh need.' Arthur that heard, wrathest 
of [all] kings, that Modred was in Cornwall with a mickle army, and there 
would abide until Arthur approached. Arthur sent messengers 'over [into] 
all his kingdom, and bade all 'to come that was alive in land, that to fight 

ob'er ? 

' At first written wane he. 



[v. 28510—28532.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

and to cume alle hehte :! 
]7at quic wef on londe. 
J7a to uihte^ oht weore:' 
wepnen to beren. 

& wall fwa hit for- fete :^ 

l^at l^e kig hete. lo 

J?e king hine wolde a folden :! 

quid^ al for-bernen. 

Hit laec toward hirede i 

folc vimete. 

ridinde & ganninde r' 

swa j?e rim"* failed'^ adune. 

ArSur for to Cor wale :! 

mid unite ^ ferde. 

Modred )?at iherde :! 

& him to3einef heolde. [c. 2.] 20 

mid vnimete folke t 

]?er weore nioie uoeie. 

uppen l^ere Tanbre :f 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

and bad alle ]?e cnihtes r 
]7at lond vvolden holde. 
]?at hi alle fone : 
to him seolue come, 
bote he were fwike ^' 
and mid Modred heolde. 
J'aie he habbe nolde r' 
l^eh hii comen wolde. 
wo fe for-feate t' 
|?is |?at^ king haete. 
]>e king hine wolde slean r' 
d^QY cwik al for-bearne. 
Hit wende to j^an kinge :! 
folk onimete. 
ridende and .ohinge:^ 
afe p>e ren falle]^. 

to Cornwale wende:' 


Modred e:' 

and him ...Ide. 
mid onimete ..Ike:' 
par were manie faeye. 
vppe ]?ar T..mbre:' 

were good, weapons to bear [the knights that would hold land, that they 
all should come soon to himself, unless he were traitor, and with Modred 
held ; those he would not have, though they would come] ; ' and ' whoso 
'it [this] neglected, that the king commanded, the king would him [slay, 
or] all consume alive ' in the land.' Innumerable folk it came 'toward the 
host [to the king] , riding and on foot, as the rain ' down ' falleth ! Arthur 
marched to Cornwall, with an immense army. Modred heard that, and 
advanced against him with innumerable folk, — there were many fated ! 
Upon the Tambre they came together ; the place hight Camelford, ever- 

' This and the preceding ivord are on an erasure. 
' li. quic. ■* rein r ^ falle^ r 

" >at yc ? 

* B. unimete. 

[v. 28533—28555.] 



MS. Cott. Otho, C. xm. 

icoine' to-gaderes. 
\>e ftude hatte Camelford :' 
euere more i-laft }>at word. 
:' And^ Camelford were mid Arthur:' 
fixti ]?oufend manne. 
and mo j^oufendes 3ite :f 
in Modred his fyde. 
po |?iderward gan ride r' 
Arthur Ipe riche. 
mid oiiimete folke :f 
of cnihtes wel bolde. 
Vppen ]>dv Tambre :f 
hii fmite to-gadere. 


MS. Cott. Culig. A. IX. 

heo tuhten to-gadere. 

\>e ftude hatte Camelford :' 

euer mare ilaft j^at ilke weorde. 

And at Camelforde wef ifomned 

fixti Jjufend. 

& ma |7ufend ]?er to r' 

Modred wef heore aelder. 

pa |?iderward gon ride :' 

ArSur ])e riche. 

mid unimete folke t' lo 

ufeie ]^ah hit weore. 

Uppe ]7ere Tambre r' Vppen J^ar Tambre :' Tam\bre.'] 

heo tuhte to-fomne. 

heue here-marken :! 

halden to-gadere^. 

luken fweord longe ^ 

leide o \e helmen. 

fur uf* fprengen r' 

fperen braftlien. 

fceldef gone fcanen :/ 20 

feaftef to-breken. 

]7er faht al to-fomne ^ 

folc vnimete. 

drowen fweorde longe ?* 
and fmiten on ]?e healmes. 
]?at l^e fur vt fprong ^ 
\q fwippes were bitere. 

[f. 1 34b. 


more lasted the ' same ' word. And at Camelford Vas assembled [were 
with Arthur] sixty thousand [men] , and more thousands ^thereto ; Modred 
was their chief [yet, on Modred his side]. Then thitherward gan ride 
Arthur the mighty, with innumerable folk, — 'fated t hough . it \v ere ! [of 
knights well bold.] Upon the Tambre they encountered together ; ' ele- 
vated their standards ; advanced together ' ; drew their long swords, [and] 
smote on the helms; [_so that the] fire out sprang; 'spears splintered; 
shields gan shiver ; shafts brake in pieces [the strokes were bitter] ! 
' There fought all together innumerable folk ! ' Tambre was in flood 

' hii come? 

=* And at? 

to-godere,/;r. »«. 

for up,j9r. wj. 

142 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 28556— 28578.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xtii. 

Tanibre wef on flode i Tanibre was on flode ^ 

mid vnimete blode. mid onimete blode. 

mon i jjan fihte non j>er ne mibte t^ne mihte man in )7an fihte i 

ikene* nenne kempe. icnowe nanne kempe. 

no wha dude wurfe no wha bet i wo dude wors ne wo dude bet "! 

swa J>at wi^e wef imenged. fo j^at weder was inienged. 

for aelc floh adun riht i for ech sloh adun riht r' 

weore he fwein weore he cniht. were he fweyn were he cniht. 

per wes Modred of-fla^e r par was Modred of-fla3e ."^ 

and idon of lif-da3e. lo and idon of lifda3e. 

2 and alle his cnihtes :' 

in ];an fihte. iflaje in ]?an fiiite. 

per weoren of-fla3e "i par weren of-fla3e i 

alle |7a fnelle. alle ^e fnelle. 

Arduref ^ hered-men ^ Arthures hiredmen :! 

he3e'* heh3e and lowe. 

and ]7a Bruttef alle / and ]?e Bruttes alle i 

of ArSuref borde. of Arthur his horde, 

and alle hif fofterliges t* and alle hi. fofterlin . . s ::' 

of feole kinerichef. [f. les^c. i.] 20 of ne riche. 

And ArSur forwunded "i And him seolf for-w 

mid wal-fpere brade. mid one fpere brode. 

fiftene he hafde r' ... tene he hadde :' 

(flooded) with blood to excess ; ' there ' might *no [not] man in the fight 
know any warrior, ' nor ' who did worse, ' nor ' who [did] better, so was the 
'conflict [storm] mingled ! For each slew downright, were he swain, were 
he knight. There was Modred slain, and deprived of life-day, and all his 
knights slain in the fight. There were slain all the brave, Arthurs war- 
riors, high and low, and all the Britons of 'Arthurs [Arthur his] board, 
and all his dependants, of many ^kingdoms [a kingdom]. And Arthur 
[himself] wounded with [a] broad ' slaughter '-spear ; fifteen dreadful 

* ikeuen, fr. m. * A line and more is here missing. 

^ JR. ArtSuref. * A portion of a line seems here again to be wanting. 

[v. 28579—28601.] 




MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

feondliche wuiiden. 

moil mihte i |?are laften :! 

twa glouen i|?rafte. 

pa iiaf |7er na mare :' 

i )?an fehte to laue. 

of twa hundred }?ufend monnen 

|7a J>er leien to-hauwe. 

buten Ar^iir |?e king ane r' 

& of hif cnihtef tweien. 

Arbur wes for-wunded :^ 

wunder ane fwi^e. 

J^er ^ to him com a cnaue r' 

]?e wes of hif cunne. 

he wef Cadoref fune :! 

\e eorlef of Corwaile^. 

Conftantin hehte |7e cnaue r 

he wef J7an kinge deore. 

Ar^ur him lokede on ^' 

Jjer he lai on f olden. 

and j^as word feide ^ 

mid sorhfulle heorte. 

Coftaetin \v\ art wilcume t' 

Jju weore Cadoref fone. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiTi. 

feond..che wond.. 
man mihte in )7an leafte r' 
two gloues }>reafte. 
j7o naf |?ar na more t' 
ileued in j^an fihte. 
:! of two hundred |?oufend manne f 
J>at l^ar lay to-hewe. 
bote Arthur j?e king :! 
and twei of hif cnihtes. 

ARthur was for-wonded :! 
wonderliche fwi]?e. 
|?ar com a 3ong cnaue :! 
|?at was of his cunne. 
he was Cador his fone:' [c.2.] 
eorl of Corn wale. 
Conftantin he hehte r' 
]?e king hine louede. 
pe king to him bi-heold :f 

20 and ]7eos word faide. 

Conftantin )?ou hart wilcome ^ 
\o\x were Cador ..s 



M'ounds he had ; in the least one might thrust two gloves ! Then was 
there no more remained in the fight, of two hundred thousand men that 
there lay hewed in pieces, except Arthur the king ' alone,' and two of 
his knights. Arthur was wounded wondrously much. There came ' to 
him ' a [young] lad, who was of his kindred ; he was *Cadors [Cador his] 
son, ' the ' earl of Cornwall ; Constantine 'the lad [he] hight, 'he was dear 
to the king [the king him loved] . 'Arthur looked on [The king beheld] 
him, ' where he lay on the ground,' and said these words, ' with sorrowful 
heart :' " Constantine, thou art welcome ; thou wert Cadors [Cador his] 

' l>eo, pr. in. 

' R. Cornwaile. 



[v. 28602—28625.] 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

ich |?e bi-take here :' 
mine kineriche. 
and wite mine Bruttus ^' 
wel bi )?ine liue. 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

ich ]>e bituche here :' 

mine kineriche. 

and w'lte mine Bruttef r' 

a to |?inef lifef. 

and hald heom alle ]?a la3en ^ 

J?a habbeo^ iftonden a mine da3en. 

and alle ]m la3en gode :' 

]?a bi V^eref da3en ftode. 

And ich wuUe uaren to Aualu :f And ich wolle wende to Auelun :' 

to uaireft aire maidene. lo 

to Argante J'ere quene :' to Argant ]?are cweane. 

allien fvvi^e fceone. 

& heo f lal * mine wunden :' 

makien alle ifunde. 

al hal me makien r' [c 2.] 

mid halewei3e drechen. 

And feo^e ich cumen vvulle :' 

to mine kineriche. 

and wunien mid Brutten :' 

mid miichelere wunne. 20 

^fne |7an worden t' 

])er com of fe wenden. 

]7at wes an fceort bat li^en :' 

fceouen mid v^en. 

and 3eo fal mine wondes :' 

m al ifunde. 

al ie .*' 

mid halewei 

-nd fuj?|?e ich 3en :' 

to mine 

Eafne ]?an .... 
..r com of f6e wende. 
a lu.. fort bott' 
wandri mid ]>.. beres. 

son. I give thee here my kingdom, and defend thou my Britons *ever in 
[well by] thy life, ' and maintain them all the laws that have stood in my 
days, and all the good laws that in Uthers days stood.' And I will fare 
to Avalun, ' to the fairest of all maidens,' to Argante the queen, 'an elf 
most fair,' and she shall make my wounds all sound ; make me all whole 
with healing draughts. And afterwards I will come [again] to my king- 
dom, ' and dwell with the Britons with mickle joy '." Even with the words 
there approached from the sea ' that was ' a [little] short boat, floating 

II. fcal. 

[v. 2^^26—23648.] 

LA5AM0NS. milJT. 


/ MS, pott. Caliir. A. ix. 

■and Uva wimiiH; |>er lane t' 

wundcrlich'e idihte." 

avid heo iioineii Avuur anfi r* 

I'lul aiieoufto' bine ucreden, 

aud fofte adun leiden :' 

-& foriS gimneii hine- li'oen. 

pa vvef hit iwur^en r" 

Jjat M^lin feide whilen. 

I^at weore miiniete care :' 

of Arouref forS-fare. 

Bruttef ileue^ ■^eifi.:' 

}>at he bon on Hue. 

and vvunnien in Aucilun :' 

mid faireft aire aluen. 

and lokieS euere B"ttef 3eter' 

wLan Ar^ur c.nne li^e. ' 

Nif nailer ]?e mon ibore :' 

of nauer nane bnrde icoren. 

]:'e cunne of J'an fobe r" 

of Aruure fugen nvare. 

Buie while wef an Vyiteje r' 

M<arlin ihate. 

lie bodefli mid worde r' 

MS. Cott. Ocho, C. y.n:. 

and two wimm ine:' 

' v/onderlicheiarvnned. 

men Arthur anon:' 

an. .. I'^'^i bote here. 
and bine foht. .dun Icv'dc r' 
a^Kl forb ... gan -»vcnde. 
po was ... ..onder^ 
j^at JMerlyii, (aide v/ile. 
I'at folde been mochcl care :' 
10 after. Arthurcs forb-fare. 
Brutt.. i]eue]> 3ete :' 
|;at he be. on line, 
and w,nie in Auailun :/ 
nud ...efte aire cwene. 

Nas neueie }'e num iborc r' 
ne of wonnnan iocre. 
]>at conne of |>an fo]7e:' 
20 of A "thur fe;^£^e more. 

Bote wile y.'as a witti :f [f. i ;i5. c i .] 

T^.Ierihi ihote. 

lie fi^ide mid wordes.'' 

; with the waves; and two women thereia, wondrouslj fcrtnecl ; and they 
took Arthur anon, and bare him/quickly [to the boat], and}ai.l him softly 
down, and forth they gan depart. Tbeu was it araajBplJshjp.cLth.aj, Mer- 
lin _whilom said, tirat mickle csxe (sorrow) should be 'of [after] Arth.urs 
departure. . The Biutonr believe yet that he is alive, ana dwelleth in Ava- 
lun with the fairest of ail *elves [qneeasj; * ev.d iTie Britons ever yet ex- 
pect wlien Arthur shall return.' Wus never the. IE an born, [nor] of 'ever 
any lady [woman] chosen, that knoweth of the sooth, to say more of Ar- 
thur. J3ut whilom was a hight Merlin ; he ^aid with words^;^;.is 



^ This Kord has ieen altered, on an erasur-e. 
.2 heo gunnen? See II. 25635. 268-27. ac. 

VOL. in. 


1.A3AM0NS imUT. 

[v. 2S('4!;i— 25070.] . 

MS. Cott. CaHg. A. IX. 

Iiif qui'b'cfv^'coren fo'Se. 
yvA. ail Ar(5i:r fcalds jeteV 
cum Anirlen to fulfte. 

rvlS. Cott. Ot'ic, d XIII. 

his fa?ef \vove fo]'e. 

]ydt Avthii;; Iblde gifer 

come BnitteC... for to liealpe. 

C)oi:ai>tin jaif lecuede on loade :' //^ Onfrautm :iain ]71r lond r' 

8: Bnvtref hine lufeLle, ^-j,. / and Bi-uttus lihic louedc. 

a,nd f\Vii5t deore' lifeorii he wes V. • - 

and MTiSeliclie'' lie ohrae heoldcn. [ /• l«''-c. i.] 

IS u haifuede Mpdred fimeii. ■tAveie-:^Nou hadde Modrcd tv/el loncs :' 

an maine" rvriue ftronge, of mtiyne hii weien I'tronge. 

heo ifkeirhu hit ferde i^e-re r' lo Jm 1eh;e ou bit ferd'e bere ;' 

of Ardure^ I'aa kailcre. of Arthr.v '^■xr. caifere. 

and bu beore fader wes of-naje:'aad ovi bire fader, was of-sL'^jc ^' 

& idon of iif-da3en. and idon of llf-dajc. 

8<. bu Bruttef to-dreued weorcn r'and ou Tb-ut;;' to-dreued were:' 

mid feole cimne burften. 

]''a like tweie bruScren r' 

fpekevi ueo bi-tv/eohnen'^. 

and fomned.en pa ciiihtef alle :' 

lekft |;a Leo l^ubte. 

J7a Vv'eoren v/ide to-fiGje:^^;' co 

V't of I'an wioei-v.-'bte. 

and fomneden uerder' and fomne^ ic... 

on uia.. cnnnei' M-ife. 
Hii fpc. ... bi- twine 

Siiylngs were 3oqvb, — that ' aa " AithiT snould yet con^i? Ihere for] to help 
Ml? 'Etigiish [Britons]. \jCon3i;a.rit;.ne 'thu^ Lr\ed iii [took this] Ir.nd, and 
KntOii? hira loved; ' r.nd exceeding dea-- he was to theui, and worthily 
they h'.jn esteemed .' Now had Modred two sons, of iriigbt Vnc-t [they 
were] strong^; they saw how it fared here of Arthur the caisev, cjid how 
thcdr father wa= slain, and deprived of lifeday, and h.ow the Britons were 
oppressed Vith many 'inn d of evils [hi iiiany kind of wise]. 'Tiie same 
•two brothers [lliey] spake them between, 'and assemul.ed all ti\c Viiiohts 
tiiat seemed to them best, wlio had widely fled cut of the battle'; aiid as- 

* wunderliche, pr. %%. 
^ and main, pr. r,-. 

* bi-tveohxeii, ;;.-. ;,i, 

to-fio;o, pr. r.i. 

•'■ Iwc-ien, pr. 'in, 
* II. ArJ-jre. 
-' foranjrle ? 

[v. 28671— 28C93.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

wide 3eod ^an arde. 

and |7uhten to flan Coftantin r' and Jmhte flean Con.... tin :' 

and al hif lod binimen him. and al his lond b him. 

pat iherde fugge Coftantin t' pat ihorde Confta.... 

]'e king wef aboljen. ]>e king- was abolw. 

and fende hif fonde r' ... fende his fonde :' 

wide 3eond hif londe. ouer.. his londe. 

and hirede^ hehte cumej' and hehten comen alle r' 

|7an kingge to helpe. .ane king to helpe. 

Sijen toward hirede :f lo Wende toward ferde r' 

3eonglingef fnelle. 3onglenges fnelle. 

J?ritti ]7ufend anan r' J^rit.. j^oufend anon r' 

fomed comen fraften. ]?rafte to ]>an l^ynge. 

and ]>e )?e^ king forS rihtef :' and ]}e king for]?rihtef r 

makeden horn cnihtef. makede 3am cnihtes. 

pa o^ere cnihtef ]>er comen :f 0|?er cnihtef j^ar come ^ 

]>a. at ]>an fehte ar weoren. J»at hear at fihte weren. 

)>a hafde he to-fomne :' . . hadde he to-gadere i' 

fixti ]7ufende. fixti d. 

pat iherde bodien r' 20 pis ihorden beie ^ 

beien Moddredef funen. es fones tweie. 

and nomen heo to rade ^^ [c.2.] heom 

and to fom rune. oune. 

sembled a host ' wide over the land,' and thought to slay Constantine, and 
take from him all his land. Constantine heard ' say' that, — the king was 
enraged, — and sent his messengers \vide over [over all] his land, and bade 
'forces [all] come, to help the king. Marched toward the host active 
youths ; thirty thousand anon *came together crowding [crowded to the 
king] ; and the king forth-right made them knights. ' When ' the other 
knights there came, that ere at ' the ' fight were, then had he together 
sixty thousand men. Both Modreds sons [twain] heard 'that [this] ' said', 
and betook them to counsel and to some communing, that the one would 

' herede, j)r. ?«. 

2 Sic MS. 

L 2 



[v. 28694—28716.] 

MS, Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

|?at |7e an li^en wolde i' 

in to Lundene. 

and J^e oder ^ li^en wolde :' 

in to Winchaftre. 

and J>er heo wolden abiden ^' 

]>at ]>e king comen riden. 

and wolden wiS him fehten :f 

mid alien heore mehten. 

Al^ \>iB hit com to neode :' 

o^er weif hit eode. lo 

Coftcantin^ gon liSe r' 

touward Ludenne. 

pat iherden bodien :f 

]>eo jja burh'* bivvuften. 

haelden to-fomne :' 

to heore huftinge. 

heo nomen heom to rade t' 

and to fom rune. 

J?at heo wolden halden alle r' 

mid Coftantin j^an kinge. 20 

and for-faken Modredcf fune :' 

]>iB "put mor^ wrohte. 

Modredef fune flah :f 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

dene, [c.2.] 

and |?e o]?er wende folde :' 

in to Wyncheftre. 

and |?ar hii wolde a-bide:^ 

j^at ]>e king come ride. 

and wolde mid him fihte r' 

mid al hire mihte. 

Ac ]7o hit com to neode :' 

al o)?er weies hit ^eode. 

Conftantin gan wende :^ 

toward Londene. 

pat ihorde fegge r^ 

|?at ]?e borh bi-wifte. 

nomen heom to reade :' 
and to fom roune. 
)?at hii wolde holde r^ 
mid Conftantin |?an . . , . 
and Modred his fon . . . . 

I'at ]?ane morjn'e e. 

Modred hif 


go into London, and the other 'would [should] go into Winchester ; and 
there they would abide until the king came riding, and would with him 
fight, with all their might. But when it came to need, [all] otherwise it 
happened! Constantine gan march toward London. 'They' who guarded 
the burgh heard that said; ' thei/ met together at their busting; they' be- 
took them to counsel and to some communing, that they ' all ' would hold 
with Constantine the king, and forsake 'Modreds [Modred his] son, who 
wrought the perdition. 'Modreds [Modred his] son fled, and * in' to a'min- 

' o^er ? =" Ah ? 

■* Altered on erasure by a second hand. 

' R. Coftantin. 

[v. 28717—28738.] 



,d |nire hine kah. 
i his fwi 
of- swipte 

g mid his fwe rde t' 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

and in to ane muneftcre teh. and to one ..erche ... 

And Conftantin him after wende t' ... Conftantyn after 

and pev^ hine iccchte. 

]>e king mid hif Aveorde :' 

]>&.t hefd him of-f\vipte. 

And |7uf \>e king wordede :' 

wree^ on hif J^onke. 

Li3e |>er ]7u la^e mon :' 

leof ])u beo ]?a sucke^. 

slae^ heo aneoufte :' 

al ^ 36 findeS ]?ere. 

mine wi^er-iwinnen r' 

weorpe^ heom to gruden. 

pif f laht wef fone idon :' 

for moni mon }>er wenden to 

Seo'Se lette Coftantin :' 

]>e^ king wef on londe. [f. icy", c. 1.] 

blawen hif benien ^' 

and bonnien hif hif"* ferden. 

and wende riht j^ene wai r' 

]>e touward Wiiichaeftre lai 

and forS ladde mid hi t' 

pis was fone idon t' 
for najen ftode. 

20 Su|?)?e he nam ]?ane way r' 

]> Euerwike lay. 

and for ad:' 

ster [church] drew. And Constantine ' went ' after him, and there him 
caught ; the king with his sword struck from him the head. ' And thus 
the king spake, wrath in his thought : " Lie there, thou hateful man, be 
thou dear to the Fiend ! — Slay ye them quickly, all that ye here find, mine 
enemies cast ye them to ground ! " ' This slaughter was soon done, for 
many '« man there helped [nigh stood]. Afterwards 'caused Constan- 
tine, who was king in the land, his trumpets to be blown, and his host to 
be assembled ; and ' 'marched right [he took] the way that toward 'Win- 
chester [York] lay ; and led forth with him the Britons of London, and 

' J'ane, jn-. m, 
* J'ed, pr. m. 

' scucke ? 
* Sic MS. 

150 LA^AMONS BRUT. [v. 28739-28761.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A, ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii, 

]?a Bruttef of Lundene. ]>e Bruttus 

and to Winchaefti-e comen :f and 

and a-neoufte binnen wenden 

[Meieoyi. pat ifseh Meleon :' 

J^e wef Modredef fone. 

and from his iueren cherde :' 

and fleh to are chirche. 

and for^ riht anan wende :' 

forn to ane wefde. 

Coftantin braid ut hif fweorde :' 

& ]>a.t hafde him of-fwipte. n 

]7at feint Anfibalef weofd r' 

iwraS ]?er of a blode. 

and feo^en he lette f len :' 

alle Melaeonef me. 

peo wef Coftantin king here :f 

of ]?effere kine-riche. 

]>a bigiinen bliffen t' 

in Brutene to wunien. Brutayne. [f. 13j''.c. i.] 

her waef griS her wef friS :f 20 

and freoj la3en mid folke. 

and ful wel heoden- ]?a ilke lajen :' here were ]>e ilke lawea ;f 

]?at ftoden on Ar^uvef da3en. ];at ftode bi Arthur his da3es. 

to Winchester came, and * speedily' entered within. Melion saw that, who 
was Modreds son, and turned from his companions, and fled to a church, 
and forth-right anon went before an altar. Constantine drew out his 
sword, and struck from him the head, so that Saint Amphibals altar was 
covered thereof in blood ; and afterwards he caused all Melions men to be 
slain. Then was Constantine king here of this kingdom ; then began bliss 
in Britain to dwell ; ' here was peace, here was concord, and free laws 
with the folk ; ' 'and full well [here were] the same laws maintained, that 
stood in 'Arthurs [Arthur his] days. But the same lasted too little while ; 

1 Anfibilalcf, pi-, m. 2 heoldcn ? 

[v. 28762— 28784.] LA3AMONS BRUT. 151 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

Ah ];at ilke i-lafte i' Ac |>at ilke ilafte :! 

to lutele while. to lutele wile, 
for no ilaft he buten feouwer 3er :! for he ne la . de bote four jer :! 

hif feod hine aqualde. I^at hef ' fon hine a-cwelde. 

and hif folc hine uerede r' and his men him brohte t' 

in to Stan-henge. riht to Ston-henge. 

and |?er hine leide 1! and |?are hine leide :' 

hi leofen hif aklren. bi le.fue his ealdre. 

Seo^^en wef Conan i O Eo|7]7e was Conan :! 

ihoue her to kinge. [c.2.] 10 ^^ i-houe her to kinge. 

]7at wef ]?e for-cuSefte mon :/ ]?at was J>e worfte man ^ 

\>Qi funne here fcean on. .at j^e fonne auer fon^. 

Coftantinef fuft"^ smie r' Conftantines fo ne :^ 

hif aem he bifwac to de^e. his earn he du ]?e. 

for he hefde^ rihte ^ for ]>at he had ^ 

to j^iffere kineriche. to l^iffe kin..iche. 

Conan mid attere r' C ter r' 

hif aemef fvme aqualde. his eames de. 

He bigon un-fri^ :' He ne heol 

if me'* him fuhten wi^. 20 hi^ owene men h 

and he gon fechien :! 

to hif twam fuftere. 

ale burh*^ i J^an londe ^ ech borh in ]?an 


for he (the king) lasted not but four years, — [that] his foes him killed ; 
and his 'folk [men] brought him 'into [right to] Stonehenge, and there 
laid him by his dear ancestors. Afterwards was Conan raised here to be 
king ; that was the 'wickedest [worst] man, that [the] sun 'here [ever] 
shone on ; Constantines sisters son ; his uncle he 'betrayed [put] to death, 
for [that] he had right to this kingdom. Conan with poison his uncles 
sons killed. He 'began strife [held not peace], his [own] men fought with 
him, 'and he gan seek to his two sisters'; each burgh in the land went 

* his ? " fon on ? 

■• Added by a second hand in the margin. 


^ hafde, /jr. m, 
' On an erasure. 



[v. 28785—28808.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

ferde al to fconde. 
aftured wes al ]?af ]7eode i 
ftrongliche swiSe. 
Six jere ilafte i 
)>af saerineffe on londe. 
]?a veol l^e klg of horfe ^ 
and fffii-fi^ makede. 
wel wef al \\{ folke "i 
for hif feeie-fi^e. 
pa ]7if wef al ido j^uf r' 
Vortiboruf. J'^ i-warS king Uortiporus. 
peo comen Sexifce men t 
seilen to londe. 
and muchebie harm wrohten r' 
bi3eonde }?ere Hunbren. 
flo3en & nomen :' 
al )7at heo neh comen. 
And Uortip jruf }?e hende^ r' 
fende after genge. 
and ferede heom ouenon r' 
and feold Sexifce men. 
and mole ]?ufend fente r' 
to |?are fe g'^nde. 
and |7uf he- heom a-ferde :! 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. sm. 
.de to fconde. 

Six 3er 

..s forineffe in londe. 

e king of horfe r' 

and ..edede his da3es. 
wel ..s al ]?is folke r' 


10 .. ..s ...s al I? 


fee grunde. [c.2.] 

]?us he 3am forferde r' 

' all ' to destruction ; ' aU this people was stirred very strongly.' Six years 
lasted this sorrow in the land ; then fell the king from his horse, — well was 
all this folk for his death I When this was all done thus, tlien A^ortiporus 
became king. Then came Saxish men sailing to the land, and mickle harm 
wrought beyond the Humber ; they slew and captured all that they came 
nigh. And Vortiporus the fair sent after forces, and marched against them, 
and felled the Saxish men, and sent many thousands to the sea-ground ; 
'and' thus he them 'terrified [destroyed], and drove from [his] land, so 

* hen, pr. m. 

he he,/>r. m. 

[v. 28809—28830.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. IS. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

and flemde of londe. [[f.iro.c. i.] and of his londe fleemde. 
]'at naeuer feodSen ^ bi hif da3en r'j'at neuere 3et bi his dai3e "i 

ne hifte 3am hider fare. 
His da3ef w..e foue 3er:' 
and fu|']'e he her. 
po nam j'es riche :' 
Malg" I'e keue. 
]'at was |?e faireft man r' 
wi]' vte Abfalon and Adam, 
afe bokef segej) :' 
pa. .uere ibore were. 

ne luften heom hider uaren. 

Hif da3ef ilafte feueu 3ere r 

and feocSben he dei^ede. 

And feodSen' nom }'af riche :^ 

Malgus l^e re3e. 

\dX waf |?e fairefte men :' 

wis uten Adam & Abfolon. 

fwa alfe ]?e hoc uf fuggeS "! 10 

]m a?uere iboren weore. 

pef lette hif hired dihte "i 

al wis ote^ cuihten. 

)mhten alle ]'ef^ fweinef :^ 

fwulche heo weoren j'einef. 

liaueden alle hif hired-cnafe i 

aelchef godef fweines la3e. [mon :' 

ne durfte nauere nan vn-hende Ne dorfte no on-hende man : 

]>af kingef huf ifechen. )>es kingef londe feche. 

He biwun j^a londef alle X 20 

]^a ftoden him an honde. 

pa wef al ]>af Bruttene r^ Nou was eaft }>is lond r 

Ma Is us. 

that never 'afterwards [yet] in his days it listed them to come hither. 
His days 'lasted [were] seven years, and then he died [here] . 'And after- 
wards [Then] Malgus the keen took this realm, who was the fairest man, 
without (except) Adam and Absalon, ' so ' as 'the book [books] us say, 
that ever was born. 'This ki/ic/ caused his court to be furnished all with 
brave knights ; all the swains seemed as if they were thanes, all his at- 
tendants had the manners of each good swain ; ' durst ^never any [no] un- 
courteous man seek the kings 'house [land] . ' He won all the lands that 
stood to him in hand.' 'Then [Now] was [eft] all this 'Britain [land] 



ute, ;'»•. ni. TJ'e should probably read ohte. 




[v. 28831—28853.] 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

afeolled mid bliffe. 

]>a, bleden uorS comen :' 

3eond al |;if kinedomen. 

X>e king ne rohte of a;hte :f 

ah al he hit ^ai his cnihten. 

no mihte no mon fugge r^ 

of wundere na mare. 

J^ene wef mid j^an kinge :' 

buten^ of ane ]?inge. 

he hiuede |>ane fQne :' 

]>e la^ if ^ ure drihtene. 

]7a wifmen heo^ for-foken r' 

to mare funne heo^ token. 

wapmon luuede wapmon :f 

wifmen heo laSe weoren. 

swa }>at monie j^ufende :' 

wenden of |?iffe lond. 

wifmen fwiSe feire f" 

ferden to oSere |?eoden. 

for mucchel fcome heon'* J^uhte 

]?at wepmen heom ne rohte. 21 

purh ut alle cunnef |?inge r' 

]?if ilke wef a god kinge. 


MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

ifulled mid bliffe. 
. . bledes for]? come :' 

oner kinedome. 

pe king of ..efur ne rohte: 
ac al .. hit 3af his cnihtes. 

ne no man fegge :' 

of mur.. no more. 
}?an was mid . . . kinge :' 
bote of one )?in . . 
he louede ]>e funne t* 
]?at loll his oure drihte. 
|;e wimmen he for-fo.. 
and to wepmen he tok. 
we . men louede wepmen :f 
wifm.. .am lo)?e were. 

porh vt alle ];ing r' 

was ]>es ilke god .... 

filled with bliss ; the fruits came forth over aU this kingdom. The king 
cared not for ^wealth [treasure], but all he it gave to his knights; might 
no man of \vonder (i. e. of what was deserving of admiration) [mirth] say 
any more than was with the king, except of one thing, — he loved the sin 
that is loathso?He to our Lord ; the women he forsook, ^and to great sin 
[and to men] he took ; men loved men, women were ' to them ' hateful ; 
' so that many thousands of women most fair went from this land, and fared 
to other countries ; for great shame it seemed to them, that men cared not 
for them.' Throughout all kind of thing this 'same was 'a' good king, 

' bu, pr. m. 
3 he? 

2 Interlined hy a second hand. 
* li. heom. 

[V. 28854— 28876.] LA^AMONS BRUT. 155 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

bute of ]7ere funne r' bote of |?are fuiine :" 

]?at ich ifeid habbe. ]7at ich i-faid habbe. 

pa com an of hif cunne :' po com on of his cunne :f 

Carrie wefihaten. Carieh was ihote. Carrltc}. 

and nom* |nfne kinedom:^ and nam |?ifne kined.. 

and mid feor3en wmiede ])ei' on. and mid forwe won on. 

fnel cniht wef Carrie :f ftrong cniht 

ah he nef noht ifeli. ac he nas 

]7at wef for unleoden r' .... as for 

fpilden al hif ]?eoden. lo 

peof kig wef a^el Bruttifc mon i' [f. I36.c. i.j 

hnx and hoker me warp him on 

heo^ for-laette Car riches :f 

& Kinric hine cleopede. Kinlrk']. 

and 3et on feole bocken r' 

hif nome me fwa write^. 

Folc hine gmme haenen :f 

folc hine gunne hatien. 

and hoker lo^ fungen r 

bi la^en j^an kingeu. 20 

pa bigon weorre r' 

ouer al ];iffen arde. 

and Sexifce men fone if 

except of the sin that I have said. Then came one of his kindred, tvho 
was named Carrie, and took this kingdom, and with sorrow dwelt therein ; 
a 'brave [strong] knight was Carrie, but he was not prosperous, that was 
because foreigners destroyed all his nation. This king was a noble British 
man ; derision and contempt men threw on him ; they renounced the name 
of Carrie, and called him Kinric ; and yet in many books men so write his 
name. Folk gan him abase, folk gan him hate, and sung contemptuous 
songs of the odious king. Then began war over all this country ; and 
Saxish men soon sailed to the land, and took their station speedily beyond 

' men, pr. m. ^ he, pr. m. 

156 LA3AiM0NS BRUT. [v. 28877— 28900.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

seiledc to londe. 

and her ber3e token a-neouwefte r' 

bi-3eonde J'ere Humbre. 

and ]>e king wseilien agon :f 

wide 3eon^ )?af ]?eoden. 

lae^ he wef al folke :' 

J?a him on lokede. 

pa wes in Aufrike :f 

a king swi^e riche. [f. l70^c. i.] 

he wef an Aufrican t' lo 

lAnft^er. Anfter ihaten. 

he hafde fonen tweien f 

fnelle cnihtef beien. 

lGur]mund. Gui'mud hehte ]>e eldere :' 

[Crerjjon. & Gerion hehte j^e 3eongere. 

pe aide king de3ede ^ 

hif dajef weoren a3eogen. 

he bitahte hif fune Gurmunde r^ 

felen hif riche. 

Ah Gnrmud hit for-ho3ede:' 20 

and habbe he heo nolde. 

and )7ohte^ al oSer :f 

and 3ef heo hif broder. 

and feiden J'at he nolde :' 

the Humber ; and the king gan live in exile wide over this nation ; hate- 
ful he was to all folk that on him looked. Then was in Africa a king ex- 
ceeding powerfid ; he was an African, named Anster; he had two sons, 
brave knights both ; Gurmund hight the elder, and Gerion hight the 
younger. The old king died, — his days were passed, — he gave his son 
Gurmund his good realm. But Gurmund despised it, and have it he w'ould 
not, and thought all a«other thing, and gave it to his brother ; and said 
that he would not possess any realm, unless he it won with weapon and 

^ 3Coud ? * ]?ohten, pr. m., but n erased. 

[v. 28901— 28925.] LA^AMONS BRUT. 157 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho. C. xiii. 

a3en nane riche. 

bute he lieo biwune i 

mid wepnen and mid monnen 

ah mid compe he wolde :' 

a3en kineriche. 

o^er nauermare :! 

nolde he habbe nane. 

Gurmund waf kempe "l 

i-coftned on maeine. 

and he wef \q. ftrongefte mo r' lo 

]?ae sei mon lokede on. 

He bi-gon to fende r' 

jeond al J^an londe. 

in to Babilonie i 

in to Macedonie. 

in ^ Turkie i 

in to Pfie. 

in to Nubie "i 

in to Arrabie. 

& bad alle j^e 3eonglingef r' 20 

3eond ['a hseSene londef. 

]7at heo heom bi3eten :' bi-3eate i [c. 2.] 

wurSliche wepnen. wor]? 

and he heom forS rihtef:' and he wolde 

wolden makien cnihtef. . am makie 

with men, but with battle he would possess a kingdom, or nevermore 
would he have one ! Gurmund was a champion approved in might, and 
he was the strongest man that any man looked on. He began to send 
over all the land, into Babylonia, into Macedonia, into Turkey, into Per- 
sia, into Nubia, into Arabia ; and bade all the youths over the heathen 
lands, that they should procure to them worthy weapons, and he would 
forth-right make them knights, and afterwards go [forth] ' with them ', 

» in to ? 



[v. 28926—28948.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xtii. 

and feodSen' mid heo wen den t' ... su]?]?e gon for]?:' 
and fonden whar he niihten. [c. 2.] 
mid ftrongen ^ kepen :' 

biwinnen kineriche. nne kinerichef. 

Hit halde touward Aufrike :' ward Affrike :' 

of feole^ kuneriche. he. 

monief richef monnef fune t' 
monie hafSene'* gume. 

comen to Gurmunde:' and co 

pan hffiSene j^ringe. lo J'an hea]?... kinge. 

pa I'if ferde wef ifomned :' po hii were to-. ... re icome :' 

and his folc arimed. ... mani one de. 

]?a weoren ]>er italde :f ]?o weren ]?ar itold r' 

cnihtef swiSe balde. j^e bold. 

an hundred and f ixti ]?ufed t' an hun i }>oufend :' 

freoliche^ iwapned. mid ... gode .epne. 
wi^ ute heore fcutten r' 
|?a biuoren fcoklen fcuuen. 
wi^ uten j^an c"aftmonnen :f 
]fe come to Gurmiide. 20 

For^ heo iuufden r' Gormund nde :' 

vnimete uerden. mid onimete ferde. 

to ]?are fe wenden :' to J»are fee wende t 

and 'seek where he might' win kingdoms, ' with his strong warriors.' It 
(the host) came toward Africa from many a kingdom, ' the son of many a 
mighty man, many a heathen person,' [and] came to Gurmund, the heathen 
'chief [king] . When *this host was assembled, and his folk [they were 
come together, and many a one] numbered, then were there told, knights 
most bold, an hundred and sixty thousand, 'freely weaponed [with their 
good weapons], 'without their archers, that before should press, and 
without the craftmen, that came to Gurmund'. Forth 'they [Gurmund] 
marched, [with] innumerable host ; to the sea they came, then had they 

' feoSSen ? 
^ haSene ? 

^ flrongere, pr. m. 
^ feoliche, p?-. »/?. 

Added by a later hand. 

[v, 28949—28969.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

]><i heo wid hafden. 

in to fcipe haldenden^ :' 

ha"5ene kempen. 

Seouentene \>er fore t' 

]fa,t kiijgef funeu weoren. 

]?er weoren twenti and sehte :f 

of eorlene ftreone. 

fuipten^ from londe t' 

feoiien hundred fcipene. 

a formefte flocke^ :f 10 

wi^ uten ]?a feoliende. 

ForS flet mid vSe t' 

folc vnimete. 

]>'d aeit-lodef '^ alle f 

]?a heo biforen fmiden. 

alle heo eoden an hode ^ 

)?an kige Gurmunde. 

moniane kinere he faht wi^ :f 

and alle heo ^irnden hif gri^.*- ' ^ -. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

. . t ... wind hadde. 

into nde :' 

heaj^ene kempes. 

. .uentene ]>a,T were :f 

kin... fones riche. 

eahte and . . . .ti eorlene fones t^ 

to ]>an f ipes . . 
soue hundred 

& alle ]>e lodef he biwon r 
]?at he lokede on. 


w...e fram |?an Ion,. 

es alle :f 

]?at hii f. ... 

and al Gormud .... 

. . his owene bond. 

ma., kynge .. ..aht wi)?:' 

and .... hii ^ornde his gri}>. 

and .... j?e londes he bi-won :f 

... he mid e3e lokede on. 

fair wind ; into ship embarked the heathen warriors. Seventeen there \vent 
[were] , ' that were ' kings sons [mighty] ; * there were ' eight and twenty of 
earls 'offspring swept (?) from the land [sons to the ships went'} ; seven hundred 
ships ' in the foremost flock, without the ships following ! ' 'Forth floated 
with the waves innumerable folk ; [from the land went ; and thej/ took] all 
the islands that they before them found, 'all they went in hand (submitted) 
to the king Gurmund [and all Gurmund took in his own hand] . Many a 
king he fought with, and they all yearned his peace ; and all the lands he 
won that he [with eye] looked on. And then at the end he came to Ire- 

' haldeden? 

^ J7iis word is doubtful, and has been badly corrected by a second hand, on an era- 

' folke, pr. m. * aeit-loddef, pr. m. 



[v. 28970—28993.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

And J?a a ]?an endede • r* 

he com to Irlonde. 

and ]7at lod he al biwon :* 

and aqualden J^a leoden. 

and wef icleoped king ];ere :! 

of l^an kinelonde. 

& feodSen^ he gon wende :! 

m to j?iffen londe. 

fell heo dro3en to hune r' 

and comen to SuS-hamtune. lo 

pa wunede bi-3eonde ]^ere Hunbre 

of Hengeftef cunne. 

in j^an nor^ ende :' 

drenches fume fixe. 

heo iherden tiSinde ^ 

of Gurmund ]?an kinge. 

ofte heo heom bi|?ohte t 

what heo don niihten. 

hu heo mihten bifvviken ^ 

Karic of hif richen. 20 

and Bruttef alle aqllen :' 

mid habere heore craften. 

Sexifce men fenden fonde :! 

to Karic pan king. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

And ]>o at ]?an heande r' 

he com to Irlonde. 

]7at lond he al . . won r' 

and acwelde \e leode. 

and was iclcopid king t' 

j^are of j^an kinelonde. 

And fu|?]?e he gan wende ^' 

in to j^iffe londe. 

failes drowe many gome t" 

and come .. Sul>-hamtone. '-■-,■ 
'' c. 1 .] 

r^po won . . . bi Nor|?humbre :! 
of Hen . . . tef cunne. 

hii ho ge :! 

of Gormund jje. 

ofte hii 3a 

wat idon^ m 

mihte bi 

in his rich. 

... .I'uttu acwelle ^^ 

mid hire luj^er cr 

SAxiffe men fende . . .de r' 
to Carich |?ane 

land, ' and ' the land he all conquered, and killed the people, and was called 
kuig there of the kingdom. And afterwards he gan proceed into this 
land ; sails 'they [many a man] drew ' to the top-mast/ and came to South- 
ampton. Then dwelt 'beyond the Humber [by NorthumberZawrf] , of Hen- 
gists kindred, ' in the north end, some six chieftains ' ; they heard the tiding 
of Gurmund the king ; oft they them bethought what they might do, — 
how they might betray Carrie 'of [in] his kingdom, and kill all the Britons 
with their wicked craft. The Saxish men sent messengers to Carrie the 

' ende? 

■ feoSSen ? 

^ hii don ? 

[v. 28994—29016.] LA^AMONS BRUT. 161 

MS, Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiir. 

and feide ]?at heo wolden :' and faide )?a de r' 

■\vi^ hine griS iwurchen. wi]? him g 

leofere heom vveore r^ leouere 3ani were :f 

to here Karic. Ca.... his men beon. 

Jjene Gurniunde ' :f ]?ane pan ftronge :f 

J/an vncuSe kinge. kin . of o|;er hinde. 

^ef he heoni wolde gridien^ :' 

]?at heo moften liuien. 

& and^ a3euen heom |?at lond :' jef he 3a. wolde ^eue J?at lond r' 

J;at while Uortigerne |>e king. 10 ]?.. Vortiger hadde wile a 

Hengefte bitahte'^ r' 

J7a he nom^ hif dohter leoue. 

and heo him wolden fenden t' [c.2.] 

gauel of l^an londe. 

halden hine for hehne kingt' 

Karic heore deorlino:. 

& ]?if heo him to-3eoriiden :' 

mid 3iflen to ifooien. 

And Karic heom ilefde :' Carich ilefuede hire le.... 

al heore leofinge. 20 

and I'is griK 3ette :' and his grib 3am 3ette :f 

and dai heom fette. and one dai 3am fette. 

pa wef Karic bif wiken t' . . was Carich bi- . . ike r' 

king, and said that they would make peace with him ; — liefer to them it 
were, to 'obey Carrie [be Carrie his men], than Gurmund, the 'foreign 
king [the strong, king of other land], if he would ' grant them peace, that 
they might live, and ' give them the land that whilom Vortiger ' the king ' 
gave to Hengist [had in hand], 'when he took his loved daughter; and 
they would him send tribute of the land, hold him for supreme king, Car- 
rie their darling ; and this they entreated him with hostages to confirm. 
And' Carrie ' them ' believed, ' all ' their leasing, and granted 'this [them 
his] peace, and appointed them [a] day. Then was Carrie betrayed all with 

* Part of a line seems wanting. ' griSien? ' Sic MS. 

* bitatte, pr. n. * mov,pr. m. 




[v. 29017—29039.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

al mid heore craften. 
Ka[ric.'] Kai'ic auer feoSen ' t' 
Kin[eric.] Kincric lie hehte. 

al mid hoker worden :! 
\>e king heo for-huften. 
Karic ileouede to fo^e :f 
Sexifce monne lare. 
Vnder ]?an worden r' 
heo letten writ makien. 
& fenden heore fonden r' 
to Gurmunt ]?en kinge. 
and |7uf )?a word feiden :' 
]7a a ]?an writ ftode. 
Hail feo ]>u Gurgmund^ :f 
hal feo ]>\x he^ene king. 
heil seo ]>i du3e^e :' 
hail }>ine drihtliche men. 
We funden men Sexifce :! 
feleft of ]?an kunne. 
\>a. Hengeft of Sex-londe f 
hider mid hi brohte. 
wunieS iime B"taine :f 
hi nor^e ]?ere Humbre. 

MS, Cott. Otbo, C. xiii. 

a. mid hire craft.. 

euere fu]?);e t' 


al mid hoker worde . :' 
. . king hii forh . . . de. ilefde to foj^e r' 
Saxi . . . mannef lore. 
Vnder |?a. wordes :' 
hii lette writ makie. 
10 and fende hire fonde t' 
to king Gormunde. 
. . d |?us ]nit writ faide :f 
]7at Saxiffe men fende. 
Hayl beo ]7ou Gormund r' 

and allc ];ine cnihtes. 
We beo|? Saxiffe men :f 
icome of ]nne cunne. 
20 }>at Hengeft of Sax- [c.2.] 

their craft! CaTP't^ f-wr since K inric he hight,; all with contemptuous 
words the king they derided. Carrie believed in sooth the Saxish mens 
statement. During the words they caused a writ to be made, and sent their 
messengers to ^Gurmund the king [king Gurmund] ; and thus the 'words 
[writ] said, that 'in the writ stood [the Saxish men sent] : " Hail be thou, 
Gurmund, ' hail be thou, heathen king ; 'hail be thy folk, hail thy noble 
men [and all thy knights] ! We are Saxish men, 'ilie best of the [de- 
scended of thy] kindred, that Hengist from Saxland brought hither with 
him ; 7ve dwell in Britain, by north of the Humber. Thou art heathen king, 

* feiden, pr. m. 

' B. Gurmund. 

[V. 29040-29063.] LA5AJM0NS BRUT. 103 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

]>a art he^ene king r' 

we he^ene kepen. 

Karic if criftine moii :! 

he if us la^ for^aii. 

and 3if |7u wult al Jiif lond:''- ■ ' ■ 

iiimen to j^ire a3ere bond. 

we wulle^ mid j?e iiehten r' 

mid fullere^ ftrenSen. 

and Caric of-flasn :! 

and alle hifcnilitef flan. lo 

& fetten al |>if kine-lond r' 

a Yixe a3ere hond-. 

^if ];u hit wult us a3iuen t' 

we jje wulleci jelde. 

fixti hundred punden :! 

to alchef 3eref firften. 

& we wulleS yxc, men bi-cumen :! 

to 3iflen fuUe |>e ure funen. 

And 3if hit ]^i wille weore :' 

]?ut ]>\x hider woldeft wende. 20 

j?af forwarde makien :' 

and ]>af fpechen ugeftnie. 

we wuUe^ oner al r' 

atlien to |?e fehien. 

we are heathen warriors. Carrie is a Christian man ; he is to us therefore 
hateful ; and if thou wilt take all this land to thine own hand, we will 
with thee fight, with our full strength, and slay Carrie, and all his knights 
drive away, and set all this kingdom in thine own hand. If thou wilt give 
it to us, we will yield thee sixty hundred pounds, at the space of each 
year ; and we will become thy men ; our sons deliver to thee as hostages. 
And if it were thy will, that thou hither wouldest wend, this covenant to 
make, and this speech to confirm, we will over all things come to thyself; 

^ fillcrc, pr. m. " Added by a later hand. 

M 2 

164 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 29064—29088.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

a watere and a londe r' 

halden ])c uor kinge. 

pa bi-gon to fpekene t' 

Gurmund |7e kene. 

3arkie5 mine fcipe biliue i' 

forS ic wulle liSe. 

Seilef heo up dro3en :' 

forS heo giinnen fi3en. 

luken rapes longe :f 

li^en for^ mid u'Sen. 10 

and fwa heo gunnen wenden :f ......... 

to Nor^-humbre londe. 

and fpeken wi^ Sexifce men :' 

and faehte iwur^en. 

and fworen j^at heo wolden :' 

heore forward halden. 

pa weoren heo al an :^ 

Gurmud and Sexefce men. [c.2.] 

]?a fomnede heo uerde :f 

vnimete an aerde. 20 

& fcrde touward Karriche :' 

J^an kinge of pifferc riche. 


of Kinriche j^an kinge. 

Caric hif Bruttef gadere r' 

and on water and on land hold thee for king." Then began to speak 
Gurmund the keen : " Make ready my ships quickly ; forth I will go ! " 
Sails they up drew, forth they gan voyage, pull the long ropes, and sail forth 
with the waves ; and so they gan proceed to Northumberland, and spake 
with i/<e Saxish men, and became friends, and swore that they would their 
covenant hold. When they w'cre all one, Gurmund and the Saxish men, 
then assembled they forces innumerable in the land, and marched toward 
Carrie, the king of this kingdom ; and ever they sung with contempt of 
Kinric the king. Carrie gathered his Britons, and summoned them toge- 

[v. 29039— 29111.] LAjAMONS 1311UT. 105 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xui. 

and beide heom to-fomue. 

and him to wende :! 

al J>at waf on londe. 

for rihtere neode ^ 

nuften heo red betere^. 

Caric muchel folc hafde "i 

and ferde vnimete. 

& ofte he com to compe :' 

to Gurmunde kinge. 

and ofte he him faht wi^ r' lo 

and neuere no ^irde^ hif gri^ 

and for heo hokerede him on c' 

he iwarS swi^e kene mon. 

& 3if he hafde genge i 

efne wi^ Gurmunde. 

Gurmund weore fone ifla3en r' 

hif folc idon of lif-dajen. 

Ah aguere a^ |?an ende ^ 

WcBX Gurmundes genge. 

and aeuere a ]?an ende i 20 

feol Carrichef genge. 

Gurmund draf Carriche r' Gurmund. 

\vide jeond ]7af riche. 

ther ; and all that was on land went to him, for doivnright need, — they 
knew not better counsel. Carrie had mickle folk, and an immense host ; 
and oft he came to battle, to king Gurmund, and oft he fought with him, 
and never yearned his peace, and because they despised him, he became a 
man most keen ; and if he had had an army even (equal) with Gurmund, 
Gurmund were (would have been) soon slain, and his folk deprived of life- 
day. But ever in the end waxed Gurmunds forces, and ever in the end 
fell Carries forces. Gurmund drove Carrie wide over this realm ; and 

beterered? ' 3irnde? ' Inserted by a second hand. 

166 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 29112— 29134.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS, Cott, Otho, C. xiii. 

Chirn- and Carrie at Cheriiicbeftre r' 


biclufde hi' ful faftc. 

and moni daci |?er biuoren r' 

he lette j^ider fufen. 

al ]7at he hafde ihalde :^ 

Jjat corn of ]?iffen londe. [f. 172. c. ].] 

and }7a wallef faftnede :! 

wunder ane ftronge. 

Gurmund \e'i i-herde i 

and j'ider he gon ride. 10 

and bi-laei Chirencheftre r' 

wi^ utene fwiSe fafte. . . . . ' 

And Gurmund al ]?if kinelond :f 

walde to hif a3ei'e bond. 

bur^ef he for-barnde r' 

tunef he for-swelde. 

Bruttef he aqualde :' 

balu wef on h^nde. 

munekes he for-pinede r' 

on mani are wife. [men r' 20 

]7a riche wif he lette hif hired- 

niakien to horen. 

p^oftef he alle of-flseh :' 

Canic inclosed him at Cirencester full strongly ; and many a day there- 
before he had caused to be thither carried all that he had j^ossessed of tlie 
corn of this land, and fastened the walls wondrously strong. Gurmund 
that heard, and thither he gan ride, and belay Cirencester without, ex- 
ceeding fast. And Gurmund possessed all this kingdom in his own hand; 
the burghs he burnt, the towns he consumed, the Britons he killed, — 
destruction was in the land ! Monks he tormented in many a wise ; the 
rich women he let his followers make whores ; all the priests he slew, 


[V. 29135— 29155.] LA3AM0NS BRUT. 16) 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

alle ]?a chirchen he to-droh. i 

cleerkes he aqualde r' 

alle j^a he funde. 

ichecele ^ he lette feo^e :' 

alle pa cnihtef ^' 

he lette hon for^ rihtef. 

al I'if loud for-ferde t' 

a ueole cunne wife. 

Wulc wraecche folc fvva niihte r' 

fleh ut of )?eode. lo 

fun^ hit to Walef wede f 

funi to Cornwale. 

fum in to Neuftrie :f 

J'e hatte nu Normandie. 

fum fleh bi-3eonden fae r 

in to Bruttaine. 

and gunnen wunien feoS^e r' 

aen )?et lond heht Armoriche 

& sume heo flu3en to Irlonde r' 

for J'an seie of Gurmunde. 20 

and ]?er wuneden j^eouwe t' 

all the churches he down drew ; the clerks he killed, all that he found ; 
each child he caused afterwards to be put to death, and all the knights he 
caused to be hung forth-right ; — all this land he destroyed in many kind 
of wise. What (such) wretched folk as might, fled out of the country ; 
some it went to Wales, some to Cornwall, some into Neustrie, that now 
hight Normandy ; some fled beyond sea into Bretagne, and gan to dwell 
afterwards in the land called Armoriche ; and some they fled to Ireland, for 
the awe of Gurmund, and there dwelled slaves in servitude, they and all 

* A later hand has icriiien children in the marijin opposite. Perhaps we should 
read iche child. The sense is incomplete, from the deficiency of the line that ought 
to folloio the present one, 

' R. fum. 

168 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 29156— 29179.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xm. 

inne j'raldome. [c2.] 

Leo and al heore cun :! 

and her ne come nauere a^en 

And J^uf lofede Bruttef: 

al J'as kine-londef. [cheftre r' 

And Gurmund bP bilcei Chiren- 

abuten fw-iSe uafte. 

and Caric wef vriS innen :' 

and moni of hif monen. 

wa wses ]7an leoden r 10 

\e ]7a weoren on liuen. 

Hit waf in ane dseie :' 

J^at Gurmund mid hif du^eSe- 

dringef hebene:' 

riden a flatinge. 

pa com ]7er an gume riden r' 

to Gurmunde kingen. 

Jfemhlerd']. he wef ihaten Ifemberd :^ 

inne France wes hif serd. 

he wes Louweifes fune :! 20 

J>af kiuges of ]?ere ]>eode. 

hif fader hine hafuede ut idriuen :' 

of al his kinerichen. 

)>at no mofte he neouwar wunie:' 

their kin, and here came never again. And thus lost the Britons all these 
kingdoms I And Gurmund belay Cirencester about, exceeding firmly; 
and Carrie was within, and many of his men ; ■woe was to the people that 
then were alive I It was on a day, that Gurmund with his folk, — heathen 
thanes, — rode a-hunting. Then came there a man riding to Gurmund the 
king ; he was named Isemberd, in France was his native land ; he was 
Louises son, the king of the country. His father had driven him out of all 
his kingdom, so that he might no where dwell in all his sovereignty ; and he 

' Sujierfuous? * di',e^ e, pr. m. 

[V. 29180-29202.] LAjAMONS BRUT. 169 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

on al his onwalde. 

and he fleh to J^iffcn londe ^ 

to Gurmude^ kinge. 

He hafde to iueren :' 

twa |?ufend rideren. 

and Gurmunddef mon he^bico'^:^ 

ne mihte he na wurfe don. 

for crift feolue he for-foc t' 

and to |?an wurfen he tohc. 

and )?er fore'* he criftindom t^ lo 

and heSefcipe nom him on. 

And fwa heo uoren beien r' 

mid mucle heore uerde.[f. I72".c. 1.] 

and bi-leien Chifcheftre :^ 

an elche halue wel fafte. 

Wei ofte Karichef men :! 

comen ut of burh3en. 

and raefden an Gurmunde ^ 

mid rae3ere ftrenSe. 

and flo3en of hif foKke r' 20 

feole J'ufende. 

& fenden heom to helle t* 

heSene hundef alle. 

fled to this land to Gurmund the king. He had for companions two thousand 
riders, and he became Gurmunds man ; he might no worse do, for Christ 
Amself he forsook, and to the Worse he took, and there he deserted (?) 
Christendom, and heathenism took on him. And so they marched both, 
with their mickle host, and belay Cirencester on each side well firmly. 
Well oft Carries men came out of the burgh, and rushed on Gurmund 
with fierce strength, and slew of his folk many thousands, and sent them 
to hell, — heathen hounds all ! Carrie was a knight most good, and ex- 

' R. Gurmunde. ^ heo, fr. m., hut expvncted. 

' bicon, pr. m. * for-lete ? 

170 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 29203— 29226.] | 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

Karic wef fwiSe goucl cniht :' . . . 

and swi^e wel he heold hif fiht 

and fafte he heold Chircheftre^ .'^ 

mid ftrengSe ]?an maefte. 1 

]?at ne mihte Gurmund :! ' 

nasuere maeren hif ferde. , 

ar he lette heom mid ginnen r' 

bifvviken wiS innen. , 

Gurmund caftlef makede ^ \ 

abuten Chirencheftre. 10 1 

preo he bitahte :' | 

]?reom he^ene cnihte. j 

him feoluen he heol ]?at ane :' \ 

Ifembard J'at o^er. 

Gurmund makede aenne tur ^ I 

per inne he bulde senne bur. 1 

]>er inne he pleo3ede hif phi3en :! j 

]?a me luuede a }>eon da3en. 

\ev iime he hafde hif maiunet ^ 

]?a he heold for hif god. 20 ; 

Hit i-lomp on ane da3i3e ^ \ 

]7at Gurmud mid hif du3e^e. j 

weoren swixSe bliSe :! 

and druncken of wine. I 

ceeding well he maintained his fight, and fast he held Cirencester, with 
strength the most, so that Gurmund might never mar his host, ere he 
caused them with stratagem to be betrayed within. Gurmund made castles 
about Cirencester ; three he committed to three heathen knights, himself 
he held the one, Isemberd the other. Gurmund made a tower, therein 
he built a chamber ; therein he played his i)lay, that men loved in those 
days, therein he had his mawmet, that he held for his god. It befell on 
a day, that Gurmund with his folk were exceeding blithe, and drunk with 

Chirencheftre ? 

[V. 29227-29249.] LA^AMONS BRUT. 171 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. IX. MS. Cott. Otlio, C. xiii. 

pa com |?er an heSene mon :' 

awaried wur'Sen he forj^an. [c. 2.] 

and afkede tidende :' 

Gurniunde |?e kige. 

Seie me lauerd Gurmiind "i 

J?u art fvviSe riche king. 

heou longe vvult \\\ beojie :' 

abuten |>iffere bur3e. 

what wult \\\ 3iuen me i 

3if ich I'e l)urh ^iuen ]?e. lo 

and al p'at if wiS inne "i 

to don |?ine iwille. 

]?at noht no biS to leue :' 

al \\x hit flat^ a3e. 

pa andfwarede^ GurmCid ^ 

pe riche he^ene king. 

Ich 3iue J7e ane eorldo^'' i 

auere to a3e. 

wis j^at |7u a-neofte "i 

]?e burh me bi-tache. 20 

pif forward wef imaked anan r' 

lut me hit wufte. . . . 

pat^ J7ef heSene cnihtr' 

wine. Then came there a heathen man, — cursed therefore he he, — and 
asked tiding of Gurmund the king. — " Say me, lord Gurmund, — thou art 
king very powerful, — how long wilt thou lay about this burgh } What 
wilt thou give me, if I give thee the burgh, and all that is within, to do 
thy will, that nought shall be left, /or all thou shalt possess t" Then an- 
swered Gurmund, the mighty heathen king : ." I ivill give thee an earldom, 
ever to possess, on condition that thou quickly deliver me the burgh." 
This agreement was made anon, — few men it knew. Then this heathen 
knight up arose forth-right, and sought nets woven ( .'' ) exceeding nar- 

' fait? " andfwade, 2"'. »». ^ eovldon, ;)?-. »«. ■• pa f 

172 LA^AMONS BRUT. [v. 29250— 29273.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

up araf forS rit'. 

& nettef bi-fohte :' 

ibroide fwi^e narevve. 

and }>a tolen j^er to r' 

& cuht heom fui^e narewe. 

]?er biforen he gon 3eoten ^ 

draf and chaf and ate. 

puf he hit gon dihten r' 

and fparewen ]?erto liht. 

and he a ]>an uornie drahte r' lo 

fwi^^ monie he ilahte. 

and he from ]jan grunde i 

noni^ heo mid ifunde. 

J?at alle heore whingen :! 

noht awemmed neoren"*. 

pa bi-fohte he nute-fcalen :^ 

and lette ]>e curnelef ut dra3en 

& tinder nom :' [[f. 173. c.i.] 

and lette i )/an fcalen don. 

& foren to j^asre nihte r' 20 

fur ]?er on brohte. 

and to |?an fparewen uoten r' 

uafte heom icnutten. 

peof he lette for^ wende t' 

row, and the tools thereto, and cut them very narrow ; there before he 
gan pour draff and chaff and oats. Thus gan he it dight; and spar- 
rows thereto alighted, and he at the first draught very many he caught; 
and he took them in safety from the ground, so that all their wings were 
not injured. Then sought he nut-shells, and caused the kernels to be 
drawn out ; and took tinder, and caused it to be put in the shells, and be- 
fore the night brought fire therein, and fast knotted them to the sparrows 
feet. These he let go forth, very many sparrows ; the sparrows took their 

■ riht? ' ^\\\,pr.m. ' inom, ;9r. »;. * weoren, pr. m. 

[v. 29274— 29296.] LA^AMONS BRUT. 173 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

swi^e ueole fparewen. 

]>a fparwen heore flut nomen r' 

& flu3en to heore iiinen. 

jeond ]:'are bur3en :' 

|7ier heo ar wune3en(le weoren 

i l^an eouefen^ he^ grupen r' 

fwa lieo duden in ]>en 111113611 

Anan swa j^et fur wef hat :' 

swa ]>e fparewe iniiere^ crap 

I^e wTd com mid ]?ere nihte ^' 10 

and |7at fur awehte. 

and }>a burh a feole ftuden t 

gon hure'* to bernen. 

an ieft halue an weft halue t' 

wa wef Brutten j^ere. 

I^enne heo wenden beon fikere r' 

and flu3en in ane ende^. 

|7ene araf |?at fur anan :' 

biuoren and bihinden. 

Gunnund lette blanen :' 20 

hornef & benien. 

fiften l^ufende t' 

J>arften to blafe. 

flight, and flew to their holes over the burgh, where they ere were inha- 
biting ; in the eaves they clung, so they did in the mows. Anon as the 
fire was hot, as the sparrows inner crept, the wind came with the night, 
and the fire kindled, and the burgh in many places gan her to burn ; in 
the east side and in the west side, — woe was to the Britons there, when they 
weened to be sure ; and thej/ fled into one end. Then arose the fire anon, 
before and behind. Gurraund caused horns and trumpets to be blown ; fif- 
teen thousand thronged to the blast. The Britons burn, the Britons gan 

* ouefen, ;3r. TO. ' heo? ^ innene, ;9r. wi. '' hire? 

' Probably here and just above a line may be missing, but the punctuation of the 
MS. has been kept. 

174 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 29297— 29320.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

Bruttef for-burnen r^ 

Bruttef gunnen irnen. 

heo leopen ut of walle ^ 

and me heom floh alle. 

Nef hit nohwhar ifeid f 

no a bocken irad. 

|?at ffii folc fwa feire "i 

swa for-fare weore ^ 

swa wefCaric andhif genge:^[c.2.] 

J?e king wef of Bruttene. lo 

pa burh born alle niht t' 

\& brime wet? vnimete. 

}>at feht wef fone idon "l 

]7at fur heom eoden ouenon. 

And Carrich king him ifah "! ......... 

|?at he ou cume waes. 

\q. king him go crepen :! . 

an heonden and a futen. 

swulc he mid unfunde "i 

al uorwunded weore. 20 

and fwa he swiSe ftille "i 

biftal from his du3e^e. 

and weft him gon wedcn :' 

into ]^e Walfce londen. 

to run ; they leapt out of the walls, and men slew them all. No where is 
it said, nor in books read, that any folk so fair so were destroyed, as was 
Carrie and his army, who was king of Britain ! The burgh burnt all night, 
the burning was boundless ! The fight was soon finished, the fire spread 
over them. And Carrie, the king, himse//" saw, that he was overcome ; 
the king gan him creep on hands and on feet, as if he were all mortally 
wounded ; and so he most stilly stole from his people, and west?6*arfZ gan 
him move into the Welsh land ; and in this wise he went out of this land. 

' Added by a later hand. 

[v. 29321—29343.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

& ]^af wai^ef he wende r' 

lit of |>iffe londe. 

And inifte nauere nu man r' 

whar Karic him bicom. 

butcn fenef an ane tide i! 

an cniht )?er com ride. 

& seide Gurmunde t' 

of Kariche tidende. 

)7at he in Irlonde :' 

fonede genge. lo 

and wolde mid fehte :' 

aeft faren hidere. 

Ah nufte nauere na^ man:' 

to whan ]?e jjret him bi-com. 

And ]?uf wes Chirencheftre :! 

and his londef awefte. 

and Gurmud ihouen to kinge :! 

of al I'iffe kinelonde. 

for l^enne J7e burh wef bivvunnen r' 

mid fwulcchef cunnef ginnen. 20 

and'^ fparewen ]7at beren J>atfur :' 

& fparewen heo forbarnden'^. ■ ' T ' 

'^ c. l.J 

And feole wintere feo^^en t' 

And knew never any man where Carrie him became, except once on a 
time a knight there came riding, and said tiding to Gurmund of Carrie, 
that he in Ireland assembled forces, and would with fight eft fare hither. 
But knew never any man to what issue the threat it became. And thus was 
Cirencester and his lands wasted, and Gurmund raised to be king of all 
this kingdom ; for then the burgh was won with stratagem of such kind, 
with sparrows that bare the fire, and sparrows it consumed. And many 
winters afterwards, the folk that there dwelt called it Sparrow-chester, in 

^ na na, pr. m. 

mid ? 

forbanden, pr, m. 

176 LA^AMONS BRUT. [v. 29344-293C6.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiir. 

•J?^ folc |?a ]>er wunede. 

cleopeden hco Sparewencheftre ^' 

in heore leod-fpellen. 

and 3et hit duSe^ fume men:' 

to imu3en |?e aide deden. 

And l^uf wef |?a riche burh i 

mid reouSen^ fordemed. 

and Gurmund wef on londe ":! 

iheouen her to kinge. 

and Gurmund wef an heSenemon:' 

and for-dude |?ane criftindom. ii 

pa ]?is wef al J>uf ifare ^ 

]?ae. wes her for3e and muchel care 

Gurmund falde ]>a muftref r 

and an-heng alle ]>a munkef. 

of cnihten lie carf ]7e lippes i 

of madenen ];a tittes. 

preoftef he blende ^ 

al ]?if folc he fcede. 

ffilcne bilefued mon i! 20 

he lette bi-limien. 

and ]n;f he gon to taken on r' 

and fordude al |?ifne criftindom 

their popular speech ; and yet so do some men call it, to commemorate the 
old deeds. And thus was the rich burgh lamentably destroyed, and Gur- 
mund was in the land raised here to /e king ; and Gurmund was an heathen 
man, and destroyed the Christendom. When this was all thus transacted, 
then was here sorrow and mickle care. Gurmund felled the minsters, 
and hung up all the monks ; from knights he cut the lips, from maidens 
the teats; the priests he blinded; all this folk he injured; each remain- 
ing man he caused to be dismembered ; and thus he gan to take on, and 
destroyed all this Christendom. And afterwards he went to London, to a 

* j;a, pr. m., but the a expuncted by the rubricator. ' dude, ;)>•, m. 

^ reoude, pr, m. 

[v. 293G7— 29389.] LA3AI\10NS BRUT. 177 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiir. 

And feoSSen he uor to Ludene':' 

to ane niuchele huftinge. 

J?ider gunnen fije ^' 

alle Sex-leode. 

|?a wuneden i |?iffen loiide :' 

mid Gurmiimde- luge. 

and hif men bicome:' 

moie^ and vniuo3e. 

heom^ heold for- ward :/ 

and a3ef heom fone al J>if serd. lo 

of him to heoldenne :f 

and habben hine for kinge. 

And ]>e king hehte :f 

al ]7an^ hine hifede. [c.2.] 

}?at whar swa heo mihten finde i' 

Bruttes i l^iffen londe. 

}>at hine'' anan flo3en :' 

oSer mid horfen to-dro3en. 

buten he libben wolden :' 

his lif in jn'aldome. 20 

and for- fake godef maeffe r' 

and luuien haedeneffe''. 

J^enne mofte he libben :" 

mickle husting ; thither gan arrive all the Saxon people that dwelt in this 
land, with Gurmund the king, and became his men, many and without 
number ; he held covenant with them, and gave them soon all this realm 
to hold of him, and have him for king. And the king bade all that loved 
him, that wheresoeve;- they might find Britons in this land, that thej/ should 
slay him anon, or with horses draw in pieces, unless he would live his life 
in thraldom, and forsake Gods mass, and love heathenism ; then might he 

' R. Lundene. ^ B. Gurmunde. ^ R. monie. 

•* The sense requires us to read he heom. 

^ fat? « hene, ^r. m. 7 hse^feneffe? 




1/8 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 29390— 20-ti3.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

I^eoii a ]^iffe londe. 

Bif ide Allemaiiie if a loud :! 

Ayigiej: Anglef ihaten. 

|7er weoren iborne ^ 

I^a ilke J»e weorn icorne. 

J>a Gurmund an bond :^ 

bitahte al \\{ kinelond. 

alfe he heom a forward haedde i 

3if he hit biwunne. 

al hif bihefte "i lo 

he heom bilafte. 

Of Englen heo comen f' 

and f'er of heo nomen nomen 

and letten lieom cleopien ful iwif : 

pat folc jjat wes ^nglif. [lond 
Angielond. ^ y^f; joj^j Jj^q cleopeden ^ngle- 

for hit wef al on heore honde 

Seod^e^ sereft Bruttef :' 

baeh3en to }>iffen londe. 

Brutaine hit wef ihaten :' 20 

of Brutten nom taken. 

a ]mt l^if folc com :' 

J>a J>ifne nome him binon^. 

And moniee^ of j^an biu^en t' 

live a slave in this land ! Beside Alemaine is a land named Angles ; there 
were born the same that were chosen, to whom Gurmund gave all this 
kingdom in hand, as he had promised to them in covenant, if he should it 
win. All his promise he fulfilled to them. Of Engles they came, and 
thereof they took name, and caused themselves to be called, full truly, the 
folk that was English ; and this land they called Engle-land, for it was all 
in their hand. After first the Britons came to this land, Britain it was 
named, of Britons took name, until this folk came that this name took 
from it. And many of the burghs, and many of the towns, and many of 

* seoWe ? ^ R. binom. ^ R. monie. 

[V. 2<)4]4— 29436.] LA3AMONS BRUT. 179 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

and monie of pan tuuen. 

and monie of J^an londen :f 

and of |>an liamen ^ 

heo binomen heore namen r^ , . ' 

c. l.J 

al for Bruttene fceome^. 

and nome^ al }>if lond r' 

and fetten hit al an heore hond 

for Gurmund hit heom al 3ette :f 

& and^ him feolf a3ein wende 

pa comen heo to Lundene t' 10 

to pan muchele huftinge. 

and wolden ane king makien :f 

to ]>iffere kineriche. 

pa ne mihtte heom iwur^e :' 

wha'* ]nf lond fcolde^ a3en'*. 

and to-wende raid alle r . 

a muchelere vvra^^e. 

and fif kingef a-neoufte r' -^^'c diuidi' 

heo makede^ in J^iffe londe. 

And £elc nom of o^ere r' 20 

al l^at heo mihten. 

ane while un-fome t' 

and an o^ere while ifahte. 

the lands, and of the dwellings, they deprived of their names, all for dis- 
grace of the Britons ; and took all this lanci;"ancl set TraTrTirtheir hand, for 
Gurmund granted it all to them, and himself went away. Then came they 
to London, to the mickle husting, and would make a king to this kingdom. 
Then they might not agree who should possess this land, and differed withal 
in great wrath, and five kings quickly they made in this land. And each took 
from other all that they might, one while at enmity, and another while in 

1 heomen, pr. m. ^ On an erasure, by second hand. 

^ Sic MS. * By second hand, on erasure. 

^ fcol, pr. m. ® make, pr. m. 

N 2 

J80 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 29437— 29460.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xin. 

and ]?uf heo \vuneden here :* 

an hundred and fif ^ere. 

]?at neuere com here criftindon ^ 

icud i l^iffen londe. 

no belle i-rungen :/ 

no maffe ifunge. 

na chrche ' |?er nef ihale3ed :f 

no child ]?er nef ifulejed. 

pa wef inne Rome :' 

a p"pe of godef dome. 10 

Gregorius Grcgori wef ihate r' 


godd seolf hine lufede. 

pa wes hit in ane ftunden :' 

J>at ]?e pape wolde vvenden. 

]>a.t he wolde^ 

an ane of hif neoden. [c. 2.] 

pa com he in are ftrete r' 

|?at ftrahte to Rome. 

J?a ifah he leden r' 

of Englifce leoden. 20 

)?reo swi^e fseire men :f 

fafte ibunden. 

heo fcolden beon ifeolde :f 

and ]7a pane3es weoren italde 

amit}'- ; and thus they dwelt here an hundred and five years, so that never 
Christendom came here to be known in this land, nor bell rung, nor mass 
sung, nor church was there hallowed, nor child was there baptised ! Then 
was in Rome a pope of Gods doom, u'/io was named Gregory; God him- 
self lowed him. Then was it in a time, that the pope would go, that he 
might speed on one of his needs. When he came in a street that stretched 
to 'Rome, then saw he led three exceeding fair men of i/ic English nation, 
fast bound ; they should be sold, and the pennies were told. Then asked 

' R. chirche. 

' y/ verb is here tvanting. Perhaps ice should read wolde fpeden. 

[v. 29461— 29484.] LA3AMONS BRUT. 181 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

pa, fraeinede j^a pape an an r' 

of fei3ere f>an monen. 

whonnene heo weore :f 

& hu heo |?are comen. 

and of wnlche ftronde :' 

heo ift°ned^ weoren. 

pae andfwarede |7e an ?* 

I^at wef a fvviSe fair mon. 

We beo5 he^ene^ men.*' 

& hider beo^ iladde. 10 

and we weoren ut ifalde i' 

of Aglene londe. 

and fulluht we to |?e^ ^eorneS t' 

9ef l^ii uf wult ifreoi3en. 

pa'* feiden men Anglifce r 

aSele iborne. 

pa reoufede Gregori t' 

godd hine luuede. 

and |?as andfware faide :' 

]>e pape wes ifele. 20 

Iwif 36 beod^ Anglifce ?* 

englen iliccheft. 

of alle ]?an folke :f 

J^a wmiieS iippen uolde. ^ 

the pope anon of the fair men, whence they were, and how they came 
there, and in what shore they were begotten. Then answered the one, who 
was an exceeding fair man : " We are heathen men, and hither are led, 
and we were out sold of the land of Angles : and baptism we will yearn of 
thee, if thou wilt us free." Thus said the English men, nobly born. Then 
Gregory felt pity, — God him loved, — and said this answer, — the pope was 
good : " Truly ye are EngHsh, to angels most like ; of all the folk that 
dwell upon earth your kin is the fairest, of all men alive ! " The pope 

* iftreoned? " lae^e, pr. m. ^ Interlined by a second IvancL 

* >at? >us? ' beoW? 

182 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 29485— 29510.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

eouwer cun if fejereft i 

of alle quike monnen. 

pe p"pe heom freinede :^ 

of feole tidide. 

of la3en and of londeii "l 

and of ];iffere leodene kinge. 

and heo him al feiden i 

so^ |mt heo wuften, [f. ]74''.c. 1.] 

And lie heom ureoije lette :' 

and fulluht on fette. 10 

and charde ajein fone r' 

eft into Rome. 

anne cardinal cleopede r' 

i-coren of hif uolkc. 

\_Aus\tinus. Auftin wef ihotfen i 

a^eleft claerken. 

\q, pape him feide i 

in hif fom rune. 

Auftin \\x. fcalt wende "^ 

mid fo'S-faefte j^onke. 20 

in to Engle-londe i 

IMtheVl- to iE^elberte kinge. 

hertiis Rex. 

& beode \qx godef godd-fpel :' 

]7e fcal fpede ful wel. 

And ich J7e feouwerti bi-tasche f 

wel gode claerkef. . . . . • 

asked them of many tiding, of their law, and of their land, and of the king 
of this people ; and they said to him all the sooth that they wist. And 
he caused them to he freed, and set baptism on them, and turned again 
soon eft into Rome. He called a chosen cardinal of his folk, who was 
named Austin, noblest of clerks ; the pope said to him, in some of his 
communing: — "Austin, thou shalt go, with soothfast thought, into Eng- 
land, to -^thelbert the king, and preach there Gods gospel ; it shall speed 
to thee full well. And I give thee forty well good clerks ; now to-morrow 

[V. 29511-29532.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 
nu to-maiden biS j^e dfei :' 
]7a ]?u fcalt do J>e i |?ene wsei. 
For^ ferde Auftl :! 
and liif claerkef mid him. 
]?at him wef ful iwil :! 
at Tanette he com hider in. 
& swa he up if iwend r' 
J?at he com into Kent. 
Swa he uorS to Cantuare-buri i! 
\qv him J?uhte swi^e miiri. lo 
j^er he funde A^elbert :' 
]?at king wef a J'an terd. 
A^elberde he talde tidende :! 
of ]7an heoueneliche kinge. 
he feide him )^at godd-fpel :! 
and ]7e king him kifte fwi^e wel. 
wel he |?at larfpelundre nom^ ^ 
an-eoufte he jirnde criftindom.[c.2. 
iuul3ed iwai'd Adelberd^ king r' 
and al hif du3e^e mid him. 20 
and anan he gon to wurche ^ 
ane swiSe feire chirche. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xni. 

... ]?ou fait .. 

For]? fer 

..d his cleare, 

. [f. 139. 

and fo forJ> .. .end r' 
]7at he land. 


he we.. .. 
Adelbert . 

|7are god .... 

.... it horde 

... . e }?e fpeche . . . . m r' 
Jand 3ornde ..iftendom. 

i-folled elbert ]?e king r' 

a s cnihtes mid him. 

... anon he gan wirche:'' [c.2.] 
aire chirche. 



. . . u°. Maii, 
...e. xmj° 


. . . ///. quin- 


... .tus ah 


...if it seruus 
. . . urn et 




. . . .gliam, an 


...n circiter 

shall be the day, that thou shalt put thee in the way." Forth went Austin, 
and his clerks with him ; ' that was to him the full will ; at Thanet he 
came hither in ', and so he 'up is gone [forth went] , that he came *into 
Kent [in^o the land] . ' So he proceeded to Canterbury ; there it seemed 
to him most pleasant ; ' 'there he found ^thelbert, who was king in the 

land [he went to the king Adelbert ] . 'To ^Ethelbert he told 

tidings of the heavenly king ' ; he said to him the gospel, and the king 
'listened to him [heard it] exceeding well ; well he received the 'preacher, 
[speech, and] ' quickly' yearned Christendom. Baptised was ^thelbert 
the king, and all his 'people [knights] with him ; and anon he gan to 
make a church exceeding fair, in the Holy 'Trinitys [Trinity his] name, 

lailpelunde mon, jrr. m. 

^ iwarS AtSelberd ? 



[v. 29533—29553.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

a feinte t'netSef nome:' 
wel wef ]>iin kinge j^eruore. 
pa iwende feint Auftiu vorS :f 
aeft and weft and fu^ and nor^. 
and feo'S^e ]?urh ut Englelond t' 
& turnde hit to godef bond, 
clserkef he lerde :f 
chirrechef he arerde. 
seoke me he helde .*' 
]>\ir^ halindef mihte. lo 

And swa he droh fu^-ward :f 
|?at he com to Dorcheftre. 
]fev he funde ^^a wurfte men if 
]>a on londe wuneden. 
he talde heo godes leore t' 
and duden him to fcare. 
he tahten heom criftindom :f 
and heo grennede hi hon'^. 
per ftod feint^ Auftin :f 
and hif claerkes mid him. 20 
and fpeke of ci'ift godef fune :f 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xm. 

in feinte ...nete his namer 

wel .as ]?an kinge. 

po wen . . feint Auftin for]^ :' 

riht .aft and fu]?|^e nor];. 

and fu]?|?e ]?orh al Eangelond 

and tornde hit to Godes hon( 

cleorekes he learede :' 

.nihtef^ he arerde. 

seake ... he healde r' 

}>orh gode. ..hte. 

And fo he droh ...eftrer' 

fu]? to Ron 

. ar he funde ]?e men :! 

J?at were in ... londe. 

he bead 3am . . . criftendoni :f 

and ennede 3am ^ an. 

Par t Auftin :' 

and his mid him. 

and . .ac of crift godes :f 

— well was the king ' therefore' ! Then proceeded Saint Austin forth/east 
and west, and south and [right east, and then] north ; and afterwards 
'throughout [through all] England, and turned it to Gods hand. Clerks 
he instructed, churches he areared ; sick men he healed through ''the Sa- 
viours [Gods] might. And so he drew 'southw'ard, so that he came to 
Dorchester [thereafter south to Rochester] ; there he found the worst men 
that 'dwelt [were] in [the] land ; ' he told them Gods lore, and tJiey had him 
in derision ' ; he 'taught [proffered] them Christendom, and they grinned 
at him. Where Saint Austin stood, and his clerks with him, and spake of 
Christ, Gods son, as was ere 'their [his] custom,'there [and] they 'approached 

' feinte tJef, pr. m. ' chirches ? 

' 7'his line is added in the margin htj a later hand. 
* hine ? 

^ ))Urh? 

" fcin, pr. m. 

[v. 29554—29576.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

al Ava wef ser heore iwune. 

]7er heo iwurSen to :' 

to vvra^ere hele. 

and nomen tailef of reh3en :' 

and hangede on hif cape :f 

an elchere halue. 

and bi -haluef urnen :f 

and wurpen hine mid banen. 

and seo^^e 3eiden him on :' 10 

mid 3eomerliche ftanen. [f. I73.c. 1.] 

& swa heo hine gunnen fende 'J 

an^ driuen liine ut of j^an ende. 

Seint Auftin heo weore la^ ^ 

and he iwra^ swi^e wra^. 

and he fif milen iwede :f 

from Dorcheftre. 

and CO to ane munte ^ 

"pev^ muchel wef & hende. 

]>er he lai on cneowe ibede :f 20 

and cleopede auere touward gode. 

]?at he hine awreke :f 

a J'an a-warriede uolke. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

afe ear was his wone. 
and hii to him wende :f 
to wro|?ere heale. 
and nemen roh3e tayl . . 

.ani to rou]?e.. 

and honge is cope r' 

in euereche hahie. 

and fup'p'e 3 . . . . hine on :f 

mid hire foule fcornes. 

|nis hi hine fynde :' 

and driuen of ]?an eande. 

Seint Auftyn 3am was ]o]> i 

and he iwar]? fwi]?e wro]?. 

and fif mile wende i 

fram Roucef. .. 

and com to one hille r' 

... dude god his wille. 

. e gradde toward god. 

]?at he hine awreke r' 

of ]?an hij^er folke. [f. iso*-. c. 1.] 

[went to him], to their injury (or curse) ; and took tails of rays (fish), [to 
sorrow of many a man,] and hanged on his cojjc, on each side. ' And they 
ran beside, and threw at him with the bones ' ; and afterwards attacked 
him with'grievous stones ; and so [their foul scorns; thus] they 'gan him 
shame [him shamed], and drove ' him ' *out of [from] the place. ' To ' 
Saint Austin 'they were [was to them] odious, and he became exceeding 
wroth; and 'he' proceeded five miles from 'Dorchester [Rochester], and 
came to a 'mount, that was mlckle and fair ; there he lay on his knees in 
prayer, and called ever [hill, and did God his will; he cried] toward 
God, that he should him avenge of the 'cursed [wicked] folk, who had 

' A line appears to he wanting here. 





[v. 29577—29599.]- 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

]m hine ifend liafden r' 

mid heore fca^e deden. 

Vre drihte hine iherde :' 

in to l^ere heouene^. 

and hif wreche fende :f 

an wraeftliche^ }?an folke. 

}>a }>&rih3e tailef :^ 

hangede a j^an clarkes. 

pa tailef heo comen on :/ 

]>er uoren heo ma3en iteled beon. 

ifcend wef |?at mon-cim :^ 11 

mugglef heo hafden. 

and ine hirede ffilchef r' 

men cleope^ heom muglinges. 

and euer elc freo mon :! 

ful telle S heom on. 

& Englifce freom :' 

in micu^e londen. 

for ]?an ilke dede :' 

heo habbeo^ neb rede. 20 

and monief godef monnef fune :^ 

in vncuSe londe. 

]?e nauere ne co \>er neh :f [c. 2.] 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 
. ne ifend hadde :' 

an hine ihord i' 

and dude ..che wreche. 

J>at tayle . 3am com an :' 

and alle les beren. 

i-fend was al j?.. mancunr' 
for moggies ihafden'*. 
and amang ]>e king, his cnihtes :f 
me cleope.. heom moglymges^. 

and m.ny an hende man :' 

I^e londe. 

for |?ane .... .... 

... habbe]? neb read.. 

nie gode mannes . . . . 

for fram 3am won . . 

... ne come noht |^ar . . . 

dishonored him with their evil deeds. 'Our [and thel Lord heard him, 
' into the heaven,' and *sent his vengeance on the wretched folk [did such 
vengeance], that ' hanged the rays tails on the clerks. Tlie ' tails came on 
them, — 'therefore they may be tailed [and all they bare tails] ! Disgraced 
was [all] the race, [for] muggles they had ; and 'in each comjiany [among 
the king his knights] men Vail [called] them mugglings, ' and every 
free man speaketh foul of them ; ' and 'English freemen [many a fair man] 
in foreign lands for the same deed they have a red face, and many a good 
mans son, 'in strange lands [tvho far from them dwelt] , who came 'never [not] 

' A line seems wanting here. 

* hii hafden? 

^ heoue, pr. m. 
' li, moglyngcs. 

' wrceccliche ? 

[v. 29600—29621.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

if icleoped cued^ 

Auftin him wunede ^ 

vnder ane munede. 

and hif clarkes mid him eke "sl 

\eo comen of Rome. 

cleopede to drihtene :! 

\e. fcop da3es lihte. 

Sferimod and forhfulle :! 

heom fceomeden wel faere. 

}7at ]7at vni-wrafte moncim r lo 

heom ifcend hafden. 

pa wolde he j^er after fone :! 

wenden to Rome. 

and menen to Gregorie :' 

l^an holi appoftolie. 

hu Dorcheftre feten r' 

hine gunnen greten. 

Al fwa he wes al 3a3eou^ :^ 

& wolde hif wei uareren^. 

a p'ere ilke nihte :! 20 

]?a at-eoden hi ure drilite. 

and nemnede hi hif rihte^nome 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xni. 

icleopid hii beo]? c . . . 
Auftin him woned. 
..der I'are munede. 

.pede to drihte:' 

and weren afcani . . . fore ?* 
for ]>an owreafte^ deade. 

po ]?ohte he ]?ar after fone ^ 
wenden aijen to Rome, 
and mene . . Gregorie :^ 
]?an holye pope. 

Alfe he 

... he wolde for]^ f , . . 
in ... .Ike nihte i 
l^ar com to him oure drihte. 
t and cleopede him his riht name ^ 

there nigh, 'is [they are] called base. Austin him tarried under 'a [the] 
mount, ' and his clerks with liim eke, that came from Rome ' ; [they] called 
to the Lord, who formed ^the day-light [day and night] ; ' unhappy and sor- 
rowfur,V7 shamed them [and were ashamed] 'well' sore, *that [for] the wicked 
*folk [deed.] 'had them dishonored.' Then \vould [thought] he thereafter 
soon, to go [back] to Rome, and complain to Gregory, the holy 'apostle 
[pope], 'how the Dorchester inhabitants gan him greet'. As he was all 
ready, and [he] would 'fare his way [forth fare] , on the same night 'then 
[there] came to him our Lord, and 'named f callfidl him his right namex^;^:^ 

^ cue"5, sec. m. ^ onwreafte ? ^ jareou ? 

" rihtete, pr. rn., hut the last tioo letters expuncted. 

■* R. uaren. 

188 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 29622— 29C46.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

welle uaiii wef he ]?er uore. wele glad was he j'ar vore. 

Whffit j^encheft ])u Auftin r' Wat J^encheft Auftiii :f 

what J>encheft ]>\i leof min. wat woldeft ]?ou leof min. 

woldeft |?u l^uf fone t' woldeft ]?ou |?us fone r' 

faren a3ein to Rome. wende a3en to Rome. 

No fcalt ]7u noht 3ete :' 
fufen of londe. 
J;u aert fwi^e leof me :^ ... hart fwi]?e leof me :' 

and ich wulle wimie mid |?e wolle wonie mid J?e. 

and ]>u. fcalt irsedliche f 10 

in to hefne-riche. 

heofne if ])e al 3aru :f heo .... his ]7e al 3are .*' 

J^ider fcal ]?i faulen uaren. pider fal J^in faule fare. 

puf fpac ure drihten .*' [c.2.] 

wis Auftin hif cnihten. 

pa ]>e Auftin under-3aet :f 

whast ure drihten haeden ifasid 

and he ifah ure drihte:'[[f. iTs'-.c.i.] 

]fe puf him bihehte. 

and ure drihten waht to heofene :' 

and Auftin a cneowe heolde. 21 

adun to J^ere uolde :f 

|?er he ifeh ure drihten ftonde 

weopende he cleopede r' 

to heuenliche kinge. 

well glad was he therefore ! — " What thinkest thou, Austin, what 'think- 
est [wouldest] thou, my beloved .'' Wouldest thou thus scon go back to 
Rome ? ' Not yet shalt thou leave the land ; ' thou art most dear to me, 
and I will remain with thee, ' and thou shalt readily co7ne into heavens 
realm'; heaven is for thee all prepared, thither shall thy soul repair." 
Thus spake our Lord with Austin, his knight. When that Austin under- 
stood what our Lord had said, and he saw our Lord, who thus him com- 
manded ; — and our Lord rose to heaven, and Austin bent on knees down 
to the ground, where he saw our Lord stand ; — weeping he called to the 

[v. 29047— 29669.] LA^AMONS BRUT. 189 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

jeorne he bad are i 

to ]7an almihtie godc. 

ser he mid alle ueolle i 

adun to j^ere uolde. 

A ]?an ilke ftunde' ^ 

p>er ftod lire drihteu. 

]7er he pihte hif ftffif i 

him feolf he cneoulede ]?er neh 

and hif iueren he feide lar-fpel i 

and hit likede him^ ful wel. lo 

pa he ifaid hauede ^ 

]?a f8e3en of ure drihten. 

hif ftaf he nom an honde f* 

& wolde to hif inne 3eonge. 

Up he lasc j^ene ftaf r' 

]7at water ]?er after leop. 

|?e ue3erefte wellef ft"ffim :' 

]7e iriie^ on uolden. 

aer nef f'er na tun :i 

no wunende na man. 20 

Sone uolc gadere t* 

to Auftin l^an gode. 

and al hi hif Ifeuen "^ 

heavenly king ; earnestly he prayed for grace to the Almighty God, ere 
he fell with them all down to the earth. On the same spot where our 
Lord stood, there he fixed his staff; himself he kneeled there nigh, and to 
his companions he said discourse, and it liked to them exceeding well. 
When he had said the sayings of our Lord, his staff he took in hand, and 
would go to his dwelling. Up he took the staff, the water leapt there- 
after, the fairest wells stream that runneth on earth ! Previously no resi- 
dence was there, nor any man dwelling. Soon the folk gathered to Austin 
the good, and all by his leave thither gan arrive ; and began there to build 

* ftude t ■ heom ? 

190 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 29670—29693.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

]>ider gunnen li^eri. 

and bigunnen ];er to buldeii t 

bi j^a watere \>a vvaf hende. 

Moi mon ]?er iiastte hele :' 

Cernel. j^eiie ftude he cleopede Cernele 

cerno cernif r' cernis :f 

|?at if Latin ful iwif. 

cerno an Englifc leoder' ich glis. 

ich ifeo swa hit if iqueSen. [c.2.] 

el if Ebreowifc i' lo 

]?at if godd ful iwif. 

)>ene tun he cheopede ^ Cernel :' 

ich ifeo drihten iwildel. 

to ]nffere weorlde longe :' 

]?e nome ]>ei' fcal ftonde. 

al fe hit if ique^en :f 

after godef leoden. 

I^ene ftude to iwur^ien :' 

]>er ftod ure drihten. 

and hif englef mid him :f 20 

]?a he fpac wi^ Auftin. 

Auftin wede wide :' Auftin w 

3eond Englene-londe. 3eond Eangl 

he fullehtede kingge :' . . follede kinge. 

by the water that was fair. Many a man there obtained health ; the place 
he called Cernel. Cerno, cernis, that is Latin full surely; cerno, in the 
English ' language,' I see, ' as it_is spoken ; el is Hebrewish, that is, God, 
full truly; the territory he called Cernel, I see God, every deal; the name 
there shall stand to this worlds end, as i^ is declared after Gods la nguage, 
to honor tlie~spot wTiere our Lord stood, and his angels with him, when 
he spake with Austin.' Austin proceeded wide over England ; he bap- 
tised kings, ' and their chieftains'; he baptised earls, ' he baptised barons'; 

1 li, cleopede. 

[v. 2969-1—29717.3 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

and heore here-dringcf. 

he fullehtede eorles r' 

he fullehtede beornef. 

he fullehtede Englifce men i 

he fullehtede Sexifce men. 

and fette an godef honde :' 

al |?at waf on londe. 

pa wef he ful bliSe-mod :' 

]?at folc he hafde ibliffed. 

NorS in Engle-londe :^ 

Bruttef heefden an honde. 

muchel del of lode ^ 

and caftlef swi^e stroge. 

pa Bruttes nalde ^ 

}>a Enlifce^ bu3en. 

imong heom munekes vveoren ^ 

muchelere weorede. 

Seint Auftin funde i 

inne |?iffe londe. 

seouen bifcopes to iwiffe ^ 20 

smgende raaffe. 

and enne gerchebifcop i 

]7e at Karliun at-fto^. 

and at Bangor wef a munecclif :^ 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 


he fo men i 

he fol men. 

he to bond r' 

al J> nd. 

10 Nor 

Bruttus had 

pe Bruttus nold. 
. . . Eangleffe bouwe . 

heom monekes w . . . . 

wel many corn . . . 

SEint Auftin funde :'[f.HO.c.i.] Augurtin. 
ine ]?iffe londe. 
soue biffopes to iwiffe r' 
fingende maffe. 
and on archebiffop :^ 

|?at at Cairlyon at- 

. . Bangor was on abbey :' 

he baptised English men, he baptised Saxish men, 'and [he] set in Gods 
hand all that was in the land. ' Then was he of full blithe mood, that he 
had rendered the folk joyful.' North in England the Britons had in hand 
' a great deal of land, and castles most strong.' The Britons would not 
submit to the English; among them were monks, *« mickle multitude 
[well many chosen] . Saint Austin found in this land seven bishops, in 
certainty, singing mass, and one archbishop, who at Kaerleon was sta- 
tioned ; and at Bangor was an abbey [filled] with ' innumerable ' monks. 

1 R. Enelifce. 

2 at-ftod ? 

192 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 29718—29742.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott, Otho, C. xiii. 

mid nninekeu uinuo3e. [ i.] ifulled wid monekes. 

Dioiiot hffihte heore abbeod r" Dyonoth hehte |?e abbod r' 

he wef of he3e nionnen. he was of he3e cu .ne. 

he hsefden on feuen hepen r he hadde in foue abbayes i 

sixtene hundred muneken. sixtene hundred monakes. 
and 3et ma ]?er to "i 
munekef fwi^e balde. 

and of Bruttifce ftreonen r' of Bruttus ftreone i 

ftiSe imodede men. fwi|?e modi men. 

Writen fende Aufti '^. lo Writef fende Aufti "i 

to |?an feouen bifcopen. to ]?is foue biffopes. 

and hehte heom comen sone :' and hehte heom come fone r' 

and speken wi^ him feokie. and fpeke wi]? him seolue. 

& don him herfumneffe "i and do. ... horfumniffe i 

and |?'h him singen maffe. and \o finge maffe. 

for he hauede an honde "l for h 

]7a hehneffe of t>iffen londe. . . . hehniffe 

he waf icleopped legat -^ . . was i-c 

of l^iffen londe he wsef primat fe lo 

& |?as ]?inges weoren idone r' 20 
]?urh |?ene pape of Rome. 

pas bifcopes rei3e weoren i fopes 

and andfwere a3euen. ... answere 

Ne beo we nawit under him r' noht o 

]7e if ihaten Aufti. iho 

Dionot hight 'their [the] abbat ; he was of high race; he had in seven 
'companies [abbies] sixteen hundred monks, ' and yet more thereto, monks 
most bold, and' of 'British [Britons] progeny, 'stiff- minded [exceeding bold] 
men. Austin sent writs to the seven to 'the [these] seven bishops, and 
bade them come soon, and speak with himself, and do to him obedience, 
and through him sing mass ; for he had in his hand the superior dignity- 
of this land ; he was called legate, of this land he was primate ; ' and these 
things were done through the pope of Rome.' These bishops were stern, 
and answer gave : " We are no whit under him, who is named Austin, 

[v. 29743—29700.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XII 1. 

ah we beo on londe :f 
he-^e men and ftronge. 

and habbeo^ ure irihte :f onre rihtes :' 

of ure arche-bifcpe'. of rchebiffop, 

jjc wune^ ifie Karliun:' ]?at wone)? in Cairl.,. 

godd clarc and wel idon. god cleark and wel .... 

]k\ haue^ hif cantel-cape on:' e]? his cant 

of Gregorie )?an pape. ri ]/'e pope. 

and mid wur^fcipe mucle :f mochele worfipe :' 

haldeS hif wike. lo s wike. 

For no fcal hit nauere iwurSen :' 
a J>iffere worlde-richen. [c.2.] 

pat we auere bu3en :f Her vore e^ bouwe r' 

Auftine |7an uncuSen. Auftin ]>.. oncou]?e. 

for he if ure fulle ifa t' 

& his iferen al swa. 

for Auftin if ibo^en hidere r' for Auftin his .ider icome :' 

into }>iffen londe. in to j?iffe 

and haueS i-fullejed j^ene king r' and haue]? ifolled |?ane king :' 

Cantuare a^eling. 20 Cantelburi his a|?e [c.2.] 

A^elbert ihaten :' 

heh inne Anglene. 

and he hafueS ifundcn here:' and .. hauej? ifunde ... 

hundes heSene. heaj^ene hundes. 

' but we are in land high men and strong ', and have our rights of our 
archbishop, who dwelleth in Kaerleon, good clerk and excellent, who hath 
his cantel-cope ' on,' of Gregory the pope, and with mickle worship holdeth 
his see. 'For never shall it be, in this worlds realm, that ever we [Here- 
fore w^e will not] bow to Austin the stranger, ' for he is our full foe, and 
his companions also ; ' for Austin is come hither into this land, and hath 
baptised the king, 'of Kentish men the [Canterbury his] atheling, ' named 
iEthelbert, noble among the Angles ' ; and he hath found here heathen 

1 arche-bifcope ? 

' nolle we ? 

194 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 29767-29788.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

|7a comen of Sexlonde i ];at .id Gormund come i 

mid Gurmumde^ ];an kinge. 

]?eo he alle fullehte^ ^ woche .. alle fol3e]7. 

and to gode fufeo^. 

]>eo haldeoS ure kinelond:' hii holdej? oiire ...elonde:' 

mid unrihte on heore hond. mid onriht in hi d. 

Criftine we beo^ alle "^ Criftene we beo]? .... 

and of criftine cunne. ... of criftene cunne. 

^""^ and ure elderne swa weorenf ealdrene fo were:' 

...eihertus ^gan if ]?reo hundred ^eren. lo reo hundred 3er. 

rum, To.. & heo bco^ neowcnc icmiien r* neawene icome t' 

• ••rom &criftindohabbeo(Sunder-numen dom habbe]) i-.... 

...sor ?•.... and Aufti heom fullehte^ :' ... Auftin 3am fol. . . 

^^»'«« « and to gode fufeoS. d foufe]^. 

^'^-^^ For l^an we hine hati3en wulleS^:' For bine wollep* :' 

& here h and ne . . . e louie nolle]>. 

nauere to ure line r 

no fcullen we him wurSen liSe. 

pees ti^ende come :! peos tydinges come t 

to Auftine fone. 20 to Auftin fone. 

hu ]?e bifcopef hine fcenden r' hou ];is balde biffopes :' 

& wulc andfweore him fenden. ... fende liokere Avor... 

hounds, that came ' from Saxlond ' with Gurmund ' the king', all of whom 
he baptiseth, ' and to God sendeth ', \vho [they] hold our kingdom in their 
hand with un-right. Christians we are all, and of Christian kin, and our 
elders so were, agone is three hundred years ; and they are newly come, 
and Christendom have accepted, and Austin them baptiseth, and to God 
sendeth. Therefore we will him hate, and never will obey [love] ; 'never 
in our lives shall we be friendly to him.' " These tidings came soon to 
Austin, how *the [these bold] bishops ' him abased, and ' Nvhat answer 

^ R. Gurmunde. 

^ A second hand has needlessly altered this to nullei^, and also supplied in the 
maryin the next line, which has been partly cut off by the binder. The iro7-ds want- 
ing are hine nullec5. 

[v. 29789—29811.1 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

and hu Bruttifce clerekes r* 
him feiden hokeres. 
pa wes he fari-mod r' 
and forhful an heorten. 
and fufe him gon fone r' 
and ferde to j^an kinge. 
and meende to . . . . ' berte :' 
|jan kinge of .^ft- Angle, 
hu Bruttiffce bifcopes r' 
hine gratte mid huxes. 
and hu heo uorho3eden ^ 
to halden hine for herre. 
pe king hine ivvra^ede :' 
wunder ane swefJe. 
and faide ]?at he wolde ;/ 
aqllen heom a londe. 
and fwe"^ he'* dude seo^Ser' 
l^er after ful sone. 
ASelbert wes inne Kintte :! 
king of |?an londe. 
]>a hafde he enne nigei :! 
rEluric wef ihaten. 
inne NorS-humberlonde :! 



MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

po was lie fo . . mod r' 
... forhfolle on h..rte. 
fone ... agan wende:' 

and mende to ]?an kinge. 

ou Bruttuffe biffop . . 
10 grette mid h.... 

.e kig hine wrea]^]?ede :! 
woiiderliche fwi|?e. 
and faide J'at he wolde ^ 
a-cwelle him^ in londe. 
and fo . e dude fu]7|je :! 
J?ar after wel fone. 
Adelbert was in londe :! 
20 king fwi]?e ftronge. 

p'is ...g hadde anne mai:' was ihote. 
jdiumber lo... 


[contemptuous words] sent to him, ' and how the British clerks said deri- 
sion of him.' Then was he afflicted, and sorrowful in heart ; ' and ' gan 
him move soon, ' and fared to the king ', and complained to ' ^Ethelbert,' 
the king ' of East Angles', how the British bishops greeted him with scorns, 
' and how they despised to hold him for superior.' The king wrathed him 
wondrously much, and said that he would kill them in the land ; and so he 
did afterwards, thereafter 'full [well] soon, ^thelbert was in 'Kent [land] 
king 'of the land [most strong] ; ' then ' had 'he [this king] a relative who 
Avas named '^luric [Alfrich], in Northumberland, wickedest of all kings 

^ Here is an erasure of four letters ; apparenfJy yaue. 

^ 3am ? 3 fwa ? •• InterUned by a second hand. 

o 2 



[v. 29812— 29833.3 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

furcucSeft aire kinge. 
he radde al ]>a. redes f 
]7at dede weoren j^a bifcopes. 
]?at heo weoren alle of-slajen t 
and idon of lif-da3eii. 
Nu nufte noht Bruttef |?ere r 
pat balu heom wef ^iiieSe. 
A^elb t sende fonde r 
wide 3eond his londe. 
[^iu]ric. ^luric fende fode- :f 

3eod Norh-humberlonde. 

heo foneden uerde t' 

mucle on arde. 

& wolden p'a Bruttef al for-don :' 

J?a claerkef fordemen. 

Heo uoren to Leir-chaeftre :f 

and J?a burh bileien uafte. 

heo wuften J^er inne Brochinal :' 

]?at waef a Bruttifc eorl. 

cniht mid );an bezften r' 20 

wunede inne Leir-chaftre. 

Bruchinal ut wende :' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 
.eft aire kinge. 


l^at de biff.... 

Nou n 


none^ . ^ . . . 


fende fonde :' 



.uerul h.. londe. 

and Alfrich e...^ 

oueral his j^eode. 

hii p'o.te ]}e Bruttus al fordo.:' 
]?e clearekes for-deme. 
. . - wende to Leyceftre :' 

... ]>e borh bi-leye 

. . . wiften ]?ar ine 

];at was a Bru 

cniht mid ]7a 

..nede in Leycef. .. 
vt wende :' 

he devised all the counsels, that dead were (should be) the bishops, ' that 
they were all slain, and deprived of life-day.' Now knew not the Britons 
there, that mischief was given to them, ^thelbert sent messengers 'wide 
over [over all] his land ; '^luric sent messengers over Northumberland 
[and Alfrich eke, over all his territor}^] ; ' they assembled a mickle host 
in the land,' 'and would [they thought] all to destroy the Britons, and the 
clerks put to death. They marched to Leicester, and belay the burgh 
strongly; they knew Brochinal to be therein, who was a British earl, knight 
with the best, who dwelt in Leicester. Brochinal issued out, and made 

* The second text differs here. Perhaps we might read, Nou nufte }?e Bruttes :' 
none read gode. Cf. 1. 25703, et alibi. 

" R. fonde. ^ p^ke .' 

[V. 29834— 29856.] LA3AiM()NS IJllUT. 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

and 3arewede hif fcrde. [c.2.] an his ferde. 

and wende him ut to uihtef:' an fihtes r' 

wid AlSelbertcf cnihtef. \vi]y Ad cnihtes. 

and fone wef him ouer-cumen :' and f... him was ouer-come .'' 
andallehisBruttefweoreninnmen.and his Bruttus were inome. 

8c and^ swa heo gunnen |>raften r and fo hii ..-gonne ]?refte :f 

into Leirchaeftren. in eft.. 

flo3e & nomen :' si. . ai and nonien t' 

al ]>at heo neh comen. ., ... hii n.. comen. 

and feiden }>at heo wolden r' lo and fa. , . ]7at hii wolde t' 

in to Walef wenden. into Wales wende. 

& flaen al }>a Bruttef:^ and flean alle pe Br 

I^a l^er weoren bihaluef. ];at ]7are were bi-h 

-^luric luuede murie if 

inne Leir-chaftre. 

Vnder J'an ilke l^inge r' .nder J^ane jjinge. 

comen to ]>an ^luric^ kinge. ..ue tydinge ]7are come. 

munekef and eremite :' nionekes heremites :f 

& cannnef white. and canones wite. 

brifcopes"* and clajrckes :f 20 biffopes clearekes :' 

and preoftes mid godef mterkef. preoftes mid godef markes. 

and feolen to hif foten r^ and to j^is kinges feot fulle :f 

and his gri^ 3eornden. and his gr.. .ornde. 


ready his force, and went hira out to the fight, with .^thelberts knights, 
and soon was himself overcome, and ' all ' his Britons were captured ; and 
so they gan throng into Leicester, they slew and took all that they came 
nigh ; and said that they would march into "Wales, and slay all the Britons 
that were there beside. ' ^luric lived merrily in Leicester.' During the 
' same ' things came 'to ^luric the king [there new tidings ;] monks 'and' 
hermits, and canons white, bishops ' and ' clerks, ' and ' priests with Gods 
marks ; and fell to 'his [this kings] feet, and yearned his peace, and prayed 

' wi^' A(5clbertef ; 
^ ^Eluiic j^an r 

■' Sic MS. 
^ R. bifcopes. 



[v. 29857—29880.] 

po 3am 

..rcujjeft aire 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xin. 

and bede hine for godef leoue i and beode for god. . . .ue r^ 

leten beo beon on londe. J'at hii mofte libbe 

and bo ' bini wolden foren bidden "! wolde to god for b . . 

to |;an be3en kingen. 

pa andfwarede "i 

for-cu^enft^ kinge. 

Lufte^ nu^e alle:^ 

wbset ich sugge wulle. 

wended ut a j^an felde "l 

mid eower mon-werede. 

and icb eou wulle word fenden :' 

hu bit fcal iwur^en. 

and mine r8ed-3iue:^ 

reden me wulle^. 

Vt wenden mmiekef:' [f. I77.c. 1.] 

& )?a maffe-preoftes. 

vt wenden clflerkef r' 

vt wenden canones. 

alle ut wenden :' 

|;a J^cr icumen weoren. 

)?ef kingef gri"S to wilnien :' 

for lufe of godd feolfne. 

wis uten ]?ere bur3e i 

an ane uelde brade. 

]? vt in 


ou wolle word fende "l 

ou 30U fal iwor]>e. 


Alle bii vt wende : 
20 ]>at )?ider icome were. 
|;es kinges gr.}> fecbe :' 
for loue of god seolue. 

' him ' for Gods love, 'to let them be [that they might live] in land, and 
they would pray for him to [God] the high king. Then answered [them] 
tlie wickedest [of all] kings: "'Listen now all, what I will say;' go ye 
out in the field with [all] your assemblage, and I will send you word how 
it shall be [to you], ' and what my councillors will advise me." Out went 
the monks and the mass-priests ; out went clerks, out went canons ; ' out 
[they] all went that were there come, to 'desire [seek] the kings peace, for 
love of Gods self; ' without the burgh, on a broad field, was soon assem- 

' Interlined hy a second hand. 

R. fui-cii6cft. 

[v. 29881—29904.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

wef ifomed ]>ai folc fone :' 

sor3e heom wef 3efSe. 

Aluric nom to rede t' 

|?eh na nam' hine ne^ bede. 

]?at he al }>af ■* wolde :' 

feollen to j^an grunde. 

He fende forb rihtef :^ 

fif hundred cnihtef. 

and ni3en hundred mid heo^:' 

balde men afoten. 

mid miicle wi-uxen :' 

a ]:>ene ueld wenden. 

and and^ unrihtef f iojen r' 

al ]?at heo neh comen. 

Heo ualden to grunde r' 

fiftene hundred. 

and fife and fixti anan r' 

felere monnen. 

boc-ilerede men r' 

balu wef on uolken. 

pif fone wes itald :' 

wide & fide. 

pa weoren on londe r' 

J^reo heje men italde. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

Alfrich nam to reade t 
]?eh noma^ h... ne bede. 
]?at he wolde . . |?is folk :' 
falle to grunde. 
He fende . . rj^rihtes r' 
fif hudi'ed cnihtes. 
and many hundred mid heom :' 
10 bolde men a fote. 

mid mochele gifliarmes :f 
hii wende in to j^an felde. 
and adun rihtes slowen 2^ 
al |7at hii neh comen. 
Hii fulde to ];an grunde :f 
fift... hundred. 

and fif and f non t' 



. . s fone 

...e and fide. 

J7reo me 

.re c, 4" l'ft>- 

bled the folk, — sorrowwas given to them.' 'Aluric [Alfrich] took counsel, 
though no man him asked, that he would fell all this folk to ' the ' ground. 
He sent forth-right five hundred knights, and 'nine [many] hundred bold 
men on foot with them; with huge battle-axes [they] proceeded in [to] the 
field, and slew \vith un-right [downright] all that they came nigh. They 
felled to [the] ground fifteen hundred and five and sixty anon of good men, 
— ' book-learned men, — mischief was among Me folk ! ' This was soon told 
far and wide. Then were in the land three men esteemed noble, and all 

■* J'af uolc? 

" Interlined. 
* heon, pr. m. 

^ R. no man. 
" mid? 

200 LA3AiV10NS BRUT. [v. 29905— 29927.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

and al ]>ii Bruttef anau r ttus . . ,* 

halden to j;an ilken. , ilke. 

Baldric. Baldric |>e kene :' Ba 

eorl of Cornwale. . . .1 of Corn .... 

svva hehte ]>e an r' 

heh mon on londen. 

he heokl Deuene-fcire :' niffe . . . 

al an hif honde. 

DtjQe. alfe |?et watre^ Deffe :' afe j^at . . .er Deffc r' 

wended into ]>ere fa?, [c. 2.] 10 wende]? into |?are fee. 

Bruttef l^at lond heolden :' Bruttus ]jat lond heolde :' 

wel swi^e lon^e. wel f\v... longe. 

ASi-'/tlm]. a ^ ASeftan^ ]?e ftronge :' fort ronge r' 

])e king of ]?iffen londe. 

heom binom }^af londef alle r' 

and drof lieo ouer Tambre. dr bre. 

];at nauere heo J)af kine-J?eode r' J'at neuer kinelondr' 

feo^Sen no walde. ne w hire bond. 

Inne Nor^ Walef wef a king:^ In es was a king:' 

Cadu'laji], Cadwan J>e kene. 20 Cadigan ihote. 

of SuJS Walef Margadud :' of Su|?\vales Ma.gadud : 

monen aire ufe3ereft. cniht aire fayreft. 

al J'at lod fele r al |?at londe feale r' 

the Britons anon drew to the same. Baldric the keen, earl of Cornwall ; 
' so hight the one, noble man in land ;' he held all Devonshire in his hand, 
as the water Desse (Exe) floweth into the sea. The Britons held the land 
exceeding long, until ' that' Athelstan the strong, ' the king of this land, 
took from them all these lands, and ' drove them over the Tambre, so that 
they never ' afterwards ' possessed [in their hand] this kingdom. In North 
Wales was a king, 'Cadwan the keen [named Cadigan] ; of South Wales 
u-as Margadud, 'fairest of all men [knight fairest of all] ; they held all the 

wate, pr. m. ' It. A?>'elftar). 

[v. 29928— 29951.] LA^AMONS BRUT. 201 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. IX. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

into Sceuenierne'. into [f.i4i.c. i.] 

fro J?an ufere ende ^ 

]?at wendeS in to |?are fei. 

Inne Maluerne ^ 

aneoufte Seuarne. 

]Mar£?adud kinsf vvunede r' Mar^ga- 

^ ^ ^ ^ dud]. 

mid swiSe niucle uolke. 

and A^elftan him laS to r' 

]?e kig of jnffere leode. 

and heom heold swa^ harde r' lo 

& mid haerme heo igrette. 

and dreof lieom mid hif wepnen :' 

ut ouer We3en. 

and ]7at lond binom heo :' ...» 

]>at li^ |?er hi-twixen. 

Seuerne and We3e :' 

no walden heo hit feod^en^. . 

Margadud & Baldric r' 

& Cadwan ]>e balde. 

fomneden ferde r* 20 

of folke unimete. 

and foren uppen Aluriche :^ 

]7an kinge of NorS-humbre. 

and hardliche wi^ him fuhten t' 

good land into Severn, from the upper end, that floweth into the sea. In 
Malvern, near Severn, Margadud the king dwelt, with very mickle folk ; 
and Athelstan to him advanced, the king of this nation, and held them 
exceeding hard, and greeted them with harm, and drove them with his 
weapons out over the Wye, and took from them the land that lieth there 
betwixt ; the Severn and Wye, they possessed it not afterwards. Marga- 
dud and Baldric and Cadwan the bold assembled a host of innumerable 
folk, and marched upon ^luric, the king of Northumberland, and hardily 

' Sseuerne ? ^ swi];e ? ^ feoStJen ? 

202 LA3AiM0NS BRUT. [v. 29952—29976.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xm. 

and hif ferde felde. 

Per iwar^ fone :' 

for-wunded ful faere. [f. itT^c. i.] 

]?e king of Nor^-humbre i' 

J'at comp wes vnimete. 

J^er wef Baldric eorl anan ^ 

mid bronden to-heouwen. 

i ]?a c5pe |?er ueoUen :! 

ten l^ufend cnihten. 

]>urh ftelef biten r' lo 

baldere Brutten. 

Anglifce & Sexifce r* 

feouentene |;ufed. 

mid machen weoren to-heowen r' 

]?a hep wes jni laffen. 

^luric him uor^ heolde :! 

in to Nor^-hubre. 

for-wunded swi^e fare f 

sorhful yv^i his du^e^Se. 

Comen i |?iffen londe :! 20 

to ane huftinge. 

Cadwa and Margadud :^ 

and heore mon-weorede= 

bu3en uorh mid heom r' 

al Brut-leoden. 

■with him fought, and felled his forces. There soon was wounded full sore 
the king of Northunaber/««c/, — the conflict was unmeasured, — there was 
Baldric the earl anon hewed in pieces with swords ; in the battle there 
fell ten thousand knights through blows of steel, bold Britons ; of En- 
glish and Saxish seventeen thousand were hewed in pieces with weapons, 
— the heap was the less ! ^luric him forth moved into Northumber/G/«(?, 
wounded exceeding sore ; sorrowful was his folk. Cadwan and Margadud 
and their forces came to a busting in this land ; marched forth with them 
all the Britons ; to Leicester they proceeded, and took the burgh. Then bade 

[V. 29977— 30001.] LA^AiMONS BRUT. 203 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiu. 

to Leircheftre fore r' 

and ]?a burh nonien. 

pa hehten heo an hi3inge :! 

cumen to huftinge. 

al |?at wolcle libben r' 

inne j^iffere leoden. 

per com ^Englifce ^ 

J^er comen Sexife. 

]?er heo makeden to kinge r' 

Cadwan |>ene kene. lo 

al hit him alo^ede :' 

J>at he on lokede. 

pa weoren ^Ehirichef wunden r' 

inne Norhhumbre. 

alle iheled r' 

ah ]?e hel^e waf neo^ered ^ 

for hirre of hif monnen r' 

and for hif leodene uallen. 

^luric iherde i [c. 2.] 

from ]?ef kingef hirede. 20 

feole tidende r' 

of Cadwane kinge. 

]?rattef unimete :' 

of ah*e la^eft monne. 

-iSluric fende fode ^ 

they come to husting in haste all that would live in this nation. There 
came English, there came Saxish ; there they made king Cadwan the keen ; 
all it to him bowed, that he on looked. Then were /Elurics wounds all 
healed in Northumber/«wc?, but the health was diminished for the loss of 
his men, and for his peoples fall. vEluric heard from the kings host fre- 
quent tiding of Cadwan the king ; threats unbounded of the most hateful 
of all men. -^luric sent messengers into Scotland and into the North land, 

* Partly altered by a second hand, on erasure. 

204 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 30002— 30026.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

into Scotlonde. 

and into Nor^ londe :' 

J>er he cnihtef mihte uinden. 

and after al ]>au uolke :f 

]>e lf>er ciinien mihte. 

and bad heoni heore helpef r^ 

to hejere neodef. 

Cadwan gadere uerde r^ 

3eond alle J^iffen aerde. 

and al of Waelifce londe :' 10 

comen to hif honden. 

and heolde hine for^ feoS^en :f 

toward Nor^-humbren. 

uEluric. AUiric ]?if iherden t 

and him to3feinef wenden. 

]?at naf heom bi-tweounen :' 

buten bare twa milen. 

fiifden ]^a uerden :f 

swulc heo wolden uehten. 

pa ifbe3en eorlef r' 20 

]7a ife3en beornef. 

bifcopef ]>a. ife3en r' 

and boc-ilarede men. 

3if heo to-ga^e^ comen r' 

& mid wepnen on-flo3en. 

where he knights might find, and after all the folk that there might come ; 
and prayed them for their help, at his great need. Cadwan gathered 
forces over all this country, and all of Welsh land came to his hand ; and he 
marched him forth afterwards toward NorthumberZflwrf. ^luric this heard ; 
and against him moved, so that there was between them but barely two 
miles ; the hosts advanced a? if they would fight. Then saw earls, then saw 
barons, then saw bishops and book-learned men, that if they came toge- 
ther, and on-smote with weapon, that there should fall many a man dead. 

* to-gaderer 

[V. 30027—30050.] LA3AM0NS BRUT. 205 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xrci. 

)?at ]>ier fculcle ualle :f 

inoni beor^ f^eie. 

Ofte heo bip'ohten t' 

what heo don mahten. 

heo fetten griS heo fette fri^ r' 

to anef d«fei3ef firfte. 

heo fpeken heom to-fomne :f 

& fpileden bitweonen. 

]?at heo vvolden alle r' [f. I78.c. i.] 

pa kingef fehtnie. lo 

per iwur^en fahte r' 

]?a kinges beie tvveien. 

saehte and fome :f 

heo cuften wel ilome. 

paf kigef wel ilomen t' 

mid kiue heo iciiften. 

eorl cufte o^er r' 

swulc hit weore hif broSer. 

sweinef ]^ev plo3eden :' 

bliffe wes mid p»einen. 20 

^hiric wes kig on loiide :' 

bi nor Sen ]?ere Humbre. 

and Cadwan wef king sele t' 

a fuS half j^ere Humbre. 

Oft they bethought what they might do ; they set peace, they set amity 
to a days space ; they spake them together, and discoursed between, that 
they all would reconcile the kings. There became reconciled the kings 
both twain ; reconciled and united they kissed well often ; these kings 
well often with love them kissed ; earl kissed other, as if it were his bro- 
ther ; swains there played, bliss was with the thanes ! ^luric was king in 
land by north of the Humber, and Cadwan was good king on the south 
half of the Humber; bliss was among the hosts with the bold kings. Was 

' beorn ? 



[v. 30051 — 30075.] 


MS. Cotl. Calig. A. ix. 

bliffe wes on hireden ^ 

mid balden ]?an kingen. 

Naef hit ifeid nfeuere r' 

an f8e3e no on leo^e. 

|?at mare luue weore ifunden r' 

bi-tvveone twei kingen. 

for ]?at ]?e an hafden ^ 

f heo hafden beien. 

]>e an heold |?ene o'Ser :f 

deorluker ]>ene broder^ 

Beien heo wifes nomen :' 

ofte heo to-gadere comen. 

]>a. ]?e wifes iwedded weoren ^ 

on ane time to bedde heo eoden. 

fei'Ser mid hif lufe wende :' 

twoward heore wife, [sunen :f 

he^ ftreoneden tweien suen'"^ 

beien an ane tiraen. 

beien an ane daeie r' 

heo weoren afte iborne. 20 

to-gadere heo weoren ibredde :' 

to-gadere heo weoren iuedde. 

pa children wuxen :' 

and wel i^03en. [c.2.] 

wel wef heore aldren :f 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

it never said in saw nor in song, that more love were found between two 
kings; for that the one had, that had they both; the one held the other 
more dear than his brother. Both they took wives, and oft they came to- 
gether ; when the wives were wedded, in one time they went to bed ; 
either went with his love toward their wives ; they begat two sons, both in 
one time ; both in one day they were eft born ; together they Avere bred, 
together they were fed. The children waxed, and well thrived; well Mas 

brotJer ? 

lioo ? 

3 V, 

Svperfiuoiis ? 

[V. 30076—30099.] LA3AM0NS BRUT. 207 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiix. 


For to uffiftnen ]>a. liiuen :f 

of leofuen^ heore uffideren. 

to-fomne me heoui tahte :! 

to-somne me heom tiihte. 

beien heo werede :f 

anef kunnef ivveden. 

al swa dude J7a children :' 

swa ser duden }^a aldren. 

swa mouchel luue heolden :' lo 

]7at fellic ];uhte monnen. 

And ];uf heo wuneden here :' 

wel feole 3ere^. 

|7at ]7ae children weore t 

muchele i waxen. 

riden uppen fteden :' 

and luiieden cnihtef iweden. 

heore mainef heo uondcdeu :' 

wel ueole fi^en. • • . . 

heore armef weore ftronge r' 20 

heo breken fcaftef longe. 

mid longe fweorden heo fmitten :f 

I^a 3ife fmserte biten. 

Heore uaderef ];a couien :f 

to their parents. For to confirm the love of their loved fathers, toge- 
ther men taught them, together men instructed them ; both they weared 
weeds of one kind ; all so did the children as ere did the parents, so 
mickle love ihei/ held, that marvellous it seemed to men. And thus they 
dwelt here well many years, until the children were waxed mickle ; they 
rode upon steeds, and loved knights weeds, their strength they proved well 
many times; their arms were strong, they brake shafts long; with long 
swords they smote, that gave smart blows. Their fathers then came with 

* A line would seem to be here deficient. 

* Written al first leofeuen, hut e expuncted. 3 jeren, jpr. m. 

208 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 30100—30123.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiir. 

mid mucle fa3erneffe. 

inne Bruttaine:' 

mid muclere bliffe. 

]>a. 3et ]7at lond-riche :/ 

hehte Armoriche. 

\>a, 3unge men me dubbede : 

bei3ene to cnihte. 

Wi^ an luttel 3eren r' 

]?a na^ef ' dede weoren. 

and ]>a, twa childre :f 10 

weoren ibouen to kingen. 

seiner heold hif icmiden :' 

svva duden asr heore seldren. 

pffi wef inne Cantware-buri :' 

. . ff ITS'" 
}>aburh wef |7a swi^e muri. ^^ J . ■ 

an aerche-bifcop f 

]>e wes mon fwiSe god. 

he for-ba^^ |m kingen :' 

kine-belm to nimene^. 

a |?at bin'* feolf comen f 20 

and fetten bine an heore hafden 

pat bod wef ihalden :' 

a ]?af aerchebifcopef onwalde. 


much fairness, with much bliss in^o Bretagne, — the yet the country hight 
Armoriche, — the young men both were dubbed knights. Within a few 
years the fathers were dead, and the two children were raised to be kings ; 
either held his territory as ere did their parents. Then was in Canterbury, 
— the burgh was then most prosperous, — an archbishop, who was a man 
exceeding good ; he forbade the kings to assume the crown, until that he 
came himself, and set it on their heads. The command was obeyed on the 
archbishops authority, and Cadwalan had his land on this side the Hum- 

^ uaderef? * for-bad ? ^ nimenen, p-. m. 

•» him.? * Cadwal»an? 

[v. 30124— 30149.] LA3AM0NS BRUT. 209 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

a )7if heelue ]?ere Hubre. 

and Edvvine al bi-^eonde t' 

touward j?an norS ende. 

kingef heo weoren ihouene 'i 

& kingef ifworene. 

,ah for-bode wes J^a crune r' 

an ure drihtenef nome. 

Cadvvalan |7ohte i , 

]?e wef Cadvvanef sune. 

ofte he hine bi-]?ohte r lo 

what he don mahte. 

seoS^en heore faderef beiene r' 

forS weoren ifarene. 

Nflefde f^a fehtneffe ilaft "i 

buten feouen ^ere urift. 

Cadwalan hefde :' . 

caftlef swiSe monie3e. 

and pe riche-doni ftod i 

msere on Cad^walanef bond. 

Cadwa^lan go li^e i 20 

in to Lodene. 

he fende men gode "l 

aft ];an erchebifcope. 

and hehte ful fone i 

]?at he to Lundene come. 

pa he to Lundene com r' 

ber, and Edwine all beyond, toward the north end ; kings they were raised, 
and kings sworn ; but forbidden was the crown, in our Lords name. 
Cadwalan thought, — who was Cadwans son, — oft he him bethought what 
he might do, after both their fathers were forth departed (dead). The 
concord had not lasted but the space of seven years ; Cadwalan had very 
many castles, and the sovereignty stood more in Cadwalans hand. Cad- 
walan gan proceed into London ; he sent good men after the archbishop, 
and ordered that he should come to London full soon. When he came to 




[v. 30150—30172.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

iqueme^ hit Aves ]?an kingen, 
]?e king auote code :' [c.2.] 
to-3einef ]?an erche-bifcope. 
wi^ uten hif halle dure :' 
and fseide J^u art wilcume. 
& leofliche hine bihedde ^ 
& lauerd hine cleopede. 
He a3af ure drihten :! 
felchere irihten. 
he fpac of feire leere :' 
& al of godef are. 
hif fpechen weore gode :^ 
wis )?an aerche-bifcope. 
pe king hine bi-]7ohte ^ 
feire & fvviSe ofte. 
]?at he on hif icunde :' 
king hine makede. 
To ane ifette dfei3e :! 
]?at folc paer i-fomnede. 
\qx mse^ Cadwa^lan fone :! 
makede to kinge. 
muchel wef J'a bliffe if 
]7at waef in j^fere bur3e. 


MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

and to |?an kinge 3eode. [f. I42.c. i.] 
)?o he com to boures dore r^ 
]?e king fayde welcome, 
and loueliche him fpac wi)? t' 
and cleope hine loud. 

pe king )?e archebiffop bi-fohte 
fayre and fwip>e ofte. 
}^at he in his cunde r' 
king hine makede. 
To one ifet daye r' 
]?at folk was igadered. 
20 l^ar me Cadwal)?an fone :' 
makede to kinge. 

moche was \e b e r* 

l^at was in ]?an borwe. 

London, it was to the king acceptable ; 'the king went on foot towards 

the archbishop, without his hall-door, and [ and to the king went ; 

when he came to the chambers door, the king] said, "'Thou art' wel- 
come ! " and lovingly him Viewed [spake Avith], and called him lord. ' He 
gave to our Lord each right ; he spake of fair lore, and all of Gods favor ; 
his speeches were good with the archbishop.' The king besought 'him 
[the archbishop], fair and very often, that he in his territory should make 
him king. At a set day the folk 'there assembled [was gathered] ; there 
men soon made Cadwalan king ; much was the bliss that was in the burgh ! 

iquemen, pr. m. 

me : 

[v. 30173—30196.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A, ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

Of ]>iffe uare-cofte r' Of j^iffe farecofte i 

Adwiiie na j^ing n^te. Edwyn no]?ing nufte. 

at^ sone swa he hit wifte:^ and fo fone fo he h.. vvifte:' 

wraS he wef an heorte. wro]? he was in h..te. 

and feide auere wi^ and wiS il 

ich wulle makien un-friS. 

and al ic wulle aquellen "i a., fayde he wold., .cwellei^ 

|?at ich quike uinde. 

of Cadwa^lanef uolke t' 

ualfeft aire mohe. lo 

Uerde he god'^ gaderen r' 

of feole J?iifend monnen.. 

he hehde ituht to herie ^ 

a jjaf half J^are Humbre. 

Eoden heom to r;ede "i 

cnihtef swi^e gode. 

alle }?a wifefte men :' 

|?a weore inne londe. [f. i79.c. i.] 

heo lerde EdwiSne^ king r' . . , < 

]7e wef heore lauei-d'*. 20 . . 

]mt he fende hif fode :' 

to Cadwa^lane kige. . 

& bifohte hine uteire i 

alfe his leofe bro^e^^ 

Edwine knew nothing of this proceeding, and as soon as he it knew, he 
was wrath in heart, and said ' ever against and against : "I will make 
war, and all' "I will [he would] kill, that I find alive of Cadwalans folic, 
falsest of all men ! " A host he gan to gather of many thousand men ; he 
had drawn them to ravage on this side of the Humber. Knights exceeding 
good betook them to counsel, all the wisest men that were in the land ; 
they advised king Edwine, who was their lord, that he should send his 
messengers to Cadwalan the king, and beseech him fair, as his dear bro- 

' ah r and ? 
^ lauer, ;)r. m. 

^ gon; 
* bro^ere ; 

P 2 

^ Edwine ? 

212 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 30197— 30220.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C xiii, 

and for ]?ere muchele luue r' 

]}a. heolde heore aldren. 

]jat liine letten kig been :' 

and hif kine-halm avon. 

and he wolde a^ei Menden r* 

heom ^ to hif folke. 

ouer ]?ere Humbre :' 

and gri^ \>Eer hakien. hokle. [c.2.] 

and ner^ feft a-3en teon :' and neuere eft a3en teon :f 

wi"S }>an he mofte king been, lo wi]? j^an ]>-d^ mofte king been. 

ihouen^ and ihalden t' 

]?urh l^ene heje godd. 

and he wolden bi hif linen :' and he wolde bi his Hue r' 

Cadwalain luuien. Cadwalj^an louie. 

and beon jaru to his neode :' and beo 3are to his neode :f 

an ifilchere J'eode. in euereche J'eode. 

pis iherde Cadwalan :f pis ihorde Cadwalj^an :f 

J>e king wef bi faSc5en. ji/at king was bi suj^e. 

and he andfwarede^ :f and he anfwerede :f 

mid a^elere fpeche. 20 mid mildere fpeche. 

Nu ich iherd habbe :f Nou ich ihorde habbe t" 

^ w^ordes wife. 

of Edwine his bifockne :f 

]>e if mi bro^e^ deove. ]>a.t his min bro]7er deore. 

ther, and for the mickle love that their parents held, that he should let 
him be king, and receive his crown, and he would then march back, home 
to his folk, over the Humber, and there hold peace, and never eft again 
return, on condition that he might be king ' elevated and held, through the 
high God'; and he would by his life love Cadwalan, and be ready at his 
need in every land. Cadwalan heard this, who was king by the south ; 
and he answered with *good [mild] speech : " Now I have heard [words 
wise of Edwine his beseeching,] who is my dear brother, I will me ad- 

^ horn ? 2 neuer ? ' jjat he ? "• ihfeuen, pr. m. 

' andfweredere, /)>•. m. ' Two lines are missing here. ^ bro^ere? 

[v. 30221—30243.] LA3AMONS BRUT. 

MS. Cott. Caiig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

ich me bi-raede wuWe t' ich me bi-readen woUe t' 

of svvulchere neode. of socchere neode. 

and after aiie lutel da3e r and after Intel fnrfte r 

him andfvvare 3eue. him anfwere fende. 

whaler he hit wolde iune :' wa]?er ]?at ich hit wolle r' 

oSer him for-beode. o]?er ]?at ich noil . . 
hu fwa hif riche men :f 
raeden hi wolden. 

pe deei wef ifat r' was ifet i" 

atMutel mon wef I^e bet. 10 e bet. 

pa |?if al wef iwur^en r' [c 2.] po 

]?a comen heo to ane uorde^. 

Duglas |7a water wef ihaten :f 

per heo tou-wenden^. 

])ev wef |/a motinge :f 

bituxe ]?an twam kinge. 

^dwine bifohte :' 

mid alle |?at he mahte. 

I^at Cadwalan hi J^olede :f 

kine-helm to beberene. 20 

and he hine wolde luuien t' 

a to hif liuen. . ^ 

Riche men eoden to raede :f 


vise of such need, and after a 'few days [little time] , answer him 'give " 
[send], — whether 'he would it grant, or deny him, [that I will it, or that 
I will not."] ' liowso his noble men would him counsel.' The day was 
a])pointed, but one was little the better ! When this all was done, then 
came they to a ford ; Duglas the water was named ; thereto they moved ; 
there was the meeting betwixt the two kings. Edwine besought, with all 
the persuasion that he might, that Cadwalan should suffer him to wear 
crown, and he would him love ever in his life. Noble men went to coun- 

1 ah? 

^ Tlic (/renter part of these two lines is written on an erasure, but by the original 

214 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 30244-302670 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otlio, C. xiii. 

of swulchere neode. 

summe hit gonnen raeden:' 

summe to for-beoden. 

sume ]>er heolden wel ioi' . 

summe nolden hit no. 

pa while ]>'d cnihtef wife t' 

pa fpechen fcnlden rihte. 

]7e king in are medewe :' 

alihte of hif ftede. . . ' 

]?a kinge lufte flepe :f lo 

]?a riche weoren at rede. ]?e riche weren at reade.[f. 142^.0. 1.] 

Com ]?er a b'^'-cnihte :' Cora j^ar a bour-cniht r' 

and fat adun for]? riht. 

he wef ]?ef kingef fufter fane :' he was ]>e kinges fofter fone i 

Brilen]. Brien hehte hif nome. Brian hehte his name. 

he nom^ hif lanerdef hefd » he nam ]?an kynges hefd :' 

])e leof him wef on uolke. 

in hif bferm he hit Iteide :f and leyde vppe his lappe. 

& hif lockef he to-fcsedde^. 

pe king him gon to f Isepen :f 20 pe king him gan fleape :' 

and Brien gon to wepen. and Brian gan wepe. 

urnen ]?a teref :' vrne ])e teares :' 

uppen l^ef kigef leoref. vppe |?e kig his leores. 

and ]>e king a woe of flepen :' and ]?e king of- f rihte f 

sel of such need ; some gan it advise, some to forbid ; some there held 
well to (consented), some would it not. The while the wise knights should 
right the speeches, the king alighted from his steed in a meadow ; the king 
it list to sleep, while the nobles were at counsel. There came a chamber- 
knight, and sate down forth-right ; he was the kings sisters son, Brian hight 
his name ; he took 'his lords [the kings] head, ' who M-as dear to him among 
folk', [and] 'he' laid 'it' in [upon] his laj), 'and his locks he divided.' 
The king gan him to sleep, and Brian gan to weep ; the tears ran upon the 
'kings [king his] features ; and the king [was frightened, and] awoke from 

' iiiom, j*;-. m, - ftsebde, ;jr. m. 

[v. 30268-30291.] LA^AMONS BRUT. 215 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

wete weoren his wongen. and a-vvok of sleape. 

he grapede^ an his nebbe ^ he gropede on hif nebbe i 

he wende|;athitbledde. [f. l79^c. i.]he wende |?at hit bledde. 

and bifa^h nppen Brien i and biheold Brian r' 

mid braden hif lechen. 

pa ifah he of Brien r' 

hif teres ut luken. 

saere gon |7e kempe ^ 

wepen ouer^ kinge. j^at weop fwi);e sore. 

pa axede j^e king anan r' lo po axede |?e king anon 'i 

Cadwalan ihaten. Cadwal)?an 

Whaet if f^e leofe maei r^ .at his j^e leoue . . . 

]?at |7u fwa wepeft to-dsei. 

\\x ffirt ihaklen kene gume :^ 


f8ei3e me biliue "i 

hu l^e beon on fiSe. 

B^en |?a andfwerede :' 

cniht mid ]7an bezfte. 

Nu we ma3en wepen r' 20 

and'^ wanliche i-beren. 

halden uf for hfene i 

]^er we weoren he3e. 

nu ]7u wult under-uon i 

sleep, ' wet were his cheeks' ; he felt on his face, he weened that it bled ; 
and looked upon [beheld] Brian, ' with his broad glances. Then saw he 
from Brian his tears out leap ; ' *sore gan the warrior weep over the king 
[who wept exceeding sore] . Then asked the king anon, named Cadwalan : 
"What is to thee, dear cousin, that thou so weepest to-day? Thou art 
esteemed keen man ; hast thou now taken a ladys manners ? Say to me 
quickly, how is to thee in fortune ? " Brian then answered, knight with 
the best : " Now we may weep with rueful cries ; account us for vile where 
we were noble ! Now thou wilt undertake what never was ere done, two 

^ gapede, ;»•. m. " ouer j^an ? ' mid ? 

216 LA3AA10NS BRUT. [v. 30292-30315.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

pat nauer aer nef idon. 

tweien kinges halden r' 

kine-helmef on loden. 

nu^e we scullen wepe r' 

)7ae {fir richen weoren. 

for wur^fcipe ualle^ adune :' 

per wef ser wunne. 

Cadwadla pif iherde :' 

pe king wef on londe. 

and iwaerS him abol3eV lo bolwe:' [c.2.} 

bitter ane swi^e. biterliche fwi]?e. 

and a-neoufte feiide sonde r' and fende his fonde r' 

to Ed wine kinge. to Edwin pan kinge. 

and hehte hine hih3enliche t' and hehten him hi3enliche :' 

uaren of hif riche. [quiken liuen :' wende vt his riche. 

For ne fcal he nauere bi mine For ne fal he hi mine liue c' 

kine-hehne broken. kinehealm brouke. 

and ^if he hit wul auon :' [c.^.] and 3ef he hit 3eornep if 

ich hit wulle wernen. ich him fal werne. 

and ic hine birseuien wulle :' 20 and ich him bi-reaue wolle r' 

at hif baren liue^. of his bare Hue. 

& nimen al Nor^-humberlond f and nime al Norphumberlond r' 

to mire a3aere bond. to min owene bond. 

and walden al hif riche r' and habbe . . . riche :' 

kings to hold crowns in land ! Now we shall weep that ere were noble, 
for worship falleth down, where ex'e was weal ! " Cadwalan heard this, 
"who was king in land, and became him enraged very bitterly, and ' quickly ' 
sent [his] messengers to Edwine [the] king, and bade him hastily to go 
'from [out of] his realm: — "For never shall he, by my 'quick' life a 
crown enjoy ; and if he it 'will take [yearneth], I will It [him] forbid, and 
I will him bereave of his bare life, and seize all Northumberland to mine 
own hand, and 'possess [have] 'all' his realm, and he shall become abject!" 

' abo3e, pr. m. ' linen, py. m. 

[v. 30316—30339.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

and he fcal wur^en hene. 
paf tidende me brohten :^ 
to Adwine kinge. 
& he iwrse^ abol3en r' 
wunder ane svvi^e^ 
swa biS a bar wilde. 
Jjenne he bi^'^ in holte ^ 
biftoden niid hundeii. 
and ]?as andfvvare kende r' 
wra^eft aire kingen. 
Swa me helpen driliten r' 
]>a. fcop ]?af daei3ef lihten. 
and ]?a halidomef alle :f 
J?a wunieS inne Rome, 
kie-hehn ich wulle bruke r' 
& he hit fcal abugge. 
and |jer uore ibiden if 
bittereffc aire balewen. 
he fcal habben pa]?ef vvefte :! 
and wilderneffe mo3e. 
and moni mod-foi'h3e ^ 
hif monfcipe fcal ualle. 
Al fvva hit ilomp fu^^e :' 
]7ser eeft ful fone. 

MS, Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

and he fal wor]?e wrecche. 
peos tydinge me brohte t 
to Edwyn |?an kinge. 
and . . was a-bolwe :' 

afe |;e . . . wilde. 

wane he his 




These tidings men brought to Edwine [the] king, and he was incensed ' won- 
drously much/ as is 'a [the] wild boar, when he is in the wood surrounded 
by hounds ; and this answer delivered the wrathest of all kings : "So help 
me the Lord that shaped the day-light, and all the halidomes that are in 
Rome, crown I will enjoy, and he shall buy it dear, and abide therefore 
the bitterest of all ills ! He shall have wasted paths, and wilderness enow, 
and many mind-sorrow, — his honor shall fall! " All so it happened sub- 
sequently, thereafter full soon. Either threatened other greatly, and thrust 

^ This line seems from the second text and punctuation to he superfluous . 
' bit, pr, m. 

218 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 30340— 30363.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

iEi^er ]?ratte o^er fvvi^e r' 

and Jrufte mid worde. 

& swa heo to-delden :! 

dfed heo bi-hehten. , 

^dwine wef kempe r' 

hif men weoren kene. 

Cadivaian. Cadwa^lan wef cniht god r' 

and he hafde muchel mod. de mochel mod. [f. H3. c. 1.] 

Edwin. Edwine wende ouer Humbre :^ Edwyn wende ouer Humbre r' 

rf 180 
and Ca^wa^lan to Lundene. , -1 ' and Cadwal)?an to Londene. 

J^af kingef weoren wra^e :^ 11 j'eos kinges weren wro}>e :' 

\di arses ]7a weore. ]?o a-ros \e werre. 

heo riden ad heo arnden r' liii riden and hii hearde^ r' 

heo her3ede and heo barnde. hii nome hii barnde. 

heo flo^en & heo nomeii :! hii flowen and nomen r' 

al ]?at heo neh come. al ]?at hii neh comen. 

wa wes ]7an beondef r' wo were J'an bondes r' 

]7a on lode wmieden. ]?at in londe wonede. 

Cadwalan Avef inne Lundene :^ Cadwal|;an was in Londene ^' 

and foninede hif leoden. 20 and gaderede his ferde. 

wide he fende fode ^ wide he fende his fonde :^ 

^eond feole kine-londe. fale cune londe. 

he hafde on hif ferde :' he hadd . . . -gadere :! 

fifti ]7ufende. fifti 

with words ; and so they separated, deeds they promised. Edwine was a war- 
rior ; his men were keen ; Cadwalan was knight good, and he had mickle 
mood. Edwine passed over the Humber, and Cadwalan went to London ; 
these kings were wrath, — then arose the war. They rode and they ran, 
they 'harried and [took,] they burnt, they slew and 'they ' took all that they 
came nigh ; woe 'was to [were] the peasants that dwelt in the land ! Cad- 
walan was in London, and 'assembled [gathered] his 'people [host] ; wide 
he sent [his] messengers over 'many a kingdom [lands of many kind] ; he 
had 'in his army [together] fifty thousand noble warriors, for harm most 

^ hearnde .' 

[V. 30364-30388.] LA3AM0NS IJRUT. 219 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

here-kempen he3e:' 

to hernien fwi^e kene. 

Ad wine bi nor^e r' 

hif writen nom aneoufte. 

and fende in to Denene ' r' 

to GalwaSe & to Scotlond r' 

];at ftod on Edwinef hond. 

he fomnede uerde :' 

^eond alle hif aerde. 

pat he ifoned hafde t' lo 

fixti |?ufende. 

cnihtef swi^e kene r' 

wode to uihte. 

CadwaSlan gon hSer' 

ut of Lundenne. 

toil ward Nor^-humbre :f 

hsermef he wrohte. 

he for ouer Humbre :f 

hi3enliche swi^e. 

and bigon to weften |?at lond :' 20 

]7at ftod on Edwinef hond. 

pa wes Edwine king r^ 

ffirh^en bideled. " 

and he for^ rihtef ."^ 

spac wis hif cnihtef. faide for]?rihtes. [c. 2.] 

keen. Edwine by the north took his writs speedily, and sent into Den- 
mark, to Galloway, and to Scotland, that stood in Edwines hand; he as- 
sembled forces over all his territory, so that he had collected sixty thou- 
sand knights most keen, and mad for fight. Cadwalan gan march out of 
London toward NorthumberZa«f/, — harms he wrought ; he passed over the 
Humber very hastily, and began to waste the land that stood in Edwines 
hand. Then was king Edwine void of fear, and he 'spake [said] forth-right 

^ Denene anon, pr. m., hut anon strvrk out. A fine apparently is missing here. 



[v. 30389—30411.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 
Wuv^e for nixing ]>e men :' 
]?e nule hie fturien. [c.2.] 
habben baref heorte :/ 
and remef brede. 
culSen ]7an kinge t' 
J^at we quiken fiide. 
He lette blawen bemen f 
and bonnien liif nerden. 
forS he gon wende :' 
]}at he com to j^an ende. 
|?er ]?e king Cad wa^ Ian :' 
wunede on cumelan. 
To"gadere gunnen refen :f 
]?einef riche. 
breken fperen longe :' 
fceldes braftleden an honde. 
heouwen he3e helmef :^ 
fcaenden ]?a brunief. 
feoUen ffirm kempef r' 
semteden fadelef. 
drem wef on uolke f" 
]>a. eor^e gon to dunien. 
urnen ]?a brockef r' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 
For ni]7nig vvor|7e ]>e mon r 
)?at nele him seolue heolpe. 

teache )?an kinge r' 
)>at he cwik ouf finde. 
He lette blowe bumef :^ 
and banni his ferde. 
for]? he gan wende r' 

10 J'at he com to ]?an eande. 
];ar ]>e king Cadwalj^an :' 
wonede on comelan. 
To-gadere hii gonne reuse t' 
cnihtes fvvi|?e riche. 
breaken fpearef lange r' 
fcealdes braftelende^ 
hewen he3e heahnes r' 
faulfede brunief. 
. . mtede fadeles :' 

20 and foUe e cnihtes. 

. . ]?ar was .... orhch^ .•' 
.. ..r]>e gan .. ..nie. 

Vl (••• • « ■ • • 

with his knights : " Be the man accounted for nithing, that will not him 
[self] ^stir [help] ; 'have boars heart, and ravens cunning,' to teach the king, 
that^we are [he find us] alive! " He caused trumpets to be blown, and 
his army to be assembled ; forth he gan march, until he came to the spot 
where the king Cadwalan dwelt in covert (?). Together [they] gan rush 
'thanes [knights most] noble ; brake long spears, shields shivered ' in hand ' ; 
high helms are hewed, failed 'the' cuirasses; 'wretched warriors fell, and 
saddles ivere emptied [saddles were emptied, and fell wretched knights] ! 
[There] was clamor among the folk ; the earth gan to din ; the brooks ran 

' brafteledc ? 

' The second text differs here, but is too imperfect to be supplied. 

[v. 30412— 30435.] LA3AMONS BRUT. 221 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xin. 

of reden blodef. of ]>an r 

feollen ]>a folckef ^ :' . . . . e j^e flockes t' 

fale wede nebbef. ebbef. 

Bruttef gunnen breo^en t" .ruttus go olpet' 

ball! wef on uolken. wo ... 

Puf heo gunnen delen :f pus hii 

]?ene dasi longe. ay lange. 

riht to l^an euening ;' g r' 

];a fleh Cadwalan ]>e king. ])o 

and Edwine him aft gende:^ 10 

mid alien his imihten. 

Alle niht Cadwalan :' 

flah mid hif enihten. flea]? 

nefden he of hif ferde :^ heforj?^:' 

buten fif hundred enihten. undred 

heo flu3en to Seotlonde :' o Scotlode ^ 

forhen heom com on honde. nde. 

And Edwine after an-non :' on. 

mid fiftene ]?ufend monnen. mid e:' 

baldcre l^einef r' 20 bal \ 

heore beot wef iuor^ed. ; 

Fulede^ l^ere uerde:' [f-iso^c. 1.] ...ede]? 

folc miimete. 

from dfeije to da3e r' I 


■with red blood ; the peoples fell, faces became pale ; the Britons gan to be \ 

broken, — 'mischief [woe] was among the folk ! Thus they gan deal all the ■ 
day long, right to the evening ; then fled Cadwalan the king ; and Edwine 

pursued after him with all his might. All night Cadwalan fled with his 1 

knights ; he had not of his host but five hundred knights ; they fled to Scot- j 

land, — sorrow came them to hand! And Edwine folloiced after anon, with | 
fifteen thousand men, bold thanes ; their threat was accomplished ! Innu- 
merable folk followed the army ; from day to day the king they gan drive ; 

* fockef, pr. m. ' The second text appears to differ. 1 

^ fuleden, pr. m. • 



[v. 30436—30458.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

]>eiie king heo gunen driuen. 

so^ if on |?an fpelle :! 

heo ]>ohten hine aquellen. 

Cadvvaddlan flaeP to ]>ere fae t 

fcipe he J»er fiinde. 

J'a fcipen heo gunen hure :/ 

mid ahten swi^e deore. 

into Irlonde ^^ 

]?a fcipe gunnen wende. 

hauene heo J'er nomen r' 

ifund y^i fcipen comen. 

pa ahte Irlond c' 

a klg |?at wef swi^e ftrong, 

he hehte Gille Patric :f 

god kig i )?an rich. 

he underfeng Cadwadlan t 

faire mid hif coffe. 

and 3af him wickinge :! 

^eond Irlonde. 

Lette we nu beon Cadwadlan r' 

and ga we to Edwine a3an. 

Edwiene- in jnffen londe ^' 

a-marden jiaf leoden. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

hii |7ohte hine a-cwelle. [f. US'", c. l, 

Cadwal|>an fleah to ]?are fee :! 

and fipes ]>are he funde. 

|7e fipes he gan hure :! 

mid 3eftef fwij^e deore. 

and in to Irlonde r' 

]?e fipes gonne wendc. 

hauene j^ar nemen :' 

and to londe 3eoden. 

po hadde Irlond :! 

a king ]7at was f\vi|?e ftrog. 

he was icleoped Gillopart t' 

he was god criiht and hard. 

he vnderfeng Cadwal)?an r' 

faire mid his coffes. 

and 3ef him wikeninge r' 

oueral his londe. 

Leate we ... beon Cadw. 

and .. Edw an. 

Edw... in 




, I^an r' 

sooth is in the sayings, they thought him to kill. Cadwalan fled to the sea, 
[and] ships he there found ; the ships 'they [he] gan hire with 'treasure 
[gifts] most precious, [and] into Ireland the ships gan wend ; haven there 
they took, 'in safety the ships came [and went to land]. Then 'possessed 
[had] Ireland a king that was most strong ; he 'hight Gille Patric, good 
king in the realm [was named Gillopart, he was good knight and hardy] ; 
he received Cadwalan courteously with his kisses, and gave him dwelling 
over 'Ireland [all his land]. Let us leave now Cadwalan, and go we to 
Edwine again. Edwine in this land destroyed this people; burghs he 

' /.'. flieb. 

" 11. ICdwiiic. 

[v. 30459—30482.] 



MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

he bariide :^ 

caft de. 

his f. ... dude 

.earmes ftrong. 

lond r' 

h . . . . hond. 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 
bur3es he bai'iide :' 
caftlef he ualde. 
hif here wrohte on londe "^ 
harmes vnmo3e. 
al Cadwa"Slanes lond :! 
he walde to hif a3ere hond. 
pa conien hauweres r' 
to hirede^ ]>af kinges. 
and feiden tidende :' 
Edwine kinge. 
wa wr^e heom for^ ]7on r' 
l^at heo iboren weore. 

sa3en heo hi faeiden r' 

of ane raaeidenne. 

•p wef Bi'iennef fuftcr hende r' l^at w 

ueireft wifmonne. man. 

heo wunede i Winchaeftre :^ [c.2.] de in . . . . 

inne j^a caftle. 

And Edwine mid his ferde ^ 

]?iderwai*d wende. 

sone swa he ]?ider com :! 

mid ftren^e he heo nom. 

ladde heo to Eouuerwic anan r' 

cnihtef swi^e wel idon. 


his f., 


fo foiie 

burnt, castles he felled ; his army 'wrought [did] harms 'innumerable 
[most strong] in the land ; all Cadwalans land he jiossessed in his own 
hand. Then came spies to the kings host, and said tidings to Edwine the 
king, — woe worth them therefore, that they ever were born ! — sayings 
they said to him of a maiden, who was Brians comely sister, fairest of 
women ; she dwelt in Winchester, in the castle. And Edwine with his 
host thitherward marched ; as soon as he thither came, with strength he 
her took ; knights exceeding good anon led her to York ; to chamber men 

^ hire, pr. m. 

Jdded hy a strand hand in martjin. 

224 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 30483-30506.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

to bure me lackle :' 

to |?af kingef bedde. bedde. [c.2.] 

pe king dude vnwifdom^' pe king dude dom:' 

]?at he |?at ilke maide nom. ]7at he |?at ilke may nom. 

for \fe \^ifmon a :f for ])e wifmun eueremo t 

was }?ef ilke kingef iua. was Edvvynes fo. 

pa wunede i |?a hirede :f po was mid }?an kinge :f 
an clarc ]>e com from Spaine. a cleark ]^at com frara Spayne. 

Peiiuz. Pellu/ wef ihaten :' Peluz was ihote:' 
of he^ere laren. lo of fwi]7e he3e lore, 

feole craftef he cu^e :' he cou]?e of J^an crafte t' 

]>a he ifah in ]?a lufte. to lokie in |?a lufte. 

on fterren and on fune :' in fonne and in fteorres :' 

and on j^are fae brade. and in |?an fee brode. 

infiht he cuSe :' infiht he couj^e t' 

a winde and a mone. of wind, and of mone. 

of |7an uifce ]?er he wltet t' of j^an fiffe p'a. . . fleot :/ 

and of Wurmen j?er heo crepe. and of ];an |?are ' creop. 

Cadwa^lan in Irlonde r' Cadw londe t' 

gadere genge. 20 gadere 

and to fcipe flutte :' 

mid muchelre uerde. 

Pelluz swi^e ueorre t' 

ifah on |>an fterre. 

he)- led, to the kings bed. The king did un-wisdom, i/i that he took the same 
maid, for the woman ever [more] was 'the same kings [Edwyns] foe. Then 
Mwelt in the court [was with the king] a clerk that came from Spain, icho 
was named Pelluz, of [exceeding] high lore ; 'many crafcs [of the craft] he 
knew, 'that he beheld [to look] in the sky, 'on the stars [in sun] and 'on the 
sun [in stars], and 'on [in] the broad sea ; he knew the history of the wind 
and of the moon ; of the fish where he swam, and of the worms where they 
crept. Cadwalan in Ireland gathered forces, and to ship moved with a 
mickle host. Pelluz very far 0/^' beheld in the stars, that an army would 

^ y&re hii ? 

[v. 30507— 30530.] LA^AAIONS BRUT. 225 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

|?at ferde cumen wolde :! 

uppen JEdwine kinj^e. 

and Pelluz hiiie lerde^ :^ 

hu he l^af leoden mihtte :! 

aire bezft bi-witen. 

Ba bi londeii and bi fcipen :! 

CadwaSlan and hif men. 

ofte gunnen fufen r' 


biuore wef aeuere Edwine^:' lo 

and jja hafne heoni for-warnde 

J7urh Pelluces lare r' 

ne mihte heo cumen here. 

Wa wef Cadwalan :! 

)?at he wef on linen. .... * 

for he bigon f^ene fwikedom r' 

uppen hifsweord broSeren, 

and j^er uore him felf hafde :' 

haerm |?ene mefte. 

Cadwalan him to cleopede:^ 20 cleopede :^[f. I44.c.i.] 

his bezfte enihtef alle. his befte cnihtes alle. 

and feide ]^at he wolde r' and faide |^at he wolde / 

wende to Brutaine. to Brutayne wende. 

and )7ene king ifeon r" and j^ane king he wolde i-fen :' 

come upon Edwine the king ; and Pelluz instructed him how he might 
best of all defend this country. Both by land and by ships Cadwalan and 
his men oft gan move, to come to this land ; before was Edwine ever, and 
prohibited them the haven; through Pelluzes lore they might not come 
here. Woe was Cadwalan, that he was alive, for he began the treachery "^ 
upon his sworn brother, and therefore had himself harm the most ! Cad- 
walan called to him all his best knights, and said that he would go to 
Bretagne, and [he would] see the king, who was named Salomon; in 

* A line seems here omitted. ^ Edwiine, pr. m. 


22G LA5AM0NS BIIUT. [v. 30331-30552.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho. C. xiir. i 

\>e Salemon wef ihaten. ... Salomon was .hot.. 

an heorte him weore ]>e felere:' him likede ]>. ..ler:f 

for heo weoren ifibbe. e fibbe. 

heo weoren of ane cunne :"" hii w . . . of e r' 

]>a. kinj^ef bei3e tweien. ]>e kinge. bo}?e t..yne. j 

Bruttef heo weoren beine :f \ 


ah fwiSe heo weoren un-balde. ) 

Cadwa^lan to fcipen com f Cadwalj^an .. .ipe comf' ' 

and feh for^ mid u^en. and wende for]; ..d .pe. 

and feilede after v^e:' lo and faile.. .. wilde fee:' I 

unfel him wef on mode. for]? j 

to ane seit-londe heo bicomen :' to on yllond he j 

Jjat ftode^ bi Gernemu^e. ... ftond bi 3erneni... 

likede fwa heom likede r' ou him likede ^' i 


]>ev heo gunen wikie. Ipav he kie. j 

]>er heo abiden wederef:' ]?ar h. ibade re:' i 

for |?e wind heom ftod to-jseinef. for ]>. ...d him 1 

pa iwarS ]?e kig J^ere :' .... war]? j 

ifascled ful swi^c. J^orh i 

and hafde ]?at uuel liate :' 20 

binumen liinMvef ]>a hele. [c.2.] ' 

Pa ni3e d£e3es weoren a3eong :' ' 

heart it *were [would like] him the better, for they were related ; they were ' 
of one kin, both the kings twain ; ' Britons they were both, but much 
they were disheartened.' Cadwalan came to ship, and went forth with j 
the waves, and sailed 'along the waves [on the wild sea], — soitow was to j 
him in mind ; — to an island 'they [he] came, that standeth by Yarmouth*; ' 
liked 'as them [how him] liked, there they [he] gan dwell ; there "they ' 
[he] abode the weather, for the wind stood against 'them [him] . Then be- 
came the king there full greatly disordered, and had the evil heat (fever), — 1 
the health was from him taken. When nine days were passed, the king 

» n. him. 
* Sep Notes. 

[V. 30553—30575.] LA3AM0NS BRUT. 22/ 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

|7e kig wef swiSe unftrong. 

)?a wes he wraeccheliche of-luft :! a luft :' 

aft deoref flaefce. 

Brien hif maei he cleopede r' Brian his de r' 

and fone hit hi cudde. [anan :! and fone hit 

|jat buten he hafde deoref flafc bote icli habbe deor anon:' 

dffid he mofte |7olien. dea]> ich mot 

Ofte wes Briene wa :! Ofte was Brian wo t* 

and neouuere wurfe J>ene p'a. . . . neuere worfe ]?an ]po. 

hundes noni Brien :/ lo hundes nom Brian r' 

and hired-men wel idon. and hired-men wel idon. 

^eond wudes & 3eond feldef ^' oueral wodes and feldef :^ 

heo uerden bihfes. ^ 

]7urh nanef cunnef gine :' ne mihte he noJ>ing finde :! 

no mihten heo deor iwine. ]?orh none cunnes jnnge. 

nou]7er heort no hinde :^ no]?er heorte . . hinde :! 

no mihte heo nauere ifiiide. ne mihte finde. 

pe king fende hif fonde : pe king fende his fonde :! [c '!■] 

after Brien ]7a wef to loiige. to Brian j^at was fo longe. 

Leof was ]?e king Briene ^ 20 

wa wes him on line. 

ofte^ he hine biSohte :! Brian him bi-J7ohte r' 

what he don mahte. wat he don mihte. 

was very weak ; then was he miserably desirous after deers flesh. Brian 
his relative he called, and soon made it known to him, ' that ' unless 'he had 
[I have] deers flesh anon, death 'he [I] must suffer. Oft was Brian woe, 
and never worse than then ! Brian took hounds and attendants good ; 
over [all] woods and ' over ' fields they fared quickly ; through no kind of 
'stratagem [thing,] 'might they deer procure [nothing might he find] ; 
neither hart nor hind might they ever find. The king sent his messengers 
'after [to] Brian, who was 'too [so] long. ' Dear was the king to Brian, woe 
was to him alive ' ; 'oft he [Brian] bethought him, what he might do, and 

^ A line appears to be missing. 

cfte, pr. 

Q 2 



[v. 30576-30597.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

and bl j?ohten him enne reed i 

seo^^en he' |?ohten him fwi^god. 

he igrap a nail fax ^ 

felliche kene and wel iwhaet. 

and feng him feolue swa neh X 

l^at he nom hif a3e }>eh. 

for unimete neode i 

J7er of he makede brede. 

he bredde heo an hi3inge r 

and brohte heo ]7an kinge. lo 

Hail feo ]m CadvvaSlan i 

\w ffirt mi kine-lauerd. [f. isi^.d.] 

ich habbe f'e here i-broht r^ 

breden aire deoreft. 

|?at ich auere an aei borde i 

bei'en bi-uoren kinee. 

held me to and set her of fone :! 

\\n hele heo fcal iwm-^en. 

pe king fnet on hif bedde :' 

hif beornef hine biheolde. 

of ]?ere brede he set "! 

fone ]jer after him wes j^ae bet 


MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

and bi-|>ohte of one read r' 

]7at tornde to mochel god. 

he igrop an nailfex ^ 

wel i-wet and kene. 

and feng him seolue fo neh i 

]?at he cutte his owe"]?eh. 

for onimete neode "i 

\vix of he makede breade. 

he hit — de an hi3enge:' 

and t \ixw kinge. 

Hayl .. ..u Cadwal|?an:^ 
\o\\ ... min kiiielouerd. 
ich . ]?e her ibroht ^ 
bread, aire deoreft. 
]7at ich euere on borde :' 
here bi-vore kinge. 
. . . her of fone "l 

\\xi eale 1 worj^e. 

pe king fat on his bedde "^ 
and cnihtes him ...eolde. 
.f ]?are b t :^ 

bethought ' him ' of a counsel, 'afterwards it seemed to him most [that 
turned to mickle] good ; he grasped a nail-knife, ' wondrous ' keen and 
well whetted, and touched himself so nigh, that he 'took [cut] his own 
thigh ; for extreme need he made thereof roast meat ; he roasted it in 
haste, and brought it to the king. — " Hail be thou, Cadwalan, thou art 
my sovereign ! I have brought thee here roast meat dearest of all, that I 
ever on 'any' board bare before king. 'Approach to me, and' eat hei'eof 
soon ; thy cure it shall be." The king sate on his bed, 'his barons [and 
knights] him beheld ; of the roast meat he ate, and soon thereafter it was 


fwiS'e ? 

[v. 3059S— 30619.] LA3AiM0iNS BRUT. 229 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

pe king him go to sweten :' pe 

pat ufel hine gon for-leten. 

wis innen }>an fif nihte :f niht :f 

]?e king iwne^^ fere forS riht, |?e k or)?riht. 

swa noeuer J7e king n^te r' 
wheet he inoted hafde. 

pe king iwi'seS^ al ueref' his fo.. |?e:^ 

his folc iwarS bliSe. \>o he tornde ..ife. 

wind heom com on wilier* ..nd 3am com to wille :' 

heo wunden up feiles to coppe. and hii .. fipe wende. 

scipen gun&n HSen :f n sailes hii dro3e:^ 

leod-fcopef lunge. and ...en mid ]>an wedere. 

Ba weoren fehte r' eoren glade :' 

sae & ]?a fune. hire unge. 

wind and )?a wide fe :' 
ba eke ifome. 
flod ferede ]>d fcipen :' 
scopes l^er fungen. 

At Ridelset he com alond :^ At Ridelet alondr' 

]7er wes bliffe & muche fong. 20 )?ar was bliffe . . . mochel fong. 

bitwixe Dinan & )?ere spe:f bi .wix Di... ... .... fee:' 

3et hit if ifene. 3et hit his i-fene. [f. I44''.c. 1.] 

to him the better. The king gan him to sweat, the evil gan him leave ; 
within the five nights the king became whole forth-right ; ' so that never 
the king knew what he had used.' 'The king became all whole [When 
he turned to life], his folk was blithe; wind came to them at will, 'they 
wound up sails to the top ; the ships gan voyage, the minstrels sung [and 
they went to ship ; sails they up drew, and voyaged with the weather ; 
minstrels were glad, their songs they sung] . ' Both were calm, the sea and 
the sun ; the wind and the wide sea both eke together ; the flood bare the 
ships ; the minstrels there sung.' At Ridelet he came ashore, — there was 
bliss and much song, — betwixt Dinan and the sea; yet it is seen. So 

* iwartJ^? 

230 LA3AM0NS BllUT. [v. 30620— 30643.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

Sone swa he |?er com t So fonc fo he ])av com r' 

feire he wes under-uon. he was faire ondcrfon. 

]?a kinges weoren bliSe :f ]>es kinges weren bli|?e ^ 

beiene to-gaderes. bo]?e to gadere. 

per wuede ]?e king :' par wonede |»e king :' 

al Jjene winter a fkenting. al J7an ilke winter. 

]>er after com leinten :! [c. 2.] J^ar after com leinte:' 

and dae3ef gunnen longen. and da3es gonne longy. 

J?er heo gunnen somnien :f par hii gonne fomni :' 

scipen uniuo3en. lo fipes onifo3e. 

folc unimete t' mid folk fwi]?e kene t 

grunden an uokle. ]?e fipes he fukle. 

puf dude Cadwalan ^ pus dude CadwalJ^an :' 

and Peluz hit w^te anan. ac Pekiz ... .ifte anon. 

]?urh hif dweomer-crffiftcn :! |?orh pan te :' 

]>e wunede in |?an lufte. for loki in |?an 1 

and al j^at he auunde :' ..d al |?at he afunde :! 

in p>an lufte & bi ]?an grunde and bi grunde. 

]?urh aelches cunnef |?ing :' ]>orh a... cunnes }nnge r' 

he warnede feure ^Edwine king, he warnede ]?an kinge. 

and dude hi al to wite :' 21 and dude him al to iwite r 

of ]?are uerde & of )?an fcipen. of . .n ferde and of )ja 

CadwaSlan wef in Brutaine :f Cadwalj^an was in Brutayne :' 

mid Salemone |>a kinge. and Salomon |nm kinge. 

soon [as] he there came, he was courteously received ; 'the [these] kings 
were blithe, both together. There remained the king all 'the [that] winter 
'in amusement'; thereafter came Lent, and i/ie days gan to lengthen; 
there they gan assemble numerous ships, with folk 'innumerable filled to 
the bottom [most keen the ships he filled] . Tims did Cadwalan ; and Pcl- 
luz it knew anon through 'his [the] magic-craft 'that dwelt [for looking] in 
the sky; and all that he found in the sky and by ' the' ground, through each 
kind of thing he warned ' ever Edwine ' [the] king, and caused him all to 
know, of the forces and of the ships. Cadwalan was in Britain with Salo- 
mon the king, wlio was his aunts son, and much him loved ; and heard 

[v. 30644— 3066S.] 




MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

]>e wes hif modclrie fune :f 

and muchel hine lufede. 

& ]?at iherde sugge ;' 

we\ feole si^eii. 

]?at Pelluz ]?e hende :f 

]7e com ut of Spaine. 

wafede Edwine p>eue king t' 

aeuer ]?urh alle |?ing. 

of feole cunne ]?inge :' 

]>At him weoren to cumee. 

Ca^wa^lan ]?an gode :' 

Ava wes on mode. 

and ofte fpgec wiS Brien :' 

l^e wef his deorefte mon. 

and nomen heom to rede i' 

and to fom rune. 

]7at alle ]7a while :' 

];e Pelluz weore alife. 

110 mihte CadwaSlan :f 

comen to p»iffe londe. 

mid nauere nare liffe t' 

]?at Edwine hit iiufte. 

Brie bonnede hif fare :' [f. 182. c. i.] 

Brien hafde mucle care. 

nom him an honde r' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xnr. 
}?at was ie fone r' 



• •••••• lie* 

w king :f 


of . . le cu . ne ]?inges :' 
l^at him to coming were. 
Cadvval|?an |?e gode t 
wo was him in mo.e. 
and ofte fpac wi]? Bria. r' 
. . . was hif deore in . . 

n heom to reade :f 

a roune. 

]?at al |?a . . . le r' 

]7at Pell e. 

ne mihte Cadwal|?an i' [c.2.] 

come to londe. 

mid neuere none 

I^at Edwin hit nufte. 
Brian hadde moche care r 
..d he bannede ... fare. 
. . . him afe h 


that say, well many times, that Pelluz the fair, who came out of Spain, 
warned Edwine the king ever through all things, of many kind of things 
that were to *come [coming] to him. Cadwalan the good woe was [to him] 
in mood ; and oft he spake with Brian, who was his 'dearest [dear] man ; 
and thei/ betook them to counsel, and to some communing, that all the 
while that Pelluz were alive, Cadwalan might not come to this land with 
ever any ease ; so that Edwine knew it not. Brian 'made ready his voy- 
age, Brian had mickle care [had much care, and he made ready his jour- 
ney] ; he took to him *in hand [as ] of silver and of gold, ' treasures 

232 LAjAMONS BRUT. [v. 30669— 30692.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 


of feoluer and o ^ golde. of . . . luer and of 

niaSmes unimete-:' 

moniare cunne. 

nom he tunnen godef and he nam tonnes .... 

and }?a aehte dude ]>ev inne. and )>at catel dude ... ine. 

To l^a^re fse he wende :f To j^are fee he wende t' 

and feilede mid v^e. and uj'e. 

he hafde on hif uore :" he hadde re t' 

vvintunnen ino^e. win-toimes i.... 

on sae and on londe t' 10 . . fee and in londe :f 

hif win he he^ lette fonden. his ... he lette fondi. 

and on alle wiffen he toe him on r' and in eche wife he tok . . 

swulc he'* weore a chepmon. afe he were a chep... 

Barhefleod. Jn he wende at Barbefleot:' .. he w t Barb 

Su^-hcm- and at Su^-hamtune up a-leop. and a amt... vt leo.. 

per he ut dra3en lette i lette r' 

win of hif tunue. 

and hendeliche hit delde ^ and 

alle ]?are du3eSe. 

)7a him abuten weore r' 20 

riche and henen. 

and alle luuede ]?ene chapmon :! 

J^a hi lokede on. an 

Vnbe^ seouennihten ^ Bi an fe te :' 

infinite of many a kind ' ; [and] he took ' good ' tuns, and the goods placed 
therein. To the sea he went, and sailed with the waves ; he had in his voy- 
age wine-tuns enow ; on sea and on land he let his wine be proved, and in 
all wise he took him on as if he were a merchant. In he went atBarbefleot, 
and at Southampton 'up [out] leapt ; there he caused to be out drawn the 
wine from his tuns, and courteously dealt it to all the people that were about | 
him, rich and poor; and all loved the merchant who looked on him. After j 

' of? ' uninete, ;jr. m. ' Sic MS. 

* hin, pr. m. *vmbe ? 

[v. 30693—30716.] LA^AMONS BRUT. 233 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otlio, C. xiii. 

he fpac wi"S hif cnihten. he fpac wi|^ his s. 

alle weoren hif iueren i alle wereii his s r' 

swulc heo chapmen weoren. fo afe hii chepmen 

and^ eorS-huf heo hurede:' an eor|?-hus hii huredef' 

fti^ biwaled on eor^en. ]?at was wel bi-walled. 

heo cUifeden ]?er wiS innen r hii clufden ]jar wi]? ine :' 

alle heore win-tunnen. alle hire wyntonnen. 

heo fcupte heore lauerde :' hii makede hire loucrd r' 

aenne nome neowe. ane name neuwe. 

heo hahten hine Kinebord^^" lo hii he.te hine Kinebord :^ 

lit of Spainifce ard. vt of Spaynes eor]?. 

He faiden be wenden wolde r' [c 2.] Hii faide ]?at hii wenden ..... 

wide 3e()nd |?iffen londe. [f. I45.c. 1.] 

& fondien wher he mihte r' 

hif win fullen on wille. 

For^ he wende bi nihte :^ 

mid one of hif cnihte. 

forS he gon liSe r^ 

in to Lundene. 

and aneoufte gunnen wende r' 20 

on -f aft Weftmuftre. 

and fraineden ti^inde ^ 

of Edwine kinge. 

Sone men him talde "^ 

[a] se'nnight he spake with his knights ; all his companions were as if 
they were merchants ; an earth-house they hired, ^strongly walled in earth 
[that was well walled] , they closed there within all their wine-tuns ; they 
'shaped [made] to their lord a new name, they named him Kinebord, out 
of Spanish [Spains] land. 'He [They] said 'he [that they] would jour- 
ney wide over this land, and seek where he might sell his wine at will. 
Forth he went by night with one of his knights ; forth he gan proceed into 
London, and speedily gan wend near Westminster, and asked tidings of 
Edwine the king. Men soon him told the sooth that they found, that the 

' ane? " kinelord, p?\ m. 

234 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 30717-30741.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii, 

80^ |;at heo funde. 

]7at |?e king in Eouerwic wnedeV 

mid alien his folke. 

mid muchere bliffe r' 

me he hafde ino^e. 

Brien e-on to farene r' 

uor^ mid ane iuere. 

lit of Liidene r' 

derneliche he liSede. 

]fene waei ton ward Eoviuerwike :' 

wra^ on hif mode. ii 

pa he iuaren hafde :f 

fiille feouen nihte. 

pa imette he enne pilegrim :' 

pic bar an honde. 

hi3edliche l?e com :' 

from j?af kingges hirede. 

Brien hine gon frseine :f 

of hif fare-cofte. 

]?e pillegHii hine talde :' 20 

al ];at he wolde. 

Wi-S him warfte Brien :f 

al hif iweden. 

and 8ei]?er gon li^e :' 

Jjider him to l^te. 

king dwelt in York, with all his folk, with much bliss, — men he had enow. 
Brian gan to fare forth with one companion ; out of London secretly he 
travelled the way toward York, wrath in his mood. When he had jour- 
neyed full seven nights, then met he a pilgrim, tvho bare a pick in hand, 
who came hastily from the kings court. Brian gan ask him of his busi- 
ness ; the pilgrim him told all that he would. Brian changed with him 
all his clothes, and either gan proceed thither it hst to him. Brian found 

* At first written winedc, hut i expuncled. 

[v. 30742-30765.] LA3AMONS BRUT. 235 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

Brien enne fniiS funde :' 

|7e wel cu^e fmiSie. 

and faide j^at he wef pelegHn r' 

ah pic nefdeii he nan mid him 

J'ene |?ridde daei ]^er bi-fore r' 

athis innehe wef forloi'e.Lf-issb.c.i.] 

Hif foreward he makede ^ 

\e fmi^ go to fnii^e3e. 

ane pic fwiSe log t 

swiSe muchel an^ swi'Se ftrong 

swe^ fcarp wef^ {^e pic :^ 11 

)?e ftaf wes swi^e fellic. 

pene ftaf he no an honde :' 

and ferde ouer )7an londe. 

J7at he com fone liSe'^ r* 

to ]?af kingef hirede. 

Brien code upward r' 

Brian code duward. ......... 

ne mihte he iheren ^ 

word of hif fufter nan. 20 

no he uraini ne durfte :! 

for |?ef kingef folke. 

pa hit wes dai a marje :' 

]?at drihten hine fende. 


a smith, who well could forge, and said that lie was a pilgrim, but he had 
not any pick with him ; the third day there-before it was lost at his dwell- 
ing. His agreement he made ; the smith gan to forge a pick exceeding 
long, very mickle and very strong ; most sharp was the pick, the staf was 
very marvellous ! He took the staf in hand, and fared over the land, until 
he arrived soon at the kings court. Brian went upward, Brian went down- 
ward ; he might not hear any word of his sister, nor durst he inquire, for 
the kings folk. When it was day on the morrow, that the Lord it sent, 

^ and ? '■^ switfe ? 

^ fcap we, pr. m, * This line is on an erasure. 

236 LA^AMONS BRUT. [v. 30766—30788.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

]7e king lette feden alle :' 

]7a neode hafden. 

alle jje blse^e r' 

]>e wunedeii on }j>e If^e. 

me heom hehtte on-neoufte t' 

cume to J>an caftele. 

bi |?ufend and bi jnifuder' 

];r;eften gunnen binward. 

Bvien wenden binne :" 

mid o'Ser wrecche monnen. lo 

hif Iffitef weoren alle :f 

fwulc he lome weore. 

alle hif hateren weoren to-toren :f 

naf he nolit to ])dn iboren. 

pe an hine putte hiderward :' 

and ]>c o^er hine ])utte ^eOdward 

vmcu^ him wef swiSe :' 

swnlc craft on folcke. 

hif pic he heold bi-f iden t' 

and fat imong ]?an o^eren. [c. 2.] 

pe king him gon to |:>einen ^ 21 

mid alle hif here-cnihten^ 

J'ffi quene bar to drinke ^ 

the king caused all to be fed that had need ; all the poor that dwelt in the 
burgh, men bade them come quickly to the castle ; hy thousands and by 
thousands they gan thrust withinward. Brian went within with other 
wretched men ; his looks were all as if he were lame ; all his garments were 
torn in pieces, — he was not born to that. The one pushed him hitherward, 
and the other pushed him overward ; very strange to him was such craft 
among folk ; his pick he held by his side, and sate among the others. The 
king gan him to serve, with all his attendants ; the queen bare to drink, 


[V. 30789— 30811.] LA3AMONS BRUT. 23" 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

& alle hire bur-lutlen. 

pa i-lomp hit feoSSe :' 

]>e^ after ful sone. 

]7at Galarne ]>a.t maiden :f Galarne. 

com hire ^eonge. 

bolle heo hafde an honden :f 

|?er mide heo bar to dringen^ 

]7a ifeh heo Bi'ien ]>er :^ 

deore hire bro^ren^. 

on wrpRCchef monef liche :^ lo 

J>eh he weoren riche. 

Anan swa }^at maide bine i-fseh r' 

fone heo him to bseh. 

and droh of hire uingrer' 

an of hire ringe. 

and falde him an honde :' 

aenne rig of rede golde. 

and ]7uf fseide Galerne :' 

|?at god-fulle maide. 

Haue l^if gold wrsecche :f 20 

godd ]>e wur^e milde. 

and bu3e |?e j^er mide hateren r' 

]?at M'iS chele |7e ma3en werien 

and all her maidens. Then befell it eft, thereafter full soon, that Galarne 
the maiden approached her ; a bowl she had in hand, therewith she bare 
to drink ; then saw she Brian there, her dear brother, in form of a poor 
man, though he were rich. Anon as the maiden saw him, soon she ad- 
vanced to him, and drew from her finger one of her rings, and delivered to 
him in hand a ring of red gold ; and thus said Galarne, the goodly maid : 
" Have this gold, poor man, God be mild to thee, and buy thee therewith 
garments, that against the cold may protect thee." Then wist he in sooth, 

* R. ]?er. " drinken? 

' Altered hy a second hand to brof^rer, apparently intended for bro?^er ; hut com- 
pare 11. 30523. 30824. 

238 LA^AMONS BRUT. [v. 30812— 30834.J 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

pa wufte he to fo^e :' ' 

]?at hif sufter icneou hine. ' 

& )7af word feide :' i 

Brien ]7e fele. i 

For-3elde hit |7e drihten :f J 

]?e fop |?af da3es lihten. 1 

]?at ]>n Yiii'en lome monne r' I 

3iue of J>ine golde. I 

Ymong ]>a.n wrecche uolke r' i 

]?at maiden heo hudde. lo : 

bitwxe^ twam widewen^r'Cf. 183.C.1.] 

J?at maide ivvar^ an felden. 

and fpsec wi^ here bro^ren :' 1 

J7a bet hire wef on heorten. , j 

and talden him ti^ende rf "l 

al of ]>af kingef hirede. I 

and heo hi tahte Pelluz t i 

J^ene clarc ]>e com from Spa?ine ■ 

and he lokien agon :' I 

in lae^eft aire monne. 20 

pa heo to-gadere hafden ifpeken r' i 

sone heo gunen to-delen. i 

for nau neo^er nalde t' j 

that his sister him knew; and said these words Brian the good: "The 
Lord reward it to thee, who formed the daylight, that thou givest of 
thy gold to this lame man ! " Among the poor folk the maiden hid her ; 
betwixt two windows the maid was in seat (seated), and spake with her 
brother, — the better it was to her in heart, — and told him tidings all of the 
kings court ; and she shewed him Pelluz, the clerk that came from Spain ; j 
and he (Brian) gan to look at the most hateful of all men. When they 
had spoken together, soon they gan separate, for ever either would not \ 

bitwixen ? - windewcn ? 

[v. 30835— 308570 LA^AMONS BRUT. 239 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

for hif ffifne wiht' of gold e. 

}7at |?e king hit w^fte :! 

)?at heo to-gaderen weoren. 

for sone heo weoren for-don ba :^ 

oSer of-fla^e o^er an-hon. ......... 

pat folc hafden alle i3eten :! 

and arifen from heore feten. 

dremede drunkene men i' 

dune wef on folke. 

Pelluz wes aneofte ^ lo 

and ^emde J>ene nap. 

Brie him atlede to r' 

for he hafde him ful wa ido. 

hif pic he nom an honden r 

& helede hine under capen. 

swa longe he gon atlen ^ 

]?at he com him baften. 

and imong al ]?an ]?ruge :! 

J^aerften hi i ]7an ruge. 

]7at he brae ut bi-foren :! 20 

under hif breofte. ......... 

And for^ he bi-wafde :! 

)?ene pic he bilfcefde. [c. 2.] 

for his even weight of gold, that the king it knew, that they were toge- 
ther, for soon they should be both destroyed, either slain, or up hung. The 
folk had all eaten, and arose from their seats ; clamored the drunken men, 
din was among the folk. Pelluz was near, and took care of the cup. Brian 
approached to him, for he had done him full woe ; his pick he took in 
hand, and concealed it under his cape ; so long he gan approach, that he 
came behind him, and among all the throng thrust him in the back, so 
that it (the weapon) brake out before, under his breast. And forth he 
departed, the pick he left, and forth went among the folk ; then was he all 

wit, ;))•. Hi. 

240 LA^AMONS BRUT. [v. 30858—30882.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xin. 

and foriS imog |?an uolke :' i 

"pa. wef he al fere. | 

and wende him a-neofte :' ^ 

of J^af kingef hirede. ^ 

feuere forS ];ene wsei :f . 

su'S riht alfe he Isei. ; 

pa he l^uf hafde idon :' : 

to Axcetre he bi-com. ^ 

]fer he funde foi^S rihtef :^ I 

monie of hif cnihtef. lo 

and freieden 3eorne :' j 

of hif leod-kinsre. I 

And Brien heom gon tellen :! 

]^at wil-fpellef weoren. 

and feiden |?at CadwaSlan :f 

cunien wolde anan. i 

mid swa muchele uerde :f 

of feole cunne aerde. . 

]>at ne durfte Edvvine king :' 

cumen to-3feinef him naming, 20 

no in nauer nare bur3e r' .... borewe r' [f.i46.c. 1.] 

ne durfte he him ibide. ne him abide. 

pat ihei-de Deuene?' pat — de Devienefr' 

and ]7a men of Deorcheftre. and of Dorfete. | 

and ]?an Cornwselfcen ^ :^ and ]>e . .rnwalfe :f \ 

safe ; and turned him quickly from the kings court, ever forth the way 
south right as it lay. When he had done thus, to Exeter he came ; there he i 
found forth-right many of his knights, and they asked eagerly of his sove- 
reign. And Brian gan tell them welcome speeches that were, and said that! 
Cadwalan would come anon, with so mickle forces of many kind of land, 
that Edwine t/ic king durst not come against him any thing, nor in ever i 
any burgh durst he him abide. That heard the Devons, and the men 
of 'Dorchester [Dorset], and the Cornwalish men, — well was them alive! ' 

' Cornwaeifcen, pr. m. 

[v. 30883-30905.] LA^AMONS UIIUT. 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

wel heom vvef on liuen. wel was heo. on Hue. 

Brien fende hif sende' :! Brian fende his fonde "^ 

ouer ftR to Brutlonde. ouer fee to Brut-londe. 

and dude ];an kinge to witen :i and dude |?an kige to wite :' 

aiSer bi worden and bi writen-. bo|7e bi ^vor... and bi ..ite. 

of alle his dede i of alle his deade i 

and |?at Pelluz wef on de^e. . . d ou P was^ dea|> , . 

and bad hine an hih^ende r' hi3en.. 

comen to |;iffen londe. 

& l^e king duden fwa :^ lo ........ . 

svva fwi^e fwa he m^hte. 

And Brien fende fonde i 

in to Su^-hatune. [f. iss^.c. i.] 

and longien him to lette :' 

hif maSnief leoue. 

& alle J^a beornef anan r' 

j>e bu3en him to wolden. 

comen aneoufte i 

in to Exchffiftre. 

and fti^ imodede men :' 20 

)?a burh gunnen walden. 

Cadwalan j^at iherde X 

J'e king wef ful bliSe. , 


Brian sent his messengers over sea to Bretagne, and caused the king to 
know/either [both] byword and by writ, of all his deeds, and 'that [how] 
Pelluz was dead; and bade him in haste come to this land; and the king 
did so, as quickly as he might. And Brian sent messengers into South- 
ampton, and caused to be brought to him his dear treasures ; and all the 
men anon that would come to him, came quickly into Exeter, and stiff 
minded men gan possess the burgh. Cadwalan heard that, the king was full 

' sonde ? 

^ Part of this and the next line are on an erasure, but hy first hand, 
^ was on ? 



[v. 30906—30930.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

and Tne Brutaine i 

bonnede ferde. 

J)at he |n*eo hundred hauede "i 

haB3ere fcipene. 

and al he hafden ]?er to i 

J7at heom bihouede^ 

And J'e king^ Salomon:' 

wide gon sende. 

and for^ he gon li^en "i 

mid hif Brutleoden. 

]7at if to iwitene f' 

mid twa hundred fcipene. 

to helpen hif cunne ^ 

CadwaSlan kinge. 

Weder ftod an wille i 

wind mid ]?a bezfte. 

heo rill ten heore louef :' 

and up dro3en feiles. 

li^en ouer fae ftraem "! 

swa fel fnihte heom. 

pa comen he^^ to Tottenef r' 

beien |?a kinges. 

Selemon J>e fele :' 

and Cadwala J78e kene. 

]?at lond-folc wes bli^e r' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 





..der ftod at 

mid |?an bef . . 

hire loues "i 

a favles. 

and comen nas :' 

bo]?e |?e kinges. 
Salamon J>e feale :' [c. 2.] 
and Cadwal]?an J?e kene. 
|?at lond-folk was bli)?e r' 

blithe, and in Bretagne assembled an army, so that he had three hundred' 
noble sliips : and all he had thereto that behoved them. And the king 
Salomon gan send wide, and forth he gan proceed with his Britons, that i 
is to wit, with two hundred ships, to help his kinsman, Cadwalan the king. , 
The weather stood at will, wind with the best ; they righted their loofs, and 
drew up sails, ' «?ic? voyaged over the sea- stream, as to them seemed good.* 
'Then [and] came ' they ' to Totnes, both the kings, Salomon the good, and I 
Cadwalan the keen ; the land-folk was blithe for their sovereigns ! Then 

* bihoueden, ■pr. m. 

kin, pr. m. 

heo ? 

[V. 30931-30955.] LAjAiMONS BRUT. 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xin. 

for heore leocl-kinge. for hire leod-kinges. 

pa wes in ^Eft-loiidc r' po was in Eftlod :' 

a kig |>e hehte Penda. on king j?at hchte Penda. 

he biwufte' a |nin da3e r' he bi-wufte a ]>a.n dawe:' 

[>at folc of Merchene lajen. |?at .... of Marchene lawe. 
and he lufde Edwine :' [c. 2.] and he louede Edwyn :' 

Edwine hifde hine. wonderliche fvvi|7e. 

and euere he wolde rede :f and euere he wolde reade r' 

Edwine to hif neoden. Edwyn to his neode. 
A.nd Peda iherde fuggen r 10 And Penda i-horde fegge :' 

fo^ere worden. fo}7ere wordes. 

?at Brien lieold Excheftre r' ]>a.t Brian heold Exceftre :' 

3iclufed wis innen fafte. fed fwi]7e fafte. 

md ])e king Peda:' and g Penda:' 

ivide gon fende |?a. wide ]>o. 

md sumede^ ude :' and ..... 

md forS him fufen^. ... forJ> .... 

k wenden to Exchaftre :f 

nid vnimete genge. 

md bila^i uul fafte r' 20 

'a burh of Excheftre. 

3rien ]>e wihte :' 

nid twa hundred cnihte. 

res Ipev wis innen :' 

,nd )?a burh wereden. h werede. 



vas in East-land a king that hight Penda ; he governed in those days 
he folk of Mercian law ; and he loved Edwine, 'Edwine loved him [won- 
rously much] ; and ever he would counsel Edwine at his need. And Penda 
leard say sooth words, that Brian held Exeter inclosed 'within [exceed- 
ag] fast ; and the king Penda then gan send wide, and assembled a host, 
nd forth him marched, and proceeded to Exeter with innumerable forces, 
nd besieged well strongly the burgh of Exeter. Brian the brave with two 
undred knights was there within, and defended the burgh. The tiding 

' iwufte, pr. m. 

' sumnede ? 
R 2 

fufde ? 

24-1 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 30936—30978.: 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. j 

Sone |?a tidende icumen west' tydir)ge •■ 

to )?Eere hauene of Totenes. .o |?are haue as. J 

to Ca^walane kinge :^ to Cadw inget" 

hu Brien wef bi-prugen. ou Bri onge. ^ 

he lette blaweii heme r' i 

and bonnien hif ferden. 1 

& ferde aeuere ]?ene vveei f* he wol |?aiie way :' I 

];ae touward Excheftre lai. J^at toward Exceftre lay. i 

and delde a ]?reo ulockes r^ and dealde on ]?i'eo flockcs r' I 

hif duhtie cnihtef. lo his ftalewor]?e cnihtef. 

and |mf cleopie a-gon :' and j^us clepie agon "l { 

]7e king wef abol3en. j^e ki.. was a-bolwe. ; 

iEuer aelc god cniht r' Euer ech. god cniht:' i 

faren heoni to forb riht. 
for we beo^ cnihtef gode r' 

mid wepnen' wel idihte. mid wepnef him dihte. -j 

arude we Brien r' and a-reade we Brian r i 

]7e if min ibore mon. ]7at his min .leoue man. [f. 146". c. l| 

For 3if heo nime^ Brien i For jef heo nimej* Brian i I 

heo hine wulleS aquelen. 20 he^ hine w^olle a-cwelle. ; 

and feo'^den^ heo wulle^ hine and fu)>|?e he^ wole him a-hon :'; 

a-hon:' [f.]S4.c. 1.] 
and alle hif i-feren for-don, and alle his veref for-don. j 

& uf ]?er after sone "^ and ouf |;ar after siij^j^e :! i 

was come soon to the haven of Totnes, to Cadwalan the king, how Bria 
was bestad ; ' he caused trumpets to be blown, and his host to assemble 
*and marched ever [he would go] the Avay that toward Exeter lay, an 
divided his 'doughty [stalworth] knights in three troops ; and thus he ga 
call, — the king was angry: — " Every good knight ' march to them fort! 
right, for we are knights good', with weapons "well provided; [provic 
him ; and] succour we Brian, who is my 'man born [dear man] . For if the 
take Brian, they will him kill, and afterwards they will him hang, and a 
his companions destroy, and us thereafter 'soon [next], with all their might. 

* R. wepnen. 

^ heo r hii ? 

' feob'Sen? 

[v. 30979—31002.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. tx. 

mid alle heore imaelite^ 
To heo gunnen riden :' 
gffiref heo letten gliden^. 
brekon brsp,de^ \vei3ef z' 
bruftleden'* fcaftef. 
gold-ua^e fceldef r' 
fcanden bilifes. 
Feollen ]?a cnihtes i 
Faleweden nebbes. 
jeond l^an feldef wide "i 
swulten men U8ei3e. 
blod orn in }?e wei^e :' 
rt"amef swiSe brade. 
[;er neore eorlef r' 
no wurSer ]7ene cheorlef. 
per weoren |?a of-flas3ene "! 
seoiien |?ufend fulle. 
Marcchifce monnen r' 
|;a ]?er icumen weoren. 
t^a falden heo adune r' 
heremarken ua3e. 
lieo wnrpen fceldef fone ^ 
duiiede j^a eor^e. 
pa fette to fleme i 



MS. Cott. Otho, C. xin, 

bi al liire mihte. 
To hii gonne r... 
fperes hii lette glide, 
breken brode weyes i 
braftlede fcealdes. 

falevvede nebbes :' 
folle J'e cnihtes. 

blod ]7ar orn in waye "i 
ftremes fwi]?e brode. 
]7are neren eorles :' 
. . woi']?ere j^ane che ... 

.are of-slaw:' 


Forward they gan ride, spears they let glide ; brake the broad clubs, splin- 
tered 'shafts [shields]; ' gold-hued shields shivered quickly'; fell the 
knights, paled faces ; ' over the fields wide perished the fated men ' ; blood 
ran [there] in ' the ' way, streams exceeding broad ; there were earls no 
worthier than churls ! There were ' then ' slain full seven thousand of 
Mercian men, who there were come ; then felled they down the variegated 
standards ; they threw away shields soon, the earth dinned ! Then set to 

* imseh, fr. m. 
' bsede, pr, m. 

^ riden, pr. m. 
■* brutleden, pr. m. 



[v. 31003—31026.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

aire 3eomerel't folke. 

and Cadwalaii after heom "i 

mid alien hif imahten. 

& mid hif a3ene honden i 

no ]?ene king Pendan. 

he wes Maerwalef fader i 

Mildbur3e aldeuader. 

Pendan heo no men :' 

and duden hine i benden. 

wi^ innen Exceft^ i 

and biwuften hine wel fafte. 

Svva fellic hit ferde i 

i alle ]?an uahte. 

}7at naf Pedan ]?e king "! [c.2.] 

amarred nanef kunnef )?Ig. 

and Cadwalan hine biwufte r' 

wel ]?arh alle cufte. 

and faeire heo hine nedde i 

and faii-e he eode to bedde. 

pa weoren agan feouen nih ' i 

]?a nom Pendan enne cniht. 

J;e vvef fwi^e wif inon ^ 

and wel cu5e fpeken. 

and cleopede hine to rade r' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 



pus h . . . . ng :' >| 

and dude nde. 

10 wi]? ine '\ 

-witede hine fa... | 

hit ferde i \ 

in hte. \ 

]7at nas \it king ^ \ 

iwemined \ cunnes ]?ingj 

and Cadwal]>an hine bi-\vifte :' < 

wel mid J?an befte. | 

and faire hine ..edde i ^ 

and faire hine be.. edde. \ 

20 po weren agon fe...e niht:' \ 

\o nam Penda .ne cniht. \ 

J'at was fvvi]?e .if man r^ ' 

and wel cou]?e of fpeche. [c. 2.] i 

flight the folk most miserable of all, and Cadwalan /(wrsMec? after them witl 
all his might ; and with his own hand took the king Penda, — ' he was Meer. 
wals father, Mildburgs grandfather.' Tenda [Thus the king] they took, anc 
put him in bonds, within Exeter, and guarded him well fast. So strangel) 
it happened in all the fight, that Penda the king was not harmed [through' 
any kind of thing ; and Cadwalan him kept w'ell 'through all manner [witl 
the best], and fairly 'he ' him fed, and fair 'he went to bed [him bedded] 
When seven nights Avere gone, then took Penda a knight, who was an ex 
ceeding wise man, and well could 'speak [of speech], ' and called him tc 

niht > 

[v. 31027—31050.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

and feide him of hif neode. 

and ^eorne hie bifohte r' 

for lufe of ure drihte. 

|?at he fpeke wid' Cadwalan^:' 

]?e wef hif kine-lauerd. 

)7at he hine gri^ede r! 

I^urh ]>ene godd he3e. 

and he wolde bi-cunien hif mon 

hif mon-fcipe haeh3en. 

dfei3ef and nihtef:' lo 

he and al liif cnihtes. 

pe cniht him forS wende r' 

to Cadwalane kinge. 

);er he hine imette :! 

and faeire hine igrette. 

and dude alfe god mon r' 

fel him wur^e for |?an. 

for a is on treowe monnen :^ 

treouSe ihalden. 

Al fwa^ \\\ Cadwalan :' 20 

\\x art mi kine-lauerd. 

\e. ibundene king Penda ^ 

hider me gon fende. 

& 3erne'S |?ine sere r^ 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xm. 

and bi-fohte :! 

for lou drihte. 

|7at he fpe Cadvval]?an ^ 

];at was ..s kine-louerd. 
)7at he hi. . grijjie wolde i 
for loue o. god feolue. 
:! and he wolde bi-come his man r' 
his manf. ..e he3i. 
da3es and nihtes :' 
he and a. his cnihtes. 
. . cniht .... for)? wen . . 

ap . . . ]?an 

mette :^ 


counsel, and said to him of his need ' ; and earnestly besought him, for 
love of our Lord, that he should speak with Cadwalan, who was his sove- 
reign, that he him would set free, 'through the high God [for love of Gods 
self]; and he would become his man, his honor exalt, by day and night, 
he and all his knights. The knight forth him went to Cadwalan the king ; 
there he him met, and fair he him greeted, and did as a good man, — pros- 
perity be to him therefore ! — for ever is truth held by true men. — " Hail 
be thou, Cadwalan, thou art my sovereign ! The bounden king Penda 
hither gan send me, and yearneth thy mercy, now and evermore. And he 

^ wi^ ? raid? 

^ Cadwalane, pr. m. 

' Halfeo? Cf. I. 29031. 



[v. 31051—31075.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

nil and auere msere. 

and he wulle ]?i mon bi-cume "i 

and to 3ifle feolle );e hif fune.^^' ^ -. ' 

and of |>e hif kine-lond halden :^ 

and for laiierd ]?e ikenne. 

& on aelchere j^eode:^ 

beon 3arii to ]?ine neode. 

he wule beo j^i mon icoren "l 

a3ein aslcne mon iboren. 

pa andfwaerien agon :l lo 

mid aSelen hif worden. 

Cadwalan ]^e kene i 

]>e king of Sii^-londe. 

3if Penda wolde halde r' 

^ he me bi-hateS to don. 

and bitechen me hif fiine r^ 

his gold and hif gferfume. 

& tl*eou^ye mon auere beon r' 

& neoiiwar min herm ifeon. 

& likede fwa him likede r' 20 

naeue^ me bi-fwike. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

ich me birjeden wolde "i 
of fwulchere neode. 
per anan for^ riht i 
andfvvarede p'e gode cniht. 

. . hotej? .. ., 
. i-take me hif .... 

, d and his ga. 

. . . min trewe beon r' 

and noh... mine harm ifeon. 

ich me bi-readen woUe '■! 

eode. [f. 147. c. 1.] 

par iht r' 

anfwcrede e cniht. 

will become thy man, and for hostage deliver thee his son ; and hold of thee 
his kingdom, and for lord acknowledge thee, and in each country be ready 
at thy need; he will be thy chosen man against each man born." Then 
gan answer with his good words Cadwalan the keen, the king of South- 
land : "If Penda would hold what he promiseth me to do, and deliver me 
his son, his gold and his treasure, and be ever [my] true man, and nowhere 
see my harm, 'and like so him should like, never me betray', I 'would 
[will] counsel me of such need." There anon forth-right answered the good 

' R. naeuere. 

And fo icli ibide 


3et he wole .... 

fter he haue]? 


?e for .... 

mon r' 

. ne . 

• • 

.. .ing . . . 

» • • 

[V. 31076-31099.] LA^AMONS BIIUT. 249 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott Otho, C. xiii. 

La swa ic aure inote ij^eon t* So ich euere i}?eon :! 

ich Avulle his an barh beon. ich vvolle here .. borh beon. 

and habbeon to iueren ^ and habbe to ivere ^ 

an hodret^ ridere. an hundred ridearef. 

uppe alle ure londe :! vp al oure lond :^ 

nppen feohier and uppen gokle. vppe feohier and vppe gold. 

And swa ich bide are f' 

3et he wulle mare. 

ane sufter he haue^ hende r' 

in J^an aeft ende. 

nis nan feirure wifmon :! 

]?a whit sunne fcineS on. 

J>e king of France Leouwis t' 

3irne^ hire ful iwif. 

and he wulle hire to nioi^eue :! 

I^ene Manf bitaechen. [c.2.] 

and habben^ heo to quene :! 

J>at maeiden Helene. 

And ich fuggen \e to foSe t' 

jjaeh ich yi broder weore. 20 

feuere |7e if selere ^ 

y\ fiilf ['at ]?u heo habbe. 

I^urh hire |>u niiht bivvinnen :^ 

lufe of hire cunnen. 

knight : " ' La ! ' so may I ever thrive, I vi'ill be 'his [here] one surety, and 
have for companions an hundred riders ; MY>on penalty of all our land, upon 
silver and upon gold. And so pray I for mercy, yet will he do more. A sister 
fair he hath in the East end ; 'is none fairer \\\\q fairest] woman the white 
sun shineth on ; — the king of France, Louis, desireth her full truly, and he 
will give her for nuptial-gift the Mans, and have her for queen, — the maiden 
Helen. And I say thee in sooth, though I were thy brother, ever thee is 
(will he) the better, that thou have her thyself; through her thou mightest 
obtain the love of her kindred, and win all thy kingdom to thine own hand, 

' Corrected by a second hand, on an erasure. ^ habebeii, pr. m. 



[v. 31100—31123.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xni. 

and iwinnen al }?i kine-lond :! 

to J^ire a3ere bond. 

and wunien on londe t" 

and walde J'ine riche. 

pa andfvvarede Cadvvalan r' rede n r' 

|;e king wef on londen. j?. . waf londe. 

Hit if on mine rede r' 
to don ]7at ]>\\ bede. 

3if pu mibt under crifte :! 3ef |? nder crifte :* 

pif forward me ilefte. lo J?es me bolde. 

icb \q 3eue to bure r' icb buret' 

al Deuene-fcire. al Deu 

al for Heleine lufe :! . . for Elene loue r 

bijendlicbe let heo cume. loke f\vij?e |?at 360 come. 

pe cniht bim gon wende t' pe cnibt bini gon wende r' 

mid muchelere genge. mid mocbelere genge. 

to ]?an caftle of Deoure ^ to ]?ane caftle of Douere r' 

on J^ere fie cure. J'at ftond vp ]7ar cure. 

be nom ]>ev Helene :' be nam ]?are Eleyne t' [c.2.] 

wunderlicbe &^ faeire. 20 

and forS be beo ladde r' and to Londene ladde. 

in to Wicbteftre". 

\>ei' wes mucbel bliffe r' ]7at was mocbel bliffe t' 

burh-men weoren bliSe. to alle J?an folke. 

and dwell in the land, and rule thy realm." Then answered Cadwalan, who 
was king in the land : " ' It is in my counsel to do that thou hiddest.' If 
thou mightest under Christ hold me this covenant, I give thee for reward all 
Devonshire ; all for Helens love, — 'let her speedily [look quickly that she] 
come ! " The knight gan him wend with a mickle retinue to the castle of 
Dover.'on [that standeth upon] the ' sea '-shore ; he took there Helen, 'won- 
drously fair,' and ' forth he her ' led 'into Winchester [to London] ; "there 
[that] was mickle bliss, ^the burgh-men were blithe [to all the folk] ! There 

Superfluous ? 

' This line is on an erasure, but by first hand. 

[v. 31124—31146.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

per ]>e king Cadwalan :' 

com him to-3einef heom. 

he weddede ]nit j^at' mseide:^ 

& nom heo to hif bedden. 

]>c- wes wif-Sig riche r' 

and vnimete bliffe. 

pa hit wef dafii a maiden :f 

&du3e^egunnen fturien. [f.iss.c.i.] 

& l^e king iufeftned hafde :! 

alle hif forwarde. 

}?a nom he muchele genge :' 

and after Penda^ fende. 

J7er he wef ful fafte :f 

in |?an caftle of ^xchfeftre. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

par ]>e king Cadwal)?an t' 

com to-3eiies 3am. 

he f'at maide weddede r' 

and nam hire to his bedde. 

];ar waf mid iwiffe f 

onimete bliffe. 

po hit was day a morwe t 

10 and |?e forewardef ifaftned were. 
]?o nam he cnihtes hende r' 
and after Penda fendc. 
ware he was wel fafte :/ 
in |7an caftle of Exceftre. 

and mid inuche lufe hine hehte tf and mid mochele loue r' 

cuinen to Lundene. 
Penda to Lundene com :' 
he wef ahtliche under- uo. 
and Cadwalan ]?e kene :! 
mid lufe hine cufte. 20 

and Penda bicom hif mon ]>ev i 
hif monfcipe wef |?e mare. 
]?a weoren Lundenifce men i 

hehte him come to Londene. 
Penda to Londene com i 
he waf faire onderfon. 
and Cad\val|7an ]?e kene "i 
mid .... hine cufte. 
and Pen .... com his man r' 
his ...fipe was \% mo. 
\o Londeniffe men:^ 

the king Cadwalan came ' him ' against them ; he wedded the 'maiden 
[maid] , and took her to his bed ; there was 'wedding rich, and [with truth] 
bliss without bounds I When it was day in the morning, and ' the folk gan 
to stir, and' the 'king had confirmed all his covenant [covenants were con- 
firmed], then took he 'a mickle troop [knights good], and sent after Penda, 
where he was 'full [well] fast, in the castle of Exeter ; and with much 
love bade him come to London. Penda came to London ; he was 'nobly 
[fairly] received, and Cadwalan the keen with love him kissed ; and Penda 
• there ' became his man, — his honor was the more ; — then were Londonish 

» Sic MS. 

' >eri 

' Fende, pr. m. 



[v. 31147—31170.] 


Anno gr... 
M, Sanctus 
Ed... rex 
Nor^... a 

bello occ\_i- 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

bliSeft arle^ leoden. 

pa wes hit feodSe- :f 

]>er after noht loge. 

Cadwalan gaii li^e r' 

wide 3eond J>if loiide. 

alle ]?a hine lufeden :f 

he heom gon gri]?ien. 

alle ]m him heolde wi^ r^ 

he bi-nom heore lif. 

and heore leoden :' 

and al jnit heo leof hafden. 

and hi3endliche gon wende :' 

touward ]>ere Humbre. 

and gon j^at lond weften r' 

mid hasrmen |7an maeften. 

pat iherde Edwine :' 

and alle |?at luueden hine. 

swi^e heo gunnen dreden :" 

of Cadwalanef deden. 

Edwine nom hif fonde r' 20 

and fenden to Sexlonde. [c. 2.] 

he fende in to Denene :" 

he fende in to Noreine. 

in to Wellifce londe :! 

MS. Cott. Otho. C. xm. 
. ...eft aire leode. 
po was hit su|?f>e r' 
]?ar after noht Ion . . 
Cadvval];an gan wen., 
oueral |ns londe. 
and alle |7at him louede r' 
he 3am gan grij^ie. 
and alle ]?at ne heolde him wi)? :' 
he bi-nani .am J^at lif. 

and hi3endliche gan wende:' 

in to Nor]?-hunibre. 

and ]?at lond gan wefte :' 

mid harme ]?an mefte. 

pat ihorde Edwyn r' 

and al |?at louede him. [f. HT'-.c. 1.] 

fwij'e he gan drede :' 

of Cadwal|?anes deades. 

Edwyn nam his fonde :f 

and fende to Saxlonde. 

he fende into Dene^ :f 

and into Norene. 

in to Walfelonde :' 

men blithest of all people. Then was it eft, not long thereafter, Cadwalan 
gan journey 'wide over [over all] this land, [and] all that him loved, he gan 
them free {or grant peace), [and] all that held 'against [not with] him, he 
took away 'their [from them the] life, ' and their people, and all that they 
had dear ;' and hastily gan march 'toward the Humber [into Northumber- 
land], and gan waste the land with the most harm. That heard Edwine, 
and all that him loved ; greatly 'they [he] gan dread of Cadwalans deeds. 
Edwine took his messengers, and sent to Saxland ; he sent into Denmark, 
*he sent [and] into Norway ; into Welsh-land, into Scotland ; into Orkney, 

» 7?. aire. 

^ feo5?)e } 

^ Denene ? 

[v. 31171—31196.] 




MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

ill to Scotlonde. 

in to Orcanei3e t' 

in to Galwai^e. 

in to Iflonde ^' 

in to Friflonde. 

in to Gutlonde r' 

]?er gumen weoren kene. 

he bed heo cunien fone :' 

mid wepnen wel idone. 

to driuen ut ]>a Bruttef r^ 

|>e bifie weoren to harmef. 

and ]?enne he Bruttef haefden "i 

mid bronden to-hseuwen. 

he wolde al \\i kine-lond i 

setten an heore bond. 

bute ]?at he iclcoped weore "i 

king of }7an londe. 

he wolde );ere du3e^en i 

]7if lond al to-dalen. 

Ah he fill lutel wufte i 

what ilomp feo^^e. 

Come touward londe '! 

touwai'd Ed wine kinge. 

bi fas & hi londe i 

feole cune leoden. 

I^er comen feouen kingef r' 


MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

in to Scotlonde. 
in to Orcaneye r' 
in to Galeweye. 
in to Iflonde "i 
in to Friflonde. 

and bad 3ani come foner' 

mid wepne wel idone. 

to driue vt )?e Bruttiis C 

J?at biifie were to harmes. 

and wane he Bruttuf hadde "! 

mid bronde to-hewe. 

he wolde al |>is kinelond i 

fette on hire bond. 

bote |?at he icleopid were i 

king of |?an londe. 

he wolde to j^an cnihtes i 

al J>is lond to-deale. 

Ac he wel lute wifte :! 

wat bi-ful after. 

pare come t. ... king Edwyn r' 

of ma nef londe. 

]?ar comen f ges :! 

into Galloway ; into Iceland, into Friesland ; ' into Gothland, where war- 
riors were keen'; 'he [and] bade them come soon, with weapons good, to 
drive out the Britons that were busy to harm ; and when he had hewed in 
pieces with swords the Britons, he would set all this kingdom in their hand ; 
except that he should be called king of the land, he would to the 'people 
[knights] distribute all this land. But he 'full [well] little wist what be- 
fell afterwards ! [There] came ' toward land,' 'toward [to] Edwine [the] 
king, ' by sea and by land,' 'people of many kind \_folli from many kind of 
land] ; there came seven kings, and six sons of kings, seventeen earls, and 



[v. 31197—31220.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. rx. 

and fix funen kingef. 

seouentene eorlef t' 

and fixti |7ufend beornnef. 

Nsef he boren nauere :f 

in nauer nare burh3e. 

]fe mihte in asi fpelle :f 

J/at o^er uolc telle. 

naf hit nauere ifseid :' 

no on bocken irad. 

)?at seuer ser weore :' lo 

aei swa muchel ferde. 

aeuere in ^ngelonde :f 

]7urh fenie king to-gadere. 

Edwine gon to iiarene r^[f. 185". c. i, 

mid nnicle liif ferde. 

and Cadwalan after wende :f 

mid unimete folke. 

pe ftude hehte HajdfeldV 

]?er heo at-ftoden under fcelde. 

twelf milen if ]?e wald :' 20 

\>e if ihaten HeS-feld. 

Edwine an hif ende :/ 

hif teldef alle fette. 

hif marken & hif mare ^' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

souentene eorl... 
... fixti }>oufend cnihtes. 
N.. he ibore neuere:' 
in none borewe. 
J'a, ...te in eny fpelle:' 
]?at o... folk telle, 
nas hit neuere ifeidr' 
no in boke irad. 
J^at euere eni king :' 
fo moche folk Avelde. 
in his owe honde r' 
here in Engelonde. 
jEdwyn for]? wende :f 
mid mochele his ferde. 
and Cadwal)7an after wende :' 
mid onimete folke. 
pe ftude hatte A|7el-feld :f 
]7ar hii a-ftode vnder fceald. 

twealf mile his ]? [c. 2.] 

... his fo bote. 

Edw eande:' 

his teldef al 

sixty thousand knights. Was he never bom, in ' ever' any burgh, that might 
in any speech the other folk tell ; never was it said, nor in book read, that 
ever 'previously any so mickle host were ever together in England through 
any king [any king possessed so much folk in his own hand here in England] ! 
Edwine 'gan to march [forth went], with his mickle army ; and Cadwalan 
after pursued, with innumerable folk. The place bight 'Heathfield [Athel- 
field], where they fought under shield; twelve miles is the weald, that is 
named 'Heathfield [so]. Edwine on his side his tents all set, * his stand- 

* A line appears to he missing h'^re. 

HKfofeld ? 

[v. 31221—31246.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

and eke his mon-weorede. 
and Cadvvalan ]>e kene :f 
him com to-^ainef fone. 
]>er fufden to-fomne r' 
uerden uniniete. 
Heo fuhten feondliche :' 
feollen ]?a uai3e. 
brokef |?er m'nen f' 
mid uniniete ftremen. 
of bloden ]?an rede :f 
Jje bahi wef unimete. 
hehiief ]?er gullen :f 
beornef ]?er ueolle. 
fceldes gunnen fcenen r' 
fcalkef gunnen swelten, 
at I'an forme refe r' 
fifti Jfufende. 
baldere beornen :' 
heore bent vves ];ae laffe. 
per wes Edwinef ferde :' 
3eoumereft aire uolke. 
& Edwine him feolf anan :f 
aermeft aire kingen. 
]>er wef Edwine of-fla3en r' 
and hif sunen tweien. 
]>ev feollen feouen kinges :' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

and Cadwal}?an ]7e k... 
him com to-3eines fon.. 
. . . ]>a.T reafde to-gadere r' 
m.. folk on i mete. 
Hii fohten feondeliche :' 
follen ]>e feye. 
brokes |>ar . . ne r' 

10 of \>a.n blod reade. 





• • • lijL » • • • • 

... ]70...nd. 

ards and his limits, and eke his forces'; and Cadwalan the keen came 
against him soon ; [they] there rushed together 'hosts [with folk] M'ithout 
number ! T hey fough t fiercgly^ the jFated_Jell ; the brooks there ran ' with 
immense streams ' of the red blood ; — ' the mischief was boundless ! ' Helms 
there resounded, knights there fell ; ' shields gan shiver, warriors gan pe- 
rish ;' at the first assault fifty thousand bold men, — their threatening was the 
less ! There was Edwines host most piteous of all folk ; and Edwine him- 
self anon most wretched of all kings ; there was Edwine slain, and his sons 
twain ; there fell seven kings, and six sons of kings ; his earls, his barons. 

256 LA3AIM0NS BRUT. [v. 31247— 31271.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiir. 

and fix funen kinges. 

his eorlef hif beornes r^ 

hif cnihtes hif cheorlef. 

I^er wes]?eswein &]?ecnaue:' [c.2.] 

beinen of are la3e. 

nefden heo nane are :! 

of |nin laffe no of ]mn mare. 

ah al |?a ferde vvef of-f lajen r' 

and idon of lif-da^en. 

Of ]?an fehte^ fleh a gume :^ 10 agom. 

Edwines jugefte fune. son.. 

wellen henden wes ]?e mo '.' 

Ofric ihaten. .... ihote. 

nefde he to iueren r' 

biten^ an hundred ridere. .... one hundred 

peof to wuden wenden ^ peos to wode 

and |?er gunnen wunien. ... ]?are gonne wonie. 

and barnden Cadwalanef lond :^ and barnde Cadwal}>anes lond :! 

and eoden him hi^ere an bond, and ^code him to harme an bond. 

& hif folc f lo3en f" 20 and hif folk f lowe :! 

a feole cunnef wiffen. in fale cunne wife. 

pat iherde Cadwala r' pat ihorde Cadu'al)'an t' 

Ipe king wes on londen. ]7at king was in londe. 

hu Ofric Edwinef fune :' [f. I48.c. 1.] 

dude ut-la3en wune. 

his knights, his churls ; there was the swain and the lad both of one law 
(equal); they had no mercjr of the less nor of the great, but all the host 
was slain, and deprived of life-day. From the fight fled a man, Edwines 
youngest son ; well fair Avas the man, he was named Osric ; he had for 
companions only a hundred riders. These went to the wood, and there 
gan to dwell, and burnt Cadwalans land, and went to him 'evil [to harm] 
in hand ; and slew his folk, in many kind of wise. Cadwalan heard that, 
who was king in the land, how Osric, Edwines son, did the usage of out- 

' Added hy a hifrr hand in ilic margin. 

2 B. buten. 

[v. 312r2-31295.] LA3AMONS BRUT. 257 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

Cadwalan muchel uolc nom f' 

and lette heom to wuden gan 

and Ofric heo funden :! 

& wis hi fehten. 

per heo Ofric f lojen r^ 

and alle hif iueren. 

Nu wef \q king Cadwalan r' 

bliSeft aire kempen. 

nu wef icleoped Cadwalan r' 

king ouer Anglen. 10 

Pen da wef king under hi r' 

and ma |;a iqueme weore him 

Cadwalan aquald hefde ^ 

of Edwinef cunne. 

al J?at ]7er wef hende ^ ~ , 

wis ute ane mone. 

he wef ihaten Ofwald :! 

under drihtene bald. 

he wef of Edwinef cunne:'[f- 186. C.I.] 

& him leofueft monne. 20 

& he wes hex^ monnen ^ 

of Edwinef ciinen. 

Ofwald nom on hif hond :' 

al to-gadere Edwinef loud. . 

laws. Cadwalan took mickle folk, and caused them to go to the wood, 
and Osric they found, and fought with him ; there they slew Osric, and 
all his comrades. Now was the king Cadwalan blithest of all warriors ; 
now was Cadwalan called king over the Angles. Penda was king under 
him, and more that were acceptable to him. Cadwalan had killed of Ed- 
wines kindred all that there was fair, without (except) one man, — he was 
named Oswald, under the Lord he ivas bold, — he Vv-as of Edvvines kin, and 
dearest to him of men, and he was highest of the men of Edwines kin. 
Oswald took in his hand Edwines laud altogether ; earls and warriors all 

» hexft? 
VOL. in. s 

258 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 31296—31319.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xtii. j 

eorlef and kempen ^ . j 

hif men al bicomen. j 

me heold hine kig haehne r' 

bijeonde J'ere Humbre. 

pat iherde Cadvvalan r' 

and |?uf qna^ to hif eorlen. ! 

Somnie we nu ferde :! 

^eod alle mine aerde. ^ 

nu ich mi lod habbcn bi-tald i 

nu haui^^ hit Ofvvald. 10 1 

ah ]?er uore him fcal ileoten r' j 

bittereft ah-e baluwen. i 

for ]?an kinelonde f I 

ich hine aquelle wuHe. 

and al hif ferde r' ' 

fallen to grvmde. j 

and al f'at he of com ^ | 

ich hit wulle foi'-don. i 

and fvva me fcal him tache i i 

to walde kineriche. [mod :! ! 

aleggen ich wulle hif muchele 

monnen he if me la^eft. 22 i 

Cadwalan fomnede uerde :^ j 

mucle in )?iffen aerde. 


became his men; men held him /or chief king beyond the Humber. Cad- 
walan heard that, and thus quoth to his earls : " Assemble we now an army, 
over all my territory ; now I have conquered mj' land, now hath obtained 
it Oswald, but therefore shall be decreed to him the bitterest of all e\ils !, 
For the kingdom I will kill him, and all his host fell to the ground, and all 
the race that he comes of, I will it destroy ; and so shall men teach him toj 
possess a kingdom ! Depress I will his mickle mood ; he is to me most hate-i 

ful of men! " Cadwalan assembled a great host in this land, and marched 


' at^neS, pr. m. 1 

[v. 31320-31342.] LAJAMONS BRUT. 259 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

& ferde touward f^ere Hunibre :' 

jaru al to felite. 

Ofwald |>if iherde :" 

J7af he3es godef icorne. 

and iiom ham al hif ferde t' , 

l^a ' hafde in hif gerde. 

and for-foc ]^at feht fone :! 

for-faken him weoren la^e. 

and ferde tBuere for^ward'^ :^[c.2.] 

& Cadvvalan him after vvende r' 

ah of-taken he hine ne mahte. ii 

pa wef Cadwalan adred r' 

for wis Scotten he wef iuasid 

for he ]7at nor^erne uolc hseuede :' . 

ineou^ered ful fwiSe. 

& nom him to rede :' 

of fwulchere neode. 

}>at he a3ain wolde :! 

for J»er he kare hafde. 

and bi-teche Penda:' 20 

)?e wef hif under-kinge. 

folc and hif ferde :! 

to fleraen of arde. 

toward the Humber, all ready to the fight. Oswald this heard, the chosen 
of the high God, and took to him all his forces that he had in his territory, 
and forsook soon the battle, — to forsake it were loath to him ! — and 
marched ever forward ; and Cadwalan pursued after him, but he might not 
overtake him. Then was Cadwalan adread, for with the Scots he was at 
enmity, because he had full greatly injured {or humbled) the northern 
folk ; and betook him to counsel of such need, that he would turn back, 
for there he had care, and deliver to Penda, who was his under-king, his 
folk and his host, to expel from the country Edwines relative Oswald, and 

' J^a he ? ^ The corresponding line is here deficient. 

S 2 

260 LA3AM0NS BKUT. [v. 31343-31367.]! 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. j 


Edwinef masi Ofwald r^ ] 

and driueii hine of londe. 

And al Cadvvalan fpede' r' j 

swa he ifpeken hafde. 1 

a3aen he gou \vende r 

in to biffe londe. ! 

. ' j 

and in j^an norS ende r > 

fette ]>ene king Penda. j 

to fleome Ofwakle :' 

ut of ]?iflen londe. lo ........ . ^ 

Ofwald put iherde :' | 

pat Cadwalan chaerde. | 

and her wiinede Penda t | 

to driuen hine of londe. j 

pa waf pee king Ofwald ^' j 

an hif ponke fwi^e bald. | 

and a3cein him gon wede :f ' 

muchele hif ferde. ' 

to-3eines pan kinge Penda :' j 

to fleomen hine penne. 20 | 

Penda hine bi-pohte :f j 

svviken hii he mahte. 

he fende to Ofvvalde :f 

pe nor^erne kinge. \ 

& feide pat he wolde t' I 


drive him from ^^eland. And all Cadwalan sped, as he had spoken ; back! 
he gan march into this land, and in the north end set the king Penda, toj 
expel Oswald out of this land. Oswald that heard, that Cadwalan re- 1 
turned, and there remained Penda, to drive him from the land; then was 
the king Oswald exceeding bold in his thought, and gan march against 
him with his mickle host, against the king Penda, to expel him thence. I 
Penda bethought him how he might deceive ; he sent to Oswald, the ' 
northern king, and said that he would work amity, and speak with him 1 

^ I'ped, pi-, m. 

[v. 313G8— 31390.] LA3AM0NS BRUT. 261 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

fahtneffe Avurche. [f. iSG^c. i.] 

and timliche him fpekeu wi^ :! 

& niake3en fehtneffe and griS 

and beon faht and fome :^ 

swvdc heo weoren broSeren. 

and faren of j?an ende :' 

to Cadwalane kinge. 

and leten |?ene klg Ofwald :' 

habben Idf riche and hif lond 

penedffiiand]>e ftudeMieo fettenr' 

fsehneffe- to makien. ii 

and ];'er aft ful fone ^ 

heo cunien to-fomne. 

Ofwald com much el biforen :! 

he wef to godef bond icoren. 

Jj'e ftuden hehte Houe-feld :! 

I^er Ofwald fette hif teld. 

he lette fone arere i! 

a muchel crof^ and mare. 

ad hehten al hif ferde :' 20 

fallen on heore cneowen. 

and bidden pane al-mihti godd r' 

J'urh hif milde mihti'^ mod. 

timely, and make concord and peace, and be friends and allies, as if they 
were brothers ; and go from the place to Cadwalan the king, and let the 
king Oswald have his realm and his land. They set the day and the place 
to make amity, and thereafter full soon they came together. Oswald 
came much before, — he was chosen to Gods hand ; — the place hight He- 
venfield, where Oswald set his tent ; he caused soon to be areared a mickle 
cross and tall, and bade all his army fall on their knees, and pray the Al- 
mighty God, through his mild mood, that he should give them grace of 

* ftunde, pr. m. ^ fsehtnefle r ' croft, pr. m. 

* Probably a superfluous repetition. 

262 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 31391—31414.] 

MS. Cotl. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

|nit he heom 3me mildze r' 

of heore mifde^. 

and 3if Penda p>ut griS breke "^ 

]7at lire drihten hit awreke. 

pa weren iended |^af beden :^ 

]7a CO him Penda riden. 

and word^ feide r' 

fwikeleft aire kinge. 

Ofwald f'u art wilcume :^ 

wunne J^e if 3eue'Se. in 

hafue I'u al |?i kine-lond :f 

al^ nim yx feoluer and ]n gold 

nim an hundred hunden r' [c.2.] 

nim an hundred haueken. 

nl an hundred fteden r' 

nim gold-fah i-wede. 

and fend J?as gretinge :! 

to Cadwa^lan kinge. 

and |;uf \\x maht him vvi^ :! 

makien \e fahtneffe and gri^. 20 

& ich wulle a l^ine ftude beon t 

J>at ]^a lufe fcal wel ij'eon. 

& 3et ich |>e fuggen wulle :! 

ane funder rune. 

their misdeeds, and if Penda should break the peace, that our Lord should 
avenge it. When these prayers were ended, then came him riding Penda, 
and said these words, — most deceitful of all kings : — " Oswald, thou art 
welcome ; joy is given to thee ! Have thou all thy kingdom ; hut take thy 
silver and thy gold, take an hundred hounds, take an hundred hawks, take 
an hundred steeds, take gold-dyed weeds, and send this greeting to Cad- 
walan the king ; and thus thou mayest with him make to thee reconciha- 
tion and peace, and I will he in thy place, that the love shall well thrive. 
And yet I will say thee a different counsel, how thou mightest take on, 

' inifdede? ^ J^asword? ' ah? 

[v. 31415—31438.] LA^AMONS BRUT. 263 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

hu jni mihte fon on f" 

f hit ne bu^ nauere undo. 

and cleope mid ]>e tweien :' 

pat ]?ine treowe men beon beien 

& ich wulle tweien to me :/ 

]?a wel fcuUen reden. 

pa rad forS a ]?an felde :f 

falfeft aire kinge. 

and Ofwald rad a |?ene feld :' 

naefde he fper ne nsenne fceld. lo 

Penda hif sweord ut a-droh r' 

and he Ofwald of-floh. 

]?is wef i?eint Ofwald i' 

]?e anvSered ' wef aquald. 

and Penda gon to fleonne :' 

mid alle hif ferde. 

pat ifehjen forS rihtef :' 

Ofwaldef cnihtes. 

and after heom fette r' 

mid alien heore mihten. 20 

mucchel del heo f lo3en :^ 

of l^an mon-weorede. 

and ]>e king Penda :' 

uneSe gon anwende^. 

that it be not ever undone ; and call with thee twain that are thy true men 
both, and I will call twain to me, that well shall counsel." Then rode 
forth in the field the falsest of all kings ; and Oswald rode in the field, — he 
had not spear nor any shield. Penda drew out his sword, and he slew 
Oswald, — this was Saint Oswald, who was killed in murther, — and Penda 
gan to flee, with all his army. Oswalds knights saw that forth-right, and 
after them set, with all their might ; great part they slew of the multitude, 
and the king Penda with difficulty gan depart ; and nevertheless he escaped 

1 a mur^e? C/. /. 31450. ' awende ? 


264 LA3AMONS BRUT. [V. 31439—31462.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

and neoSelef he at-rted r' 

J>e felt Ofwald bifwac. [f. I87.c. 1.] 

Penda com to }>iffen londe r' 

to CadvvaSlan kinge. 

and talde al ]^an kinge r' 

hii he iuare hafden. 

hit likede wel ]?an kinge ^ 

buten for ane J^inge. 

hit of-|7uhte him ful foiie r' 

for l^an swikedome. 10 

Nu hafde Ofwald :! 

\q a mor^e wef aquald. 

/"Eenne aelpine bro^r r' 

I nes )?er nan o^er. 

he wef icleoped Ofwi r' id Ofwy :^ [f. H9.r. 1.] 

\>Q wes a fwiSe duhti mon. wijje dohti. 

J^a |?ringef norSerne r' ]7e . . . . norp'erne ^ 

makeden hie to kinge. make.. to king. 

for wa wef heoni on life :^ 

for heore lauerdes de^e. 20 

Ofwi nom to hif hod :' Ofwy na .. .is bond:' 

al hif brober^ kine-lond. al his broj^er ...elond. 

Ofwi hafde emes^ fune :! Ofwy hadde .amef fones r' 

\q weore swiSe prute gumen. ];at were fwij'e proute gomes. 

who Saint Oswald deceived. Penda came to this land, to Cadwalan the 
king, and told all to the king, how he had fared ; it liked well to the king, 
but for one thing ; it repented him full soon for the treachery. Now had 
Oswald, who in murther was killed, an only brother, — there was no other ; 
he was called Oswy, who was an exceeding doughty man ; the northern 
chiefs made him king, ' for woe was to them in life, for their lords death.' 
Oswy took in his hand all his brothers kingdom. Oswy had uncles sons, 
who were men exceeding proud, ' and more of his kindred, who were 

' broJ'c, pr. m. 

At first written enncs. 

[v. 31463—31486.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xm. 

and ma of hif cunne :' 

|?a weoren mod-fulle. 

heo luifden muchele onde r^ liii hadde mochel onde :' 

to |?an kle-londe. for J7an kinelonde. 

and makeden miicchel un-fri^ r' and Intel heolden his gvi]f t' 

and ofte fnhten him wicS. ac lome ifohten him wi]?. 

and jjohten hine aqnellen :f and ]7ohten hine a-cvvelle r' 

for hif kine-londen. for his kinelonde. 

Ah Ofwi wef cniht fturne :f Ac Ofwy was cnilit fteorne r' 

]^at he ]>er cudde. lo }»at he |7are cudde. 

alle ]>a, him beren onde :'' al ]>at him here onde :' 

he draf of ]?an londe. he drof 3am of londe. 

hi3endliche he heo quehte r' hi^enliche heoni cvvehte t' 

ouer |?ere Humbre. ouer |;are Humbre. 

|7at nef |?er nan to lane t' [c.2.] j^at nas ileued :' 

of ]?an ]?e him weoren la^e. of ]?an ]? ]>e were. 

And heo gunnen wende :' And hii . onne wende :' 

to ]>a, kinge Pendan. to Penda j^an kinge. 

and mende heom to Pendan ^ .nd me. den to ]?an 

of Ofwy ]?an kinge. 20 

J7at he heo idriuen ut hafde r' iflemid were. 

of al heore icunde. 

and heo bi-fohten Penda :f Penda :' 

]?ene king of .^ft-lode. king o de. 

aspiring ' ; they had mickle envy 'to [for] the kingdom, and ^made mickle 
enmity, and [little held his peace, but] oft fought with him, and thought 
to kill him for his kingdom. But Oswy was a stern knight, that he there 
shewed ; all that bare envy to him he drove [them] from ' the ' land ; 
speedily 'he' chased them over the Humber, so that there was none remained 
of those that were hateful to him. And they gan wend to the king Penda, 
and complained them to Tenda [the king] ' of Oswy the king ', 'that he 
had driven them out of all their territory ^how they were driven out] ; and 
they besought Penda, the king of East-land, that he would help them to 

266 LA^AMONS BRUT. [v. 31487—31510.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

]7at^ heom fulfte r^ )?at lie 3am w Ifte i 

Ofwy to for-uarne. Ofwy to 

and heo wolde bicumen hif men r' . nd hii wolde men i 

and hif monfcipe he3en. his mon 

^if he wolde Ofwy don^ r' 

o^er flffin o^er a-hon. 

pa andfwerede Pen da:' .0 anfwere Pen.. 

]?e king of ^ft-londe. of Eaftlonde. 

At me nabbe 3e nenne raede :' be 36 nanne .... 

for ich sem wi^ Ofwi iuaeid. 10 ... .eh ham |?are ....d. 

for ich Ofwald aqualde i for ich Ofwald 

wihtefte aire kinge. J?ane wittye 

and Ofwy hif broker if oht cniht r and his bro]?er .... 

and ar^ heorte na wiht. . . . cniht fwij^e dohti. [c. 2.] 

3if he me mihte cacche :' 3ef he me mihte cache i 

he me wolde quellen. he me wolde acwelle. 

Ah fareS to Cadvvalane r' Ac wendej? to Cadwal]?an i 

J7e king if on londe. ]?at king his in lond. 

and 3if he me wulle fende "! and 3ef he me wole fende :' 

l^at folc of hif londe. 20 j^at folk of J'an eande. 

vt of Corwale^ :^ vt of Corn wale i 

cnihtef icudde. cnihtes icoren. 

and of Walifce londe ^ 

mid feolure'* and mid golde. 

destroy Oswy, and they would become his men, and exalt his honor, ' if he 
would kill Oswy, either slay either hang.' Then answered Penda, the king 
of East-land : " At me ye have no counsel, for I am at enmity with Oswy, 
for I Oswald killed, VAe bravest of all kings [the wise kmg\ ; and Oswy his 
brother is a knight 'brave [most doughty], ' and no whit timid in heart '; 
if he might me catch, he would me kill. But go ye to Cadwalan, who is 
king in the land ; and if he will me send the folk of *his land [the territory], 
out of Cornwall, 'jiroved [chosen] knights, ' and of Welsh land, with silver 

' >at he ? 

^ for-don ? 

^ /?. Cornwalc. 

feoluer ? 

[v. 31511—31533.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

J^ene wile ich Ofwy an an '^ 

mid serm^en igreten. 

driue hie of londe i 

leoden to fconde. 

o^er flan hine mid ^gg& :^[f. l87^ c i. 

la^eft alle^ ginge. 

Paf cnihtes gunnen wende X 

to Cadwa^lane kinge. 

To CadvvaSlane heo come i 

mid falfaen dome. lo 

l^an kingen heo tolde i 

al ]^at heo wolden. 

Hit ilomp an ane time r' 

to l^an White-fune tide. 

J7at ]?e king hehte of londen i 

comen al to Lunden. 

alle ]?e wolden his gri^ "! 

and wi^ ]7an kinge habben fri^. 

pider comen kinges :' 

and sec here-]?riges. 20 

]?ider comen eorles :' 

l^ider comen beornef. 

bifcpes^ J'ider comen r' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. xHi. 

]7an woUe ich Ofwy "i 
mid mochele harm grete. 
driue him of londe i 
his folk to moche fconde. 


peos cnihtes gonne wende i 
to Cadwal]?an ]?an kinge. 

TO Cadwalj^an hii come '/ 
mid falfe hire domes. 
|?an kinge hii tolden f 
al ]?at hii wolden. 
Hit was in Witfontime i 
\& king to Londene 3eode. 
and hehte alle his cnihtes :' 
comen ];ider for|>rihtes. 

]?ider wende eorles "i 
biffopes and cnihtes. 

and with gold,' then will I greet Oswy anon with [much] harm ; drive 
him from land, to [much] disgrace of [his] folk, ' either slay him with 
weapon, most hateful of all persons ! ' " These knights gan wend to Cad- 
walan [the] king. To Cadwalan they came, with [their] false sentence ; 
the king they told all that they would. It *befel on a time, at the Whit- 
son-tide, that the king [was at Whitson-time, the king to London M'ent, 
and] ordered all ^of the land to come to London [his knights to come thither 
forth-right] ; ' all that would have his peace, and with the king have con- 
cord. Thither came kings, and eke chieftains'; thither 'came [went the] 
earls, ' thither came barons ' ; bishops ^thither came, and book-learned men 


- R. bifcopes. 



[v. 31534— 31558.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

and boc-ilerede me. 
riche and liene r' 
]nder heo conien alle. 
alchef cunnef leoden :^ 
]>'d ]?ene king lufede. 
& l^e king a ]?an daije :f 
his crime bar an haefde. 
J?er wes muchel bliffe r' 
mid balde ]>a. kinge. 
for ]?e king wef swiSe ti'eowe 
hif treoujje wel he iheokl. 
pa ]^af leoden alle :f 
ili^en weoren to-fome. 
J'a ftod him up Penda r' 
biuore Cadwa^lane kinge. 
and ]mf he gon tellen ir' 
on falfe hif fpellen. 
Lauerd we beo5 icuraen t 
alfe ]>u hafeft i-queSen. 
alle ]?ine men iborne :f 
Englifce and Bruttifce. 
eorlef & beornef:^ 
cnihtef & cla^rckef. 
and we ]?ine kingef :^ 
Jja beo^ J^ine underlingef. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

of alle cunnes leode r' 
l^at ]?an king louede. 
And ]>e king in J?an daie t' 
his croune bar on hefde. 
J^ar was moche bliffe :f 
mid bolde ]?an kinge. 

mon :f 




po pis folk alle t' 

icome weren to-gadere. 

]70 ftot^ him vp Penda :f 

to-vore ]?an he3e kinge. 

and ]>u& be-gan telle r' 

of falfe his fpelle. 

Louerd king we beo]? icome :' 

afe |?ou haueft i-liote. 

alle ]>ine men i-core :' 

Eangleffe and Bruttiffe. 

and we ]?ine kingef r' 

[and knights] ; ' the rich and the poor, thither they came all,' of 'each [all] 
kind of people that loved the king. And the king in those days bare his 
crown on head ; there was much bliss with the bold king, ' for the king 
was man most true, his truth he well held.' When this folk all were come 
together, then stood him up Penda before 'Cadwalan the [the high] king, 
and thus 'he gan [began] tell, in his false sj^eech : " Lord [king], we are 
come as thou hast bade, all thy men born, English and British, ' earls and 
barons, knights and clerks ' ; and we thy kings, who are thy underlings. 


[v. 31559— 31581.] 




MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 
Ah Ofwy feiSe' aeuere:' 
^ nulle he come nauere. 
no J^ine hefte iuor^en ^ 
ah bi-hate^ haerm to don. 
nert^ |;u noht swa modi ",' 
swa him if Ofwy. 
he for-ho3e^ ful iwis r' 
to ifechen j?ine hiredef. 
Ah ^if ]7u wult me lenen r' 
& p>ine laeue iunnen. 
and |7u me wulle fulften r* 
and ferde bi-taechen. 
and fwa muchel of )?ine garfume i 
god fwa \e. |?anche. 
ich M'^ulle uorS aneoufte i 
and faren ouer Humbre. 
& Ofwy |?er makien :/ 
aermeft aire kingen. 
no fcal he mid ftrenSe :! 
J^ene ftude uinde. 
pat ich hine nulle ^ 
}7e an honde fulle. 
or&QT quic o^er ded ^ 


MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiiT. 

Ac Ofwy faij? euere :! 

]?at he neole come neuere. 

ne ]>ine heftes onderfon :/ 

ne nohware j^e god don. 

nart pou noht fo modi r' 

fo him his Ofwy. 

and he for-ho3eJ> foliwis :! 

for do Yme heftes. 

Ac 3ef ]:'ou me wolt lene i^ 

mid |?ine gode wille. 

and )7ou me wolt fulfte r' 

and ferde bi-take. 

and fo moche of j^ine garifome :! 

so |7e god l^inche]?. 

ich wolle an hi^enge:^ 

faren ouer Hmnbre. 

and Ofwy j^ar makye ^ 

harm eft aire kinge. 

ne fal he mid non ftreng];e :' 

kinelond holde. 

|7at ich hine nolle r' 

\e an honde fulle. 

o]7er cwik o]7er dead ^ 

But Oswy saith ever, that he will not ever come, nor perform thy com- 
mands, 'but promiseth to do harm [nor anywhere do thee good] ; thou art 
not so proud as Oswy is \iimself, [and] he despiseth full truly 'to seek thy 
court [for to do thy orders] . But if thou wouldest me permit, 'and grant 
thy leave [with thy good will] , and thou wouldest me assist, and forces de- 
liver, and so much of thy treasure as to thee good seemeth, I will speedily 
' march forth, and ' pass over the Humber, and make Oswy there the most 
wretched of all kings ; he shall not with [any] strength 'find the spot [hold 
kingdom] , that I shall not deliver him to thee in hand, either alive or dead, — 

^ feide, pr. m. 

ner, jar, in. 



[v. 31582—31603.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

\>a.t me punched god rsed. 

& 3if ]?ii ]7if nult don :/ 

\>\i fcalt wurfe under-fon. 

for Ofvvy if a fvvulc mon r' 

]?ine fcome he wulle don. 

pa andfwarede r' 

Cadwalan }>e kene. 

Penda ich hit J?e fugge ouer al :f 

Ofwy haueS for-wal. 

oSer he li^ ibedde :f lo 

ibunden mid ufele. 

cSer uncu^e leoden :f 

. ff 188 

icumen beo^ to hif |?eoden. , -i 
for nulle he nauere icnawe :f 
l^at he nolde him to cumen. 
]7a ich hehte alle cumen r' 
mid gri^e mid fri^e and mid lufe. 
Ah Penda ga ]nder nt anan r' 
ich wulle wi^ mine eorlen. 
mine rune^ halden r* 
and mine red finden. 
whe^er ich J^e 3ette wullen :' 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII, 
Yis me jjinche]? god read. 


po anfwercde Cadwal|?an t' 
J^at was a king treowe. 
Penda ich ]>e fegge :' 
and wel ich wene. 
I^at Ofwi his fwij?e on-hol:' 
and in bedde ligge^ 
ojjer oncou|?e leode :f 
icome beo]> to his londe. 
for ne may ich hit ilevie :f 
l^at he nolde to me li)?e. 

Ac Penda go ]?ou vt anon r' 


and ich wolle of J^iffe J'inge :f 

make rouninge. 

waj'er ich ]?e aleane wolle :f 

*that [this] seemeth to me good counsel. ' And if thou wilt not do this, 
thou shalt receive worse, for Oswy is such a man, thy shame he will do.' " 
Then answered Cadwalan 'the keen [who was a king true] : " Penda, I say 
' it ' to thee ' over all ', [and well I Aveen, that] Oswy 'hath sickness, or he 
[is exceeding sick, and] lieth in bed, ' bound with sickness,' or else foreign 
people are come to his land ; for 'he will never acknowledge [I may not 
it believe], that he would not ^himself [to me] come, ' when I bade all to 
come, with peace, with concord, and with love.' But, Penda, go 'thither 
[thou] out anon, [and] I will 'hold my communing with my earls [make 
communing of this thing], 'and find my counsel,' whether I will grant 

' liggetJi 

A line is here apparently missiny. 

rine, pr. nt. 

[v. 31604— 31625.] LA^AMONS BRUT. 271 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

]?a |?ing ]>e ]?u bede. |?at ]7ing ]>aX ]>ou jeorneft. 

and ichwulle after Ofwinefeudenr'and icli wolle after OAvy fendet' 

a^ele mine fonde. cwikkliche mine fonde. [c.2.] 

and haten hine hi^indliche ^' and ^enlichef' 

cuinen to mine riche. come riche. 

pider ut code Peda'r' Vt wende 

an eorl wes his iuere. 

and Cadwa^lan wef ]?er inne :' Cadwal]?an abod .... 

mid swi^e feole monne^. 

puf him fpac Cadwa^lan r^ lo and j>us him faide ...wal)?an:' 

|?e king wef of Englen. }>at king w.. in Engelond. 

3e beoS mie men alle :' 3e beoJ> .... men alle t' 

]7a beo^ a ]?iffe mote. j?at beoj; in |?if. . alle. 

and 3e habbeoS alle iherd t' and alle 360 habbe]? ihord :' 

whaet Penda king hafue^ ifeid. wat king Penda haue]> ifeid. 

and hu he wulle taken on :f and ou he wole taken an :f 

and Ofwi king al fordon. and Ofwy );ane king for- don. 

3if ic him lenen wulle :f 3ef ich him leane wolle :f 

mine leode to vulfte. of mine folke to healpe. 

and ic wulle ]?at 36 me reden t' 20 and ich wolle j^at 3e me reade :f 

of wlchere dede^. of fochere neode. 

I^a ich lete Ofwi for- do ^ wsiper ich Ofwy for-do t' 

thee the thing that thou 'prayest [yearnest] ; and I will send after Oswy 
*my good [quickly my] messengers, and order him hastily to come to my 
realm." 'Thither' out went Penda, 'an earl was his companion; and' 
Cadwalan 'was [abode] therein, ' with very many men '. Thus spake [and 
thus said] him Cadwalan, who was king 'of the Engles [in England] : " Ye 
are all my men, that are in this 'meeting [hall] , and ye have all heard 
what king Penda hath said, and how he will take on, and Oswy [the] king 
' all' destroy, if I will him lend [of] my folk to help ; and I will that ye 
me counsel of such need, whether I let Oswy be destroyed [destroy Oswy] , 

* R. Penda. ^ nomne, pr. m. 

* This and the next line are written in the margin by a second hand. For wlchere 
deden, the original hand would probably hat>e written fwulchere neode. 



[v. 31626—31648.] 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

|?a ich lete hine cumen ' me to. 

& yd he for mire fonde :! 

for-fake^ hider to cumene. 

mine here ich lete feoSSen t' 

hine hene makien. 

pa iwaerS abol3en r' 

a Welifc king in )?e hepe. 

he wef ihaten Margadud ^ [c. 2.] 

monen wur^e him 3eomerift. 

for auere he -^nglifce men :' 10 

bi-hehte hagrm |?ene mefte. 

pus feide Maergadud r' 

of Su^-Walef he wef due. 

Her nu me CadwaSlan r' 

whaet ich |?e wulle cu^e. 

]>\\ haueft J'ine willen ifeid t' 

ah l^if nif noht god red. 

Hit of swrSe ^are t' 

pat Bruttes^ comen here. 

and mid hi ure ffildre t' 

]?e Bruttes weore aSele. 

and ]?if lond ieode :'' 

Bruttifce leoden. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 

6\>er lete hine come me to. 

and 3ef mine fonde ^ 

forfake]? .... londe. 
ich wolle mid mine cnihtes r' 
al hif folk fa... 
po iwar]? abolvve :! 

a .alfe k |?an heape. 


him jomereft. 

e he Eangliffe men ^' 

.... arme gan grete. 
Margadud :' 

. .les was duke. 
. . . nou Cadwal)?.. 
]?e wolle reade. 
. .. ]?ine wille ifei. 

god read. 


Hit h 3are :! 

I^at Bruttu re. 

and mid him ou . . . . dre r' 
)?at cnihtes w 

[f. 150.C.1.] 

or let him come to me ; and if he refuseth hither to come, for my messen- 
gers, I wiircause afterwards my host to make him abject [with my knights 
all his folk fell]." Then became enraged a Welsh king in the assemblage ; 
he was named Margadud, — of men be he the most afflicted, — for ever he 
Vowed to English men harm the most [gan greet English men with harm] ! 
Thus said Margadud, — of South-Wales he was duke: "Hear me now, 
Cndwalan, what I will thee 'shew [advise] ; thou hast said thy will, but it is 
not good counsel. It is very long ago, that Brutus came here, and with him 
our ancestors, who were ^Britons [knights] noble, and the British people 

' ya ich lete cume hine lete cumen, pr. m. 

' Brutus? 

[V. 31649—31672.] LA5AM0NS BRUT. 273 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

and longe hit walden :! 

after heore willen. 

}7a while |7a hit wes on heore bond:' 

hit vvef ihaten Brut-lond. 

Nu nabbe we of j?an londe :! 

buten |?ene weft ende. 

|;a Bruttef hafden iwuned here r' 

wel feole wintre. 

pa comen Englifce men ^ 

mid heore ufele craften. lo 

beo weore wi^el-fulle :! 

and J>if lend al biwunne. 

and bifwikeu heore laud fone ^ :! 

and alle hif leoden. 

& ^iuenen heore kinge :f 

ane he^ene quene. 

|?a comen of Sex-Ionde r' 

]?a leoden uf beoS la^e. 

)?urh )?ere quene :' 

ure cun aqualden here. 20 

and swa habbeo^ Englifce men r' 

ure icunde at-heolden. 

I^etwe nauere seo^^en:'[f. iss^c. 1.] 

bi-fechen hit no mihten. , 

conquered this land, and long possessed it, after their will ; the while that 
it was in their hand, it was named Britain. Now have we not of the land 
but the west end ; the Britons have inhabited here well many winters. 
Then came English men, with their evil crafts ; they were guileful, and 
won all this land; and betrayed their lord soon, and all his people, and 
gave their king a heathen queen, that came from Saxland, — the people are 
hateful to us, — and through the queen killed here our race ; and so have 
English men our territory withheld, that we never since might it obtain. 

' fone ? 


2/4 LA^AMONS BRUT. [v. 31673—31697.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

Penda king is Englifc ^' 

and Ofwy al fwa ful ivvif. 

let ]>u ]>ix hundes r' 

hannen to-gaderef. 

ei^er freten o^er :' 

swa hund de^ his broker. 

and leten heore vvhelpes :f 

whsp.ruen heom bi-fides. 

elc o^er quelle :' 

pat ]>er nan quic no leue. lo 

And 3if Ofwy cume^ biife f' 

and l^at feht nia3en ouer-cumen 

we him fculleS to luken t' 

and neou^er hine aleggen. 

lond and hif leoden :! 

and hif la3en uallen. 

and 3if Penda bi^ buuen t' 

& ]?at cop ma3en ouer-cumen 

yiu a3e m5 if Penda :f 

mid alle hif kinelonda. 20 

penne haueft }>u Englifc lond r' 

to J'ire a3ere bond. 

and alle |?ine wur^fciper' 

)?uf ])n miht bi winen . 

& libben a ]>in lif :' . . . 

King Penda is English, and Oswy also, full truly ; let thou the hounds 
perish together, either gnaw other, as hound doth his brother ; and let 
their whelps roll beside them, and each other kill, so that there may re- 1 
main none alive ! And if Oswy come above (have the superiority), and in 
the fight may overcome, we shall advance to him, and lay him low, Ms 
land and his people, and abolish his laws ; and if Penda be above, and in 
the combat may overcome, thine own man is Penda, wath all his kingdom. 
Then W'ill thou have the English land in thine own hand, and all thy wor- 
ship ; thus thou mayest conquer, and live in thy life as to thee is liefest ; 

[v. 31698-31720.] LA3AM0NS BRUT. 2/5 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

swa l^e arleMeofeft bib. 

no findeft ]7u nauer mare mon :' 

]7a pa durre hate on. 

pa andfwarede a mo t' 

]>e bald wef on hirede. 

Luft nu me Cadwa^lan r' 

luft me ane ftiiden. 

nif }>ar nan betere red :' 

]>ene Margadud haue^ ifed. 

& jif ]7at^ nult don:' lo 

]7u fcalt wurfe afon. 

& alle l^ine leoden t' 

]7a later ]>n hafueft to neode. [c. 2.] 

Efne )7iffere faje t' 

]>a. ]7e Brut feide. 

pa wef icleoped Peda t' 

& CO into hirede. 

ad Cadwa^la hi jette r 

al ]7at he wolde. 

pa wef Penda bli^e t 20 

& igladed fwi^e. 

Penda & hif cnihtes r 

to horfen for^ rihtes. 

of all ; thou wilt nevermore find a man, that dare anger thee." Then an- 
swered a man, who was bold in the assembly ; " Listen to me now, Cad- 
walan, listen me a while ; there is no better counsel than Margadud hath 
said ; and if thou wilt not that do, thou shalt receive worse, and all thy 
people the later thou wilt have at need ! " Even with this speech that the 
Briton said, then was Penda called, and came into the assemblage ; and 
Cadwalan granted him all that he would. Then was Penda bhthe, and 
exceedingly rejoiced. Penda and his knights went to horse forth-right. 

aire? ' J-u ]-at> 

T 2 

276 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 31721— 31744.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

and aneouften gunnen wende r 

toward Norh-humberlonden. 

& Ofwi iherde fuggen :' 

]7at Penda hine fohte. 

& ^arecode hif ferde r' ......... 

& fiifde tojaeinef Pendaii. 

faht heo bi-gunen "i 

r{E3e heo weoren beien. 

feondliche heo fuhte i 

useiden heo weoren. 10 

vnimete feolle "i 

fasie men on folden. 

pa hit wes uppen non ^ 

]?a funne gon to nipen. 

}?er wes Ofwy of-fla3en:' 

& idon of lif-dajen. 

& hif sune & hif aem ^' 

& eorlef fume uiue. 

|?er weoren ni3e ]^ufude ^i 

"Sriges norSerne. 20 

if la3en i J>an d8ei3e :' 

]?a du3e'Se wef |>a laffe. 

& ]7e king Penda i 

sfere wef iwunded ]7a. 

and quickly gan proceed toward Northumberland. And Oswy heard say, 
that Penda him sought, and made ready his forces, and marched against 
Penda. Battle they began, stern they were both ; fierce!}- they foughtj 
enemies they were ; men innumerable fell dead on the earth ! When it 
was afternoon, the sun gan to set ; there was Oswy slain, and deprived of 
life-day ; and his son, and his uncle, and earls some five ; there were nine 
thousand northern warriors slain in the day, — the people was the less ! 
And the king Penda was sore wounded then, and thence gan wend, east- 

* R. |ufunde. 

[v, 31745-317(38.] LA3AM0NS BRUT. 2/7 i 


MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. ' 

& J?onene gon weiule :f 

aeft to hif londe. 

Ofwy haefden aeiie fune :f i 

Ofric wef hif nome. 

he wef ane ftude :' 

mid CadwaSlane kinge. 

in hif hrede^ iued:' 

& deorliche ifoftred. 

Ofric bifohte Cadwalan :f ' 

swa mo fcal hif laude ^ don .10 ] 

ff 189 ' 

Jjathemoftebeonhifraonf' Jj^' j 

& hif fader l5d habbeon. i 


Cadwa^lan hi 3et-:' ! 

al J>at he 3irde^. ! 

he bitahte hi an bond :f ' 

al hif fader kinelod. i 

hehte bine hit habben r' 

& halde mid wunne. 3 

God king wef Cadwa^lan :f 

swa him wef icunden. 20 

he wes king hire :' 

feouen and feouwerti 3ere. 

pa uerde he to Lunde r' 

to gladien ]?a leoden. j 

ward to his land. Oswy had a son, Osric was his name ; he was a while 
with Cadwalan the king, fed in his court, and dearly fostered. Osric be- 
sought Cadwalan, as men shall do his lord, that he might be his man, and 
have his fathers land. Cadwalan granted him all that he asked ; he deli- 
vered him in hand all his fathers kingdom ; bade him have it, and hold 
with joy. Good king was Cadwalan, as was to him by nature ; he was 
king here seven and forty years. Then went he to London, to gladden 

R. hirede. ^ At first lau'ede, but e expuncied. * 3irnde? 

278 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 31769-31792.1 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

and heold ane metfunge :! i 

mid )?an uolke of Lundene. 

he set of ane uifce :! I 

urecliche swi^e. J 

aer J?e uifc i-eten weore :! 

i-uueled^ vvaf j^e kig^. 

seouen niht & ene drci t' 

\e kig a |7an ufele laei. 

nef |>er nan o'Ser red r' ; 

seo^^en wes \e king ded. lo | 

heo bureden hine in Lunden :! i 

Sffiri weoren ]?a leoden. . ^ 

Enne fune hafde Cadwa^lan :' i 

Cadwa^la- Cadwalader ihaten. I 

he wes Penda fufter fune :f i 

al of kingen icume. ( 

peof feng to hif riche r' ' 

after hif fader dai3e. ! 

SvviSe leoflic wef ]>e mon :' ! 

his leoden hine hiueden. 20 . i 

he wes swiSe god cniht :f i 

and swi^e fturne inne fiht. 

aeh an his da3en ilompen :! 

reo'Sen on leoden. 

the people, and held a feast with the folk of London ; he ate of a fish ver 
voraciously, ere the fish were eaten, the king was disordered. Seven night 
and a day the king lay in the sickness ; there was no other counsel, thei 
was the king dead ; they buried him in London, — sorry were the people 
A son had Cadwalan, named Cadwalader ; he was Pendas sisters son, a' 
of kings descended ; this son took to his realm, after his fathers day. Ver 
amiable was the man, his people him loved ; he was exceeding good knighl 
and most stern in fight ; but in his days befell sorrow in the nation. Firs 

* i-ufeueled, pr. m. * R, king. 1 

[v. 31793—31816.] LA3AM0NS BRUT. 2/9 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xui. 

^rft afwond |?at corn here ^ 

3eond al ]?af kinei'iche. 

]?er aft hit wef fwa deore r' 

& al folc gon to de3en. [c.2] 

svva )?at ]?u mihtef fare :! 

fulle feouen nihte. 

■^ no raihteft \w |7urh nene chep r' 

finde neouwer na bred. 

an Ifje and on londe :! 

leoden weoren jeoumere. lo 

no nan uolc on londe r' 

J?at of-fingced nef feere. 

pa |?at wef idriuuen^ r' 

longe 3eond }7af leoden. 

)7a com J?er an o^er for3e :! 

\&x after ful fone. 

]?at quale com on orue r' 

vnimete swi^e. 

J7er cheorl draf hif ful3e :' 

i-oxned swi^e faeire. 20 

o^er while he brohte ham t' 

halue his oxen. 

oSer brohte enne :! 

pe o^er no brohte nenne. " 

failed here the com, over all this kingdom ; thereafter it was so dear, and 
all folk gan to die ; so that thou mightest journey full a se'nnight, that 
thou mightest not through any purchase find nowhere any bread, — in 
hurgh and in land the people were doleful, — nor any folk in the land, that 
was not sorely a-hungered ! When that had long driven over this nation, 
then came there another sorrow, thereafter full soon ; the murrain came 
on cattle, exceeding much ; where the churl drove his plow, oxened most 
fair, other while he brought home only half his oxen ; the one brought one, 
the other brought none ; and so it lasted well long in the land ! There- 

' idriuen? 

280 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 31817-31843.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

and fwa hit on leode r' 

ilafte wel longe. 

per after sone ^ 

for3en vnimete. 

comen to folke ^' 

3eond al ];as kine-jjeode. 

uppen pan mone ^ 

mor^ wef iwur^en, 

quale ]?a eorlef r' 

quelen ]^a beornef. lo 

quelen j^a |?einef r' 

quelen }'a fvveinef. 

quelen ]>a lareden t' 

quelen ];a leouweden. 

quelan J?a seldren :! 

quelen pa 3eongere. 

qla?n pa wifmen :^ 

quelen pa waclen. 

pat no mihte on pan ende r' 

pat folc on pan londe. 20 

burie pa dede :! 

swi^e heo gunnen de3e. 

pat ofte 1 pan putte ^ 

per me pene dede ifette. 

per dei3ede pe quike ^ 

uppen pen dede. 

Ajid fwa hit ilop wide r'Cf.iS'Ac.i.] 

after soon infinite sorrow came to the folk, over all this kingdom, upon the 
men was mortaUty inflicted ; died the earls, died the barons ; died the 
thanes, died the swains ; died tlie clergj'-, died the laymen ; died the elder, 
died the younger ; died the women, died the weaklings (children) ; so that 
the folk in the land might not at the end bury the dead ; quickly they gan 
die, so that often in the pit where men set the dead, there died also the 
quick upon the dead I And so it befell wide over the English nation. The 

[v. 31844— 31868.] LA3AMONS BIIUT. 281 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

^eond JEnglene peode. 

f folc ut of londe r' 

flah on aelche sende. 

nionie hundred tune :f 

bi-lfleued vveoren of monne. 

\fiit lut me uinde mihte :' 

me uaren 3eond londe. 

Wa wses Cadwalader :' 

|;e king wef on londe. 

for fcome he ne mihte fleon :^ 10 

no for haerme her beon. 

Neo^elef he hine bi)?ohte :f 

hu he faren mahte. 

he nom his ma^mef alle :f 

and hif mon ' deore. 

& bah fu^ ouer fae :^ 

into Brutaine. 

and nom |7e- wickige r' . 

mid Alaine J>an kinge. 

\>e wses fune Salemonnes :" 20 

|?af fele kingef. 

\>e fwi^e lufede Cadwa^lan 
]>e while hif dai3ef ilafte. 
pfHY Alaein ]?e king :' 
Cadvvalad under-uenof. 



folk fled out of the land in each end ; many hundred towns were deserted 
by men, so that one might find few men going over the land. Woe was 
Cadwalader, who was king in the land ; for shame he might not flee, nor 
for harm be here. Nevertheless he bethought him how he might depart; 
he took all his treasures, and his dear men, and passed south?<;flrc? over sea 
into Britanny, and took there dwelling with Alain the king, who was son 
of Salomon the good king, who loved greatly Cadwalan, the while his days 
lasted. There Alain the king received Cadwalader, and found him in the 

1 men ? - Jier ? 

282 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 31869—31892.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. IX. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

& fuiide him i bii londe :' ... funde him in ban londe :! [f- i5i. 

c. 2.] 

al ]?at he wolde. al ]>Q.i he wolde. 

]7urh elleouen 3ere :! folle eolleue ^ear r' 

]7e king wunede |:>ere. Cadwaladre wonede ]?ar. 

& elleouen 3ere r' and al J'an ilke time :' 

]?e forh3e wunede here. \c wowe waf here. 

J>at wes hunger and hette r' her was honger and . . te :' 

nefede' ]mt folc nene mete. nadde ]?at folk no . e mete. 

& |?e qualm muchele r' 

\>e wef on moncunne. lo 

pat folc flah in to wude :! pat folk was to wode iflowe i 

& wuneden in |7e cluden. and wonede ine ftokkef. 

leien in |?a ftan-graffen ^ leien in greaues :! 

& liueden hi deore. and leuede afe . eares. 

heo luueden- hi wuden r' hii leouede hi wor . . . 
heo lufeden^ hi wurten. [c. 2.] and hi many wedes. 

bi moren and hi rote:' . . moref and hi rotef.*' 

naf ]>Q\' nan o^er hoten. naf . . r non o]?er bote. 

pa elleue^ ^er weoren :' po eol 3ear were a-gon :' 

on faft a3eonge. 20 

|?a funne gon to fcine ^ 

\e rein bi-gon to rine. 

}>e qual' gon to ftunte r' ]70 a-ftunte |?^ cwaolm. 

men gunne to fturien. ]?o gonne J^at folk ftorie r* 

land ull that, he would ; 'through [full] eleven years the king remained 
there, and 'eleven years [all that time] the calamity remained here, — 'that 
[here] was hunger and drouglit ( .'' ), — the folk had no meat, — and the 
mickle mortahty that was among the people. Tlie folk fled into woods, 
and dwelt in the cliffs, lay in ' the ' stone-pits, and lived 'by [as] wild 
animals ; they lived by 'trees, they lived by herbs [herbs, and by many 
weeds] ; by berries and by roots, — there was no other remedy ! When eleven 
years were nearly gone, the sun gan to shine, the rain began to rain ; the 
mortality gan to stint, *men [the folk] gan to stir ; out of woods they drew, 

' Partly corrected on erasure. ^ liueden ? 

•'' lifedcn? •• elle, ;j?-. ra. ^ i?. J^e. 

[v. 31893—31916.] LA3AMONS BIIUT. 283 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

ut of nude heo dro3en :! atid vt of wode drawe. 

and wuneden in tunen. and wo . ede in tounes t' 

Heo fpeken to-fomne r' and f . . . e to-gaderes. 

& fpileden bi-tweonen. 

and nonien heore fonde :! and nenien hire fonde :! 

and fende ! to Sex-londe. and fende to Saxlonde. 

and cudden heore cunne :! and dude hi . . cunne wite :! 

of heore quale-fi^e. of hire wowe. 

& hu heo ifaren hafden ^ 

elleue 3eren. lo 

& hu l^at ufel wef at-ftunt :' was a . . . 

& hu ]>a tunef ibuld. en ibuld. 

and liu |>er wes faBi3er lond r' riche. 

inoh feoluer and gold. luer and .... 

& beden heom cumen fvvi^e ^ . . d bede an hi3eg .... 

hider to heore icunde. come to hire cun . . 

for ]?a Bruttes j?a a?r vveoren here :! 

ajuere heo weoren fleme. 

no durfte heo nseuere maengenr' for ne dorfte neuere |^e Bruttuf:' 

imong Englifce monnen. 20 Eanglif. 

no nawhit heo nuften :! ne now . ht hii . . fte r' 

of heore uare-coften. of hire fare-cofte. 

}?at weoren heore fonden r' ... weren hire fonde ^ 

ifed to Sexlondenden '. ... fende to Saxlonde. 

and dwelt in the towns. 'They [and] spake together, and discoursed between ; 
and took their messengers, and sent into Saxland, and made known to their 
kindred of their mortality, and how they had fared eleven years, and how 
the sickness M'as abated, and how the towns %vere built, and how there was 
fair land, silver and gold enow. And bade them come quickly hither to 
their territory ; for the Britons that ere were here, ever they were expelled ; 
they durst not ever mingle among English men ; nor knew they (the Bri- 
tons) aught of their proceeding, that their messengers were sent to Sax- 

^ R. Sex- louden. 



[v. 31917—31940.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

pa he3e Sexifce men :' 
iherden |7af fonden. 
]>a fufden touward fae r' 
fifti l^ufende. 
baldere beornen :f 
mid fcelden and mid burnen. 
mid wifen and mid children r^ 
to ]?iffe londe wenden. 

MS. Cott. Otho, C. XIII. 
. . he3e Sax . . . men :' 
ihorde ]?e fonde. 

]^o fufde toward fee :' [f. l5l^ c. 1.] 
fifti l^oufend. 
baldere cnihtef :^ 
mid fcealde and mid brunies. 
mid wifmen and mid children t" 
gonne to ]^is lond wende. 

Mid |?an formefte fwipen :f '-^' \^^' Mid J?an forme fwipe :' 

her comen ]?reo hudred fcipen. 10 here comen J^reo hundred fipes. 

fijen after seoS^e :f 

fixti to-fomne. 

bi fixe bi feouene :f 

bi tene bi eolleue. 

bi twelue bi twenti :' 

bi J>ritti bi feowerti. 

Mid heom com J^^elftan r^ 

]>e ffidele' ut of Sexen. 

inne Lundene hine crunede :f 

& houen hine to kingen. 20 

Edward ]>e king j^efne bi3at :f 

on are chiuefe. 

I^are comen . . ter fu|;|7e :' 

fixti to-gadere. 

bi fixe bi fouene :' 

bi teon bi eoUouene. 

bi twealue bi twenti t' 

bi ]7ritti bi four . . 

Mid heom com Adelf . . . 

. . gode vt of Saxlonde. 

...... dene hii bene croune . 

and houe hine to kina;e. ' 
Eadward ]>e king hine bi3et r' 
bi one cheuefe. 

]?if wef J^e formefte Englifce mon r^j^if waf ]:»e forfte Eangliffe man :' 
]>e al JEngle-lond biwon. ... Eangelond al awan. 

land. The noble Saxish men heard 'these [the] messengers ; then marched 
towards the sea fifty thousand bold men, with shields and with burnies ; 
with wives and with children to this land they 'went [gan wend] . With 
the foremost sweep here came three hundred ships ; then [there] followed 
niterwards sixty together, by six, by seven, by ten, by eleven, by twelve, 
by twenty, by thirty, by forty. With them came Athelstan the noble, 
out of Saxland ; in London they crowned him, and raised him to be king. 
Edward the king begat 'this 7)ian [him] on a concubine ; this was the first 
English man, that acquired all England ; he was crowned and anointed, this 

865 ele? 

[v. 31941— 3196C.] LA3AM0NS BllUT. 285 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

he wef icruned and ieled r' h . was i-crouned and iheled r' 

|?if lond wef al hif ajen. |?is lond was al his owe. 
and seoS^en he wuneden here t' and su]>|>e he wonede here 

fixtene 3ere. fixtene 3ere. 

Hit ilomp inne frimdaB3en r' Hit h ne da3en :' 

feor her bi-sften. after. 

}»at her wef an heh mon :' ]> . . her waf .... man :f 

Inne wef ihaten. ih . . . 

pe king wende to Rome :f ... wende . . . 
to }>an he3e dome. lo .- . . . . |>on pope. 

and he Peteres weofed J^ere :' 

wunliche ifohte. 

brohte per to lake :' his k)k :' 

hif iiiaSmef leofe. 3eftef 

pa 3et he dude mare :f And 3et he dude m . . . 

to Peteres are. . . Peter his are. 

of aeu elche hufe :f of eu . . . houfe :f 

}?at hufbonde wunede. . . . hofeb . nde were. 

& hif biweddede wif weore r' 

on ]?ere ilke wike. 20 

'6e king eiie peni 3ette :f ]>e one . eny 3eaf :^ 

to Peteres hufe. to Peter his houfe. 

Inne wef j^e uormefte mon :f Ine waf ]>e forfte man :f 

\>e Petei'ef peni bigo. ];at Peter hif peny bi-gan. 

pa Inne king wef hi ded :' po Ine ki . . waf dead :! 

and hif ki3en weoren aleid. and . . . law . . a-lead. [c 2.] 


land was all his own ; and afterwards he dwelt here sixteen years. It 
happened in early days, far (long) hereafter, that here was a noble man, 
who was named Inne (Ina). The king went to Rome, to the 'high power 
[pope] , and there he gladly sought Peters altar ; he brought there for offer- 
ing his precious 'treasures [gifts] . The yet he did more for Peters honor ; 
of every house that husbandman inhabited, and his wedded wife were 
in the same dwelling, the king granted a penny to 'Peters [Peter his] 
house. Inne was the first man that began 'Peters [Peter his] penny. 
When Inne the king was dead, and his laws wer3 done away, then ceased 

286 LA3AiM0NS lillUT. [v. 31967— 31991.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xni. 
pa afeol )nit feoh here t* [c.2.] bo bare:' 

Anno gratie f, {, ■, . . 

dccc°c. xx". nf and f ixti 3ere. fif a i 

^ji'r'iorum ^ ]'^^ A^elftan com li'Sen :f for . . j^at A ! 

E^vardus jj^ ^o biffcii londeii. . . to biffe 1 

Jenwr obnt. ' 

CuifiUus & hafden iwuiied here r' .... oned here ^ \ 

suits E'^el- J. 11 r-Ti ' 

fiannsfuc- inUe httene 3ere. 

^'f;^';;^'"^ Peking hiffetcufte:' 

Dorobernie and faire hine igrette. 


po, Rex con- & eft }?at like feoli 3ete t 

fecratur. Eo . , f , . , , 

mmn rex v^^ Inne kuig dude aere. lo ] 

E^eiftanus ^ f^^ j^j^ Yvdie^ iftoiide r' 


Sihtricem aeucr feo^Se a biffe londe. i 

(sic), Nor^ ,.,,,,/ 1 

humbrorum drihte watMui longe . j 

JS'mlX" l^eo lajen fcullen ilffifte. 

Tercio anno ^Q^ tidcn^ comen fone r' 

regis, Siht- to CacFwa'Slader kinge. 

riciis, Rex ••>-,•/ 

Nor'S hum. "ito Brutanic r 

^'■"'. ber bar he vvunede. 

obiit, CUIUS > I 

regnum Rex ^^nA. Alaine kinge r' 


suoimperio ]?e Wef of hlf ClUUie. 20 

adiecit, om- i i ^ • ^ j iY j-^y 

nesnue Re- ^^^^ diide hini to under-Itonde'^ 

gespreiio of al biffe londe. 

uicitetju- ' 

gauit. hu A^elftaii her com li^en ^' 

Rex A^el- 

ftanus obiit, vit 01 Scx-lonuen. 

'^"'■•^''''"■^''' and hu he al Angle-lond t' 

the tribute here five and sixty years, until that Athelstan arrived into this 
land, and had dwelt here full fifteen years. The king kissed his (the popes) \ 
feet, and greeted him fair, and eft the same tribute granted, that Inne the . 
king did ere ; and so it hath stood ever since in this land, — the Lord know- 
eth how long the law shall last ! The tidings came soon to Cadwalader 
the king, into Britanny, there where he dwelt with Alain the king, who 
was of his kin ; men caused him to understand of all this land, how Athel- ! 
Stan here arrived out of Saxland, and how he set all England in his own 

' what,;)?-. VI, ^ B. tidcndc. •' unde-ftoudc, ;^r. m. ■ 

[v. 31992—32015.] 



MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. 

fette on hif a3ere hOd. 

and hu he fette moting r' 

& hu he fette hufthig. 

and hu he fette fciren r' 

and makede friS of deoren. 

& hu he fette halimot r' 

& hu he fette hundred. 

and ]?a nomen of |?an tunen ^ 

on Sexifee runen. 

& 3ilden he gon rere :! lo 

niucle & fwiSe mjiere. 

& |;a chirchen he gon dihten r' 

aft^ Sexifee irihten. 

and Sexif he gan kennen t' 

];a nomen of J>a monnen. 

and al me him talde r' 

]7e tiden'^ of |?iffe londe. 

Wa wef Cadwaledere :! [f. loo^.c. i.] 

];at he wef on Hue. 

leofere him weore on de^e "^ 20 

]7eone qiiic on life. 

fteri wes hif heorte :f 

and forhful wes hif du3e^e. 

Wi^ hif freond he fpac ofte^ :' 

MS. Cott. Otho 

axiffe h . 
)>e names of 
and al me h . . 
tydinge . 
was Cad . 


totam An- 
gliam pri- 
mus regum 
regiiauit, et 
anno g\_ra- 
tie] dcccc", 

hand ; and how he set mooting, and how he set busting, and how he set 
shires, and made cbaces of deer ; and how he set halimot, and how he set 
hundred ; and the names of the towns in Saxish speech ; and how he gan 
rear guilds, great and very ample, and the churches he gan make, after 
the Saxish manner ; and in Saxish he gan speak the names of the 
men ; — and men told him all the tidings of this land. Woe was Cadwa- 
lader, that he was alive ; liefer it were to him to be dead, than quick in 
life ; sorry was his heart, and sorrowful was his folk ! "With his friends he 

* Sexifee ? 

" R. tidende. 

^ A line appears to he missing here. 

288 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 3201G— 32038.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xin. 

hu he faren mihte :! 

and ivvennen ^ hif rihte. 

and wulchere wife he mihte ^ 

wi^ A^elftane fihte. 

& i-winnen hif ^ cunde r' 

seft to hif hode. 

]7a A^eftan^ and hif cnihtef r' 

eke heolde mid un rihte. 

Sume him radde to uehten ^ 

summe wri^"* to wurchen. 10 

]7at he moften of A^elfta i 

halden hif lond and beon hif mo 

Vnder ]?iffe uare-cofte r 

he funede ferde. 

of alle j?ane mone r' 

];at he bi-^eten mihte. 

& fomnede alle J^a fcipen i 

|?a bi |?are fae fluten. 

and ]>ohte mid ftreng^e ^ 

fteppe to londe. 20 

pa ]?e 3aru wef |7a uerde r' 

& ]?af ^ fcipen ibone. 

com \q wi^ su^erne r' 

spake oft, how he might go, and obtain his right, and in what way he 
might fight with Athelstan, and win his territory eft in his hand, that 
Athelstan and his knights eke held with unright. Some counselled him 
to fight, some to make peace, that he might of Athelstan hold his land, 
and be his man. Amidst this proceeding he assembled forces of all the 
men that he might procure, and assembled all the ships that by the sea 
floated, and thought with strength to step to the land. When that the 
host was ready, and tbese ships prepared, the wind became southern, that 

^ iwinnen ? - hifn, pr. m. •* R. A'Selftan. 

* friS? " yai '' wind? 

[v. 32039— 32062.] LA3AMONS BRUT. 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

J>a ftet an heore wille. 

pa faeide ]>e king :f 

Nu to fcipe an hi3ing. [wenden 

And |?e kig in to chirche gon 

godef werk to worchen. 

and maffe ]>er iherden t 

of mtere ane |?reofte. 

^ pe king laei on cneouwen :f 

and cleopede to criftin. 

& bed ure driiiten ^ 10 

])e wait alle deden. [c.2.] 

]:'at he from him fehie t' 

taken him fende. 

3 If hit weore iqueme :f 

|?an heouenliche deme. 

whe^er he fcolde li^en :' 

J7e he fcolde bi-lauen. [goden :f 

pe while |?e he fpac touward 

]>a. gon he to flepen. 

]?a gon he to flume' :f 20 

feleh^e him wes 3iue^e. 

of feoluen^ ure drihten r' 

]7e fcop |?if d8e3es lihte. 

pefie ]?e kig ima-tte t' 



set at their will. Then said the king : " Now to ship in haste ! " And 
the king gan wend into church, to work Gods work, and there heard mass 
of a chief priest. The king lay on his knees, and called to Christ, and 
prayed our Lord who rules all deeds, that he should send him a token 
from himself, if it were pleasing to the heavenly judge, whether he should 
go, or whether he should stay. The while that he spake toward God, then 
gan he to sleep ; then gan he to slumber, — happiness was given to him 
from our Lord himseli, who formed the day-light. Then dreamt the king. 

' Altered hy a second hand on an erasure. 

feoluenen,/?r. m. 

290 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 32063—32086.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

a cneouwen he flepte. 

J?at him com bi-foren gon :' 

a wuiider ane fair mon. 

& l^af word kende :! 

to Bruttene^ kinge. 

Awake Cadwalad c' 

crift |?e haueS deore. 

and 3arke ]nne uore :' 

and far fwide^ to Rome. 

|7U uindeft aenne pape t' lo 

preoft mid ]?an bezfte. 

he |?e fcal^ fcriuen r' 

of ]?ine weorld-lifen. 

J7at ]?ine funen alle :! 

fcullen ]7e from falle. 

and ]7u fcalt wur^e clene :' 

al ]?urh godef dome. 

of alle ]?ine mifdede r' 

jnirh mihte of ure drihte. 

And feod Sen* |7u fcalt iwiten:^ 20 

and faren to heofne-richen. 

for no moft |?u nauere maere :! 

yEngle-lond a3e. 

ah Alemainifce men i 

on knees while he slejit, that a wondrous fair man gan come hefore him, and 
spake these words to the king of Britain: "Awake, Cadwalader, Christ 
hath thee dear ! And make ready thy voyage, and go quickly to Rome ; 
thou wilt find there a pope, priest with the best ; he shall thee shrive of 
thy worldly life, so that all thy sins shall fall from thee, and thou shalt be- 
come clean, all through Gods doom, of all thy misdeeds, through might of 
our Lord. And afterwards thou shalt die, and go to heaven ; for never- 
more must thou possess England, but Allemainish men shall have England ; 

* Brutte, pr. m. ' fwiSe ? 

^ Added in maryin by a later hand. ■* feo^tj'en ? 

[V. 32087— 32110.] LA3AM0NS BRUT. 291 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

^ngle fcullen a3en. ; 

and naeuerinaere B'^'ttifce men :' 

brake hit ne mote. 

aer cume ]?e time ^' [f. I9i.c. i.] i 

\fe iqueSen wes while. j 

l^at M^lin pe witeje r 

bodede mid worde. i 

penne fculle Bruttes fone :f \ 

bu-^en to Rome. j 

and d"3en ut ]?ine banef alle r' lo j 

of l^ene marme-ftane. 

and mid bliffen heom uerien t' 

iior^ mid heom feohien. I 

in feoluere and in golde :' I 

in to Brutlonde. ] 

penne fculle Bruttef ana :' 

balde ivvur^en. , 

al J;at heo bi-ginne^ to done :' j 

iwurSe^ after heore wille. 

I^enne^ fcullen i Bruttene r' 20 

bliffen wur^en riue. 

waftmef and wederef fele :f 

after heore i-wille. 

pa awoc Cadwalader :' 

and nevermore may British men possess it, ere the time come that was 
whilom declared, that Merlin the prophet foretold with_words. Then shall 
the Britons soon come to Rome, and draw out all thy bones, from the 
marble stone, and carry them with bliss forth with themselves, in silver 
and in gold, into Britain. Then shall the Britons anon become bold ; all 
that they begin to do, shall be after their will ; then shall in Britain bliss 
become rife ; fruits and weathers prosperous, after their will ! " Then 
awoke Cadwalader, — wondrous it seemed to him, — strongly he was alarmed, 

' ^t first )ieonne, btit o expjtvcted. 

u 2 

292 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 32111—32134.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. ! 

wurder^ him J^uhte. \ 

ftrogliche he wef aueered :f 

ladliche^ of-furhte. | 

to wulche p'inge hit iteon wolde t^ i 

J>at him wef itacned f'ere. | 

Ofte he he^ lette runen :' j 

ofte he lette raede. \ 

and feowede hit ]7an kinge :' - 

]>e wunede i j^an londe. 

]>e inened wes Alain :f 10 

Cadwalader nexte masi. 

pe king fende hif fonde :' 

3eond al hif londe. I 

and lette beoden alle , j 

]>a. bocaref wife. j 

and talde heo ]>a. tacnige"* :f ^ 

of Cadwalader kige. < 

Ipser heo gunnen raede r' I 

}jer heo gunnen rune, [c 2.] ^ 

ik radden him to taken on r^ [don j 

al fwa godd him hafde itakned to 1 

per he hi- lafde :f 22 I 

hif fcipen and his leode. « \ 

hif waei and hif iwille :' 

terribly frightened, to what thing it would come, that was there to him 
betokened. Oft he caused communing, oft he caused counsel ; and 
shewed it to the king that dwelt in the land, who was named Alain, 
Cadwaladers nearest relative. The king sent his messengers over all liis 
land, and caused all the wise scholars to be summoned ; and told them the 
tokening of king Cadwalader. There they gan counsel, there they gan 
commune, and advised him to take on as God had signified to him to do.' 
There he left his ships and his people ; his way and his will. He called to] 

wunder ? ^ latsliche ? ^ Sic MS. * tacninge ? 

[v. 32135—32159.] LA^AMONS BRUT. 293 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

he cleopede heom to ftille. 

Yuni and luore :' 

bei3en heo weoren him deore 

Yuor wef hif ftep-fune:' 

and Yuni hiffufter fune. 

beien heo weoren him leofe :! 

beine heo weoren him deore. 

heo weoren cnihtef beien :! 

and fwi^e wel idihte. 

p^ fpac Cadwalader r' lo 

]?e king wef of Bruttene. 

Yuor and Yuni beiene :! 

3et fenden of mine leode, 

hercnieS mine hire r' 

no fcal hit eou reouwe nauere 

Of heouene me beo^ icume t 

hi3e godef tacne. 

J?at ich fcal faren to Rome :! 

to \&. pape wel idone. 

]?e pape hatte Sergiuf r' 20 

he wete^ Peterefhus. 

me and mine wine r' 

he fcal bletfei3en & fcriue. 

& ]>er we fcullen ure da3ef ba :' 

driue to J^an ende. 

them stilly Yuni and Ivor ; both they were to him dear. Yvor was his 
step-son, and Yuni his sisters son ; both they were beloved by him, both 
they were to him dear ; they were knights both, and exceeding well dight. 
Thus spake Cadwalader, who was king of Britain ; " Yvor and Yuni, both 
ye are of my nation ; hearken my advice ; ye shall never rue it ! From 
heaven are come to me tokens of the high God, that I shall fare to Rome, 
to the good pope ; — the pope hight Sergius, he ruleth Peters house ; — me 
and my wife he shall bless and shrive, and there we shall both drive 
our days to the end ; so long as it ever be, ye see me never eft. But 

294 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 32i6o— 321S3.] 


MS. Cott, Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. | 


longe bib auer r' j 

no ifeo 36 me eeft naeuere. [lond ^ j 

Ah hereMch bi-tache inc Walifc | 

J>at 3et ftond a mire bond. I 

and nime^ |?af muchele uerde r' i 

and fare^ to ]?an londe. I 

and balded hit on wunne r' ' 

J?a wile 3e ma3en bit werie. 1-1 \ 

and ich inc halfi^ beien :^ 

]nirb |?an beoue kinge. 10 \ 


]?at miker seiner o^er r 

luuie swa bif broker. 

and babbeo^ |?at lond auer maere ^ 

tou seure liuef ende. 

& bruke^ bit on wunne :' 

& eouwer bernen^ alle. 

Yuni bit wes itacned me r' 

alfe 3e fcullen nu ifeo. 

for Merlin ]?e wife ^ 

bit feide mid worde. 20 

al of mine ford-fare'* :! 

& of mire unimete care. 

and Sibillie |?a wife :' 

a bocken bit ifette. 

here I give to you tlie "Welsh land, that yet standeth in my hand ; and take 
ye this mickle host, and go to the land, and hold it in joy, the Mobile ye 
may it defend. And I you adjure both, through the king of heaven, that 
either of you love the other as his brother ; and have ye the land evermore 
to your lives end, and possess it in joy, and all your children. Yuni, it 
was betokened to me, as ye shall now see ; for Merlin the wise said it 
with words, all of my death, and of my excessive care ; and Sibillie the 
wise set it in book, that I shall fulfill my Lords will. Each go now his way, 

* auere, -pr. m. 2 halfin, -pr. m. 

^ bernnen, pr. m. ^ forS-fare ? 

[v. 32184—32208.] LA^AMONS BRUT. 295 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

I^at ich fcal iuullen :' 

minef drihtef wille. 

Ale faren nu hif vvaei r' • • 

and habbeo^ alle godne daei. 

Cadwalader fufde :! 

|7at he CO to Rome. 

]?er he Sergiuf fude t' {Serg]iuf. 

]7ene ifelie pape. 

he fcraf Cadwalader :! 

J?e king wes of Bruttenne. lo 

Ne wunede ]7e king ]?er i 

bute uifte half ^ere. '"/''^f" *^- 

J7a com him ufel on :^ papase..../ 


fwa godd hit wolde habben idon 

elleoue da^ef biforen Maije :f 

he ferde of ]?iffe Hue. 

and hif faule fende r' 

to J'an heouenlicche kinge. 

Hif ban beo^ iloke fafter' 

i guldene chefte. 20 

and \ev heo fcullen wunie :^ 

pat |?a dajef beon icumene'. 

|>a Merlin ine iuurn da3en :^ [c.2.] 

vaftnede mid worden. . 

Ga we nu to Yvuii a3an ^ 

and have all good-day ! " Cadwalader proceeded until lie came to Rome ; 
there he found Sergius, the good pope ; he shrove Cadwalader, who was 
king of Britain. The king remained there but the fifth half year; then 
came on him sickness, as God would have it done ; eleven days before 
May he departed from this life, and sent his soul to the heavenly king. 
His bones are locked fast in a golden chest, and there they shall remain 
until the days are come, that Merlin-in old days fixed with words. Go 
we now to Yuni again, and to Ivor, his cousin. They assembled forces 

' icume, pr. m. 

296 LA3AM0NS BRUT. [v. 32209—32232.] 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. ix. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

& to luore hif wedde-b^'^ere 

Heo fomneden ferde : 

wide 3eond J^an aerde. 

for^ heo gunneii fufen r' 

mid iif hundred fcipenen. 

nef hit nawit longe r 


Al |?af Bruttes weoren to-driuen :! 

3eond cludef & jeond cliuenen 

3eond chirchen & 3eond munec- 

3eond wudef & 3e5d li^en.[cliuen:^ 

Sone me heoni faiden r' 12 

])at ifi3en weoren to londe. 

mid luore & Yuni :' 

ten fi^en fifti. 

scipen brade-fuUe r' 

of Brutten swi^e balde. 

paef Bruttef on selc ende :' 

foren to Walifce londe. 

and heore la3en leofeden r 20 

& heore leodene-J^seuwen. 

and 3et wunied ' f»8ere :' 

swa lieo do^ auere maere. 

& yEnglifce kingef r* 

wide over the country ; forth they gan voyage, with five hundred ships ; 
it was no whit long, before they arrived at the Welsh land. All the 
Britons were dispersed, over rocks and over cliffs, over churches and 
over monasteries, over woods and over mountains. Men soon said to 
them, that ten times fifty ships, brimful of Britons exceeding bold, were 
come to the land with Ivor and Yuni. These Britons on each side moved 
to the Welsh land, and lived in their laws, and their popular manners ; 
and yet they dwell there, as they shall do evermore. And the English 

^ wunieS ? 

[V. 32233-32241.] LA3AiM()NS BRUT. 297 

MS. Cott. Calig. A. IX. MS. Cott. Otho, C. xiii. 

walden J^as londes. 

& Bruttes hit lofedenden ' t' 

pif lond and |7as leode^. • 

I^at naeuere seo^Sen maere :! 

kinges neoren^ here. 

pa 3et ne com )?a^s ilke dfei r' 

beo heonne uor^ alfe hit maei 

ivvuv^e ]?et iwur^e r' 

iwur^e Godes wille. 9 


kings ruled these lands, and the Britons it lost, this land and this nation ; 
so that nevermore afterwards kings were they here. The yet (hitherto) 
this same day came not, be it henceforth as it may ; happen what happen, 
happen Gods will ! Amen. 

' B. lofeden. ^ Added by a later hand in the margin. 

' neouren, pr, m. 


VOL. I. 

P. 3. V. 55. — This form of proem seems to have been adopted from 
writers of the Saxon period. Compare the Preface of Alfred to the trans- 
lation of Boethius De Consolatione, ed. Cardale, 8° 1829. 

P. 4. V. 72. — Here commences Wace, after a short Introduction of nine 

Ibid. V. 80. Paris Alixandre. — The additional appellative of Alixandre 
does not appear in Waces Brut, and was probably derived by La3amon 
from Dictys Cretensis or Dares Phrygius, the popular middle-age writers 
on the destruction of Troy. 

Ibid. V. 98. tuenti gode scipen. — So also in the French text of Wace, 
and in the inedited portion of Robert of Brunnes Chronicle, MS. Inner 
Temple, No. 5 11. 7. f.5. Geoffrey of Monmouth does not state the number 
of ships, but in the Basingwerk copy of the Welsh version of his history 
it is stated at twenty -eight. See Roberts's Chronicle of the Kings of Britain, 
4to. Lond. 1811. p. 1. 

P. 6. V. 109. Nas ^et Rome bi-wonnen. — In Wace the passage stands 

thus : 

Ni ert de Rome uncore nule chose, 

Nene fut il puis de bien grant pose. — MS. Cott. Vit. A. x.f. 19. c. 1. 

which is rendered by Robert of Brunne, 

Of Rome th* ilke tyme was noght, 
Ne long after was it wroglit.— y. 5*. 

P. 8. v. 169. luf-ping hire biheite. — In Wace " et ele li fu creantee," vol. 
i. p. 4. ed. Le Roux de Lincy, 8vo. Rouen, 1836. The term hf-]nng appears 
here equivalent to that of luf-tacen, love-token, used in Beowulf, 1. 3722. 

P. 10. V. 219. Albe Lingoe. — " Albam super Tyberim," Geoffrey, lib. 
i. c. 3. ed. fol. 1587. " Albe Longue," Wace. The same story is found 

300 NOTES. 

in Nennius, p. 8. ed. Stevenson, 8vo. 1838, and is founded on classical 
authority. See Virgil, Mn. v. 597. 848. 

P. 11. V. 230. ])ene mahum. — Is here, apparently, in the singular, but 
in Wace a plural form is used, — " les Deus de Troie," MS. Cott., and so 
also in Robert of Brunne. 

The mom thai were agayn alle prest 

At the castelle of Lauion, 

& wild not duelle in Albe his toun. 

He ne wist, no was certayn, 

In what manere thai com agayn.— ^. 5*. c. 2. 

The whole passage is wanting in Geoffrey of Monmouth. Compare 
Virgil, ^n. iii. 148. The term mahum or mahun is immediately borrowed 
from the Mahom, Mahum, of the French romances of the 12th century, 
by which title is designed Mahomet, the supposed Saracen deity. In 
English writers of a later sera it assumes the form of Mahoun. See the 
fabulous history, attributed to Turpin, De vita Caroli Magni et Rolandi, 
cap. 4. edit. Ciampi, 8°. Flor. 1822, and Michels edition of the Roman de 
Mahomet, 8°. 1831. 

P. 12. V. 270. dweomerlakes song. — Wace has the terms sorcisseurs and 
sages devineors, which are equivalent to the magi of Geoffrey. The same 
story occurs in Nennius, who adds, that the magician (for he only speaks 
of one) was killed by Ascanius, p. 8. ed. Stev. 

P. 15. V. 331. ]>ere quene cun Heleine. — A singular mistake of the En- 
glish versifier, who has evidently confounded Helenus, son of Priam, with 
Helena, the wife of Paris. The author of the later text has partly seen 
the error, and awkwardly endeavours to rectify it by substituting do^^ter 
for sune. In Wace the passage is clear enough : — 

Tute la hgnee Eleni, 

Un de filz al rei Prianii.— i»/5. Cott.f. 20. c. 1. 

Geoffrey of Monmouth tells us, that Helenus and his lineage were 
brought from Troy by Pyrrhus, and kept by him in a state of servitude 
to avenge his fathers death, lib. i. c. 3. So also in the Anglo-Norman 
metrical Brut, MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi., which proves the anonymous writer 
of the earlier portion not to have abridged Wace, but to have made an 
independent version from the Latin. It is very evident, that here, as else- 
where, the compiler of the British history has borrowed from the ^neid, 
in which it is related, that Helenus, after the death of Pyrrhus, reigned 
over part of Epirus, and received ^Eneas as he voyaged towards Italy. 
Compare JEn. iii. 295. 334. 

P. 16. V. 364. seoue \msund. — So also the text of Wace in MS. Cott., 
but in the printed edition by M. Le Roux de Lincy it is six, vol. i. p. 10. 

NOTES. 301 

P. 17. V. 377. of ]n-iti ^eren. — His age is not expressed in Wace. 

Ibid. V. 378. Assaracus. — This name appears to have been borrowed 
from Virgil, ^m. i. 2SS. etc. 

P. 19. V. 430. seoue ]msend. — Here and in v. 463, the numbers ex- 
pressed are additions of La3amon, as elsewhere frequently will be ob- 

P. 24. V. 542. Achalon. — Under this name perhaps the river Achelous 
in Epirus is meant. Roberts, in his edition of the Welsh version attributed 
to TysiUo, p. 8, wishes to prove it the river Acheron in Thesprotia. 

P. 26. V. 599. Sparatin. — Apparently intended for Sparta ; at least 
this is certainly the interpretation given by the anonymous author of the 
Latin metrical version of Geoffrey in MS. Cott. Jul. D. xi., who writes, 

Brutus ab Enea quartus, casu parricida, 

Exulat, Italiatn fugiens, Lacedemona qnerit ; 

Pandrasus est ibi rex, sub quo captiva tenetur 

Progeuies Eleni, etc.— fol. 2. 

P. 27. V. 628. Grickiscefure. — Wace only says, 

Li altre unt feu apparaille. — MS. Cott.f. 21. c. 2. 
but in Geoffrey we read, " Grseco igne atque calidarum aquarum asper- 
gine," lib. i. c. 7. The assault is described in the French paraphrast at 
greater length than in the English version. On the Greek fire see the 
authorities quoted by Warton, Hist. Engl. Poetry, vol. i. p. 161. ed. 1840. 

P. 28. V. 649. — Wace adds, that only three entries were left to the 
dyke, all of which were well guarded, vol. i. p. 17. 

P. 30. V. 684. bi pone toppe. — In Wace thus : 
Puis est coru mult fierement, 
Si prist par le tup un prison, 
Anacletus aveit a non. — MS. Cott.f. 21*. c. 1. 

which is translated by Robert of Brunne, 

Brutus toke hym be the toppe, 
& seid, " Hedeles salle thou hoppe, 
But thou do as I the saye \"—f. 7. c. 2. 

Le Roux de Lincys printed text is here very corrupt, vol. i. p. 19. 

P. 31. V. 711. \>onne men gai to bedde. — In Wace, 

apres eel hure, 

Ke I'em apele cocfieure. — MS. Cott. ibid. 

The number of the guards is an addition of the English poet. 

P. 32. V. 747. — The sudden transition here would raise some suspicion 
of an hiat^^s in the MS., or of an error occasioned by the versifier having 

302 NOTES. 

inadvertently united into one the verbal directions given by Brutus to 
Anacletus, and the speech uttered afterwards by the latter to the kings 
guards. In Wace the narrative is at greater length, and supplies the 
portion of the narrative here wanting. Brutus concludes by saying, that 
when the guards are brought by persuasion to the spot where he designs 
to lie in ambush, he will rise and seize them. Anacletus assents to the 
proposal, and swears to execute it. At night Brutus assembles his forces, 
and stations them in a valley, concealed in three different places. When 
all is prepared, Anacletus takes leave, and speeds toward the guards, as if 
he were flying from an enemy. They inquire the cause, and also what has 
become of the kings brother. Anacletus replies, he has left him in the 
wood, on account of the heavy fetters with which he was loaded, and prays 
them to follow him. The guards believe him, and follow, etc., vol. i. pp. 
20. 21. The moral reflexion shortly afterwards is an insertion by La3a- 
mon, who often indulges in similar additions to his original. 

P. 32, V. 772. onfeowre. — Geoffrey, Wace, and Robert of Brunne all 
agree in reading three. 

P. 35. V. 8 IS. '\^cermes heo dro^en. — So in Wace, 

E span due meinte cen'ele, 

Eperqee meinte boele. — MS. Cott.f. 22. c. 2. 

and elsewhere, in describing the battle of the Britons with Octa, 

Per9ent ventres, percent curailles, 

Traient buels, traient entrailles. — -f. 76. c. 2, 

ITie speech of Brutus, on capturing the king, is an addition by La^amon. 

P. 37. vv. 850-886. — In Wace this passage occupies only eight lines, 
vol. i. p. 24. 

P. 42. V. 979. 7,if ive heom ilefed. — Wace has here a proverbial expres- 
sion omitted by the English versifier. 

Mult est fol ki el en espeire, 

Ja ne deit I'em mal fait creire ; 

James ne crerrai lor manaie, — 

De vielz jjechi' novele plaie. — MS. Cott.f. 22*. c. 2. 

From V. 993 to the end of the speech, is added by Lajamon. 

P. 44. V. 1022. — The threats here used are only generally intimated by 
Wace, vol. i. p. 28, who in this instance departs from the narrative of 
Geoff'rey, in which the king is stated to have been treated with great re- 
spect. Thus also in the Anglo-Norman version of MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi. 

Cest conseil unt otrie, 

Le Rei de Grece unt demandee. 

NOTES, 303 

Entr' els I'aseent bautenient, 

Sur un falestol d' argent ; 

Entur lui seent li baron, 

Nul d' els ne dit oil ne nun.—;/". 42. c. 1. 

P. 45. vv. 1051-2. — Similar sententious additions by La3amon con- 
stantly occur, who omits here the praise bestowed on Brutus by the king. 
— Compare Wace, vol. i. p. 28. 

P. 46. V. 1080. bi ]>an see flode. — It is singular that the author of the 
Anglo-Norman Brut in MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi. should here, of his own author- 
ity, fix the spot where the ships were assembled at Miceine, whence, he 
says, Helen was ravished, and which he proceeds immediately to identify 
with Messina in Sicily. 

Cil qui meinent en SeizQle 

Entr' els 1' apelent Meschine ; 

Hoc si curt un braz de mer, 

Le Far I'ai oi numer. — -f. 42. c. 1. 

In the description of Ignogens departure from her native land there is a 
degree of pathos in this text far superior to Waces brief narrative. 

P. 47. V. 1091. — La^amon omits some lines here on the liberality of 
Pandrasus to the followers of Brutus, which are in Wace, vol. i. p. 30, and 
also in Robert of Brunne. 

Ibid. V. 1103. sixtene si^e tuenti scipen. — In Geoffrey and Wace the 
number of ships is three hundred and twenty-four. 

P. 48. V. 1113. Twei^^e dawes 8( tua niht. — Robert of Brunne agrees 
with the text ; but the printed edition of Wace and MS. Cott. read, " Dous 
jorz et une nuit," which agrees with Geoffrey, and is more correct. 

Ibid. V. 1115. 'pen o^er dai. — So Wace, " al secund}ox," but the author 
of the later English text has altered it to ^^ridde, supposing naturally that 
two days had already passed. 

Ibid. V. 1117. Logice. — Roberts, p. 15, conjectures that Leucadia is 
here meant, and Le Roux de Lincy supposes it to be Lycia; but neither of 
these opinions seems very probable. 

P. 50. V. 1177. — In Wace Brutus enters the temple alone, and his 
speech is given only in general terms. The promise to build the goddess 
a temple occurs subsequent to his dream, vol. i. pp. 32. 34. 

P. 53. vv. 1235-1240. — These lines, descriptive of Britain, are not in 
Lajamons original. 

P. 54. V. 1275. ]iritti dawes. — This is the correct text, as proved by 
Geoff'rey and Robert of Brunne. In the printed edition of Wace, vol. i. 

304 NOTES. 

p. 34. the faulty reading of trots jors is adopted. It is remarkable that 
this voyage of Brutus is related nearly in the same terms in Nennius, (from 
whom Groffrey must have borrowed it,) but is there told of the expedition 
of the Scythians from Egypt to Spain, p. 13, ed. Stevenson, and p. 53. ed. 
Gunn, 8vo. 1819. In Robert of Brunnes Chronicle, the passage of Wace 

is thus given : 

Into the see of Aufrike 

Thai com, & passed a grete strike 

A lough of water of Salins, 

& other louhes of Filistyns ; 

The grete louh of Rusciciodan, 

Betuex the hilles of Dazardan.— /. 9. c. 2. 

Roberts, in No. \Y . of his Appendix to the Welsh version, argues that the 
whole narrative is founded on a real voyage of a colony of Grecian origin, 
who settled in Britain, and geographically such as in a rude state of navi- 
gation must have been pursued, pp. 259, 260. 

P. 54. V. 1279. lac of Siluius.— ln Nennius and Geoffrey, "ad lacum 
Salinarum," which Wace has misunderstood, in rendering it " le lac des 
Salins ;" and this has been further corrupted in the English version. M. 
de Roux de Lincy is greatly in error in supposing that the ruins of Seli- 
nuntium are referred to, vol. i. p. 35. In Alfreds translation of Orosius, 
the same spot is designated " fone sealtan mere," Hb. i. c. 1, and is de- 
scribed in the Latin original as lying to the west of the province of Tripoli. 
See, in regard to the prevalence of salt lakes in this country, the quotations 
from Rennel and Shaw in Gunns Nennius, p. 123. 

Ibid. V. 1280. ]>en lac of Philisteus. — Another error of La^amon, oc- 
casioned by an inaccurate copy of his original, or by negligence. In Wace 
it is " les auteus as PhiUstins," vol. i. p. 35, and in Nennius and Geoffrey 
"aras Philistinorum," although in the printed text of the latter, ed. 1587, 
it appears in the more correct form of " Philsenorum." These altars were 
mounds of earth which marked the liipit of the kingdom of Carthage on 
the east. They are situated to the south-east of the greater Syrtis, be- 
tween Tripoli and Cyrene. For the legend which gave rise to the name 
see Sallust, De Bella Jug. p. 126. edit. Delph. 4to. 1674, and Valerius 
Maximus, lib. v. c. 6. 

Ibid. V. 1281. Ruscikadan. — The ruins of this city still exist at the 
mouth of the Lessaf, in tlie immediate vicinity of Stora, the nearest port 
to Constantine on the coast of Algiers. 

Ibid. V. 1282. mountaine of Azare. — In Nennius and Geoffrey " mantes 
Jznrite" or "Jzarce," but some copies of the former read falsely "montana 

NOTEvS. .30.5 

Si/rieE." In Orosius, lib. i. p. 31. ed. 4to. 1738, " montes Uzarae." The 
situation of these mountains was to the south of Algiers ; probabl)" the 
same with or a branch of Mount Atlas. 

P. 55. V. 1299. Malnan. — Still called the Muluia. It flows from Mount 
Atlas into the Mediterranean, and separates the territory of Algiers from 
Morocco. D'Anville and others confound it with the river Mulucha. See 
Pliny, Nat. Hist. lib. v. c. i. p. 892, ed. Lond. 1826, and Mela, lib. i. c. 7. 

Ibid. V. 1300. Muritanie. — So also in Geoflfrey, which proves that the 
reading maritima in some copies of Nennius is erroneous. 

P. 56. V. 1317. of marmon stane. — Robert of Brumie says, 
Apiler of bras ther thei fonde.— /. 9*. c. 1. 

Ibid. V. 1322. merminnen. — In Wace, vol. i. p. 37, the passage respect- 
ing the mermaids is longer than in La3amon, and in the inedited portion 
of Robert of Brunnes Chronicle, it appears thus : 

Ther fand thei sakers th* mery song, 
Th* drecched tliam ferly long. 
In the west see es ther wonyng, 
As womenne mery thei syng ; 
& tho th' listen to ther song, 
Out of ther weie thei turne wrong, 
Or thei forget ther scliippe to stere, 
For ther song th' thei here. 
So ere tho nykeres fast aboute 
To bring schipmenue ther it is doute, 
To some suelhu to turne or steke, 
Or ageyn roches breke.— /". 9*. c. 1. 

P. 57. vv. 1338-1341.— These lines are not in Wace. 

P. 58. V. 1364. Atenor. — A corrupt reading for Antenor. According 
to classic authority, Antenor migrated to Italy, and established himself 
near the mouth of the Po, where he built the town of Padua. See Virgil, 
Mil. i. 242. Livy, lib. i. c. 1. 

P. 59. V. 1396. Annoriche. — Geoffrey only says, " Deinde venerunt ad 
Aquitaniam," lib. i. c. 12, and so also MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi. f. 43, Robert 
of Brunne, f. 9*, and the "Welsh version ascribed to Tysilio. La3amon 
closely follows the text of Wace. Of course, by Britain is meant Britanny. 
Pliny testifies that Aremorica was the ancient name of the Aquitanian ter- 
ritory. See Nut. Hist. lib. iv. c. 31, 8°. 1826. 

P. 60. V. 1402. seoue niht 8^ enne dcei. — In Wace " set jorz," MS. Cott., 
which corresponds with Geoffrey and Robert of Brunne. In Le Roux de 
Lincys printed text, i. 39, the line is faulty. 


306 NOTES. 

P. GO. V. 1420. Numbert. — Imbertus, Geoffrey, which name Roberts in- 
forms us is not even now uncommon in France, p. 21. 

P. 61. V. 1425. fif hundred. — In Geoffrey, Wace, and Robert of Brunne, 
two hundred. 

P. 63. V. 1475. stiward. — InW^ce, serg ant, in Geoffrey, nuncius. The 
lines 1486-1509 are amplified from a single line of the French text. 

P. 64. V. 1510. ^unge folc. — Wace has ringaille. See Le Roux de 
Lincys note, i. 42, which, however, is far from satisfactory as to the ety- 

P. Q6. V. 1556. twa hundred. — The number of men slain by Corineus, 
as well as the imprecation uttered against the smith, are additions by 

P. 67. vv. 1576-1581. — In Wace the speech is more diffuse, which is 
but seldom the case. See Le Roux de Lincys edition, vol. i. p. 43. 

Ibid. V. 1584. ])ein. — " Un des reals," Wace, MS. Cott. ; "quidamcow- 
sul," Geoffrey. His name in the best MS. copies of Geoffrey is Suhardiis, 
which is confirmed by the MSS. of Wace and Robert of Brunne reading 
Suart or Suard, yet Le Roux de Lincys text exhibits the corrupt form of 
Suchars. Throughout his edition the proper names are thus disguised and 

P. 68. V. 1602-1605. — Instead of these lines Wace has here a simile, 
comparing Corineus to a lion among a flock of sheep, which La3amon has 
transposed to v. 1545, merely changing the lion into a wolf, the latter of 
which animals was doubtless more familiar to himself and his readers. 

P. 69. V. 1622. dusze pers. — See the remarks of Le Roux de Lincy in 
his analysis annexed to vol. ii. of Wace, part 3. § 2. pp. 98-103. He 
treats the subject, however, as if Wace were the original author of the pas- 
sage, instead of being merely the versifier of Geoffrey, lib. i. c. 13. 

P. 70. V. 1649. castel. — Here occur in the French text some lines re- 
lative to the origin of the town of Tours, which are omitted by La^amon. 
In Geoffrey it is stated in the following singular manner : "At dum tali 
csede totius fere Aquitaniae partes affecisset, venit ad locum ubi nunc est 
civitas Turonorum, quam, ut Homei-us testatur, ipse postmodum construxit," 
lib. i. c. 14, (corrected by a fine MS. of the 12th century, which formerly 
belonged to Margan-abbey, MS. Reg. 13 D. ii.). Le Roux de Lincy 
views the passage, " comme le resultat du souvenir laisse par I'lliade 
et l'0dyss6e," Dissert, pi. 3. § 2. p. 97, whilst the author of "Britannia 

NOTES. 3!)7 

after the Romans," 4to. Lond. 1836, Introd. p. xxix. believes it to refer to 
some forged Homeric poems, expressly fabricated to support the fiction 
of the Brut ! All mention of Homer is judiciously omitted by Wace and 
his subsequent imitators, and in the Welsh versions called Brut Tysilio 
and Brut Gruffudd ah Arthur, this sentence is not to be found. In the 
miserably corrupt and interpolated copy of Basingwerke abbey, said to 
have been w^ritten by Guttyn Owain in the middle of the 15th century, and 
which, critically speaking, is not worth a straw, the passage appears as 
quoted above from the Latin, and Roberts in his translation boldly sub- 
stitutes for Homer the name of Ccesar, but in what part of Caesars writings 
he finds the fact referred to, he neglects to tell us. 

P. 70. V. 1656. hof alle ]>on louden. — Geoflfrey and Wace speak in gene- 
ral terms of the forces assembled, but in the anonymous metrical chronicle 
in MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi. the names of the peoples are enumerated : 

II nus assaudrunt veirement, 

Kar li reis repaire od mult grant gent, 

Franceis, Flamans, Alemans, 

Angevins, Manseis, e Normans ; 

Mult amenat beles compaines 

Par ces valeis et par plaines.— /. 43*. c. 2, 

P. 71. V. 1664. a txoeolfa. — This is also the correct text of Wace, yet 
the printed edition, vol. i. p. 47, exhibits the false reading deus. 

Ibid. V. 1669. \reo \)usende. — In Wace " pres de dous mille," and in 
Brunne " two thousand or mo." 

Ibid. V. 1672. bi ni^inges beard. — ^From a comparison of the expression 
here with the parallel passages in vol. ii. p. 21, vol. iii. p. 220, it is evident 
that they all allude to the opprobrium incurred by those who from any act 
of cowardice or recreant behaviour were called Nit kings ; a term considered 
so disgraceful among the English, that the fear alone of it was sufficient to 
cause them at once to assemble at the military summons of their sovereign. 
See the Saxon Chronicle, a". 1088, and the parallel passages in William of 
Malmesbury, p. 68. edit. 1596, and Matthew Paris, p. 15. edit. 1640. This 
epithet was undoubtedly derived from the Northmen, and in Icelandic Ni- 
dingr has exactly the same ajoplication. Consult Haldorsons Lexicon, in 
voce. In other instances the term was applied in the general sense of 
wicked man, wretch. See Leges Ince, p. 27. ed. Wilkins, fol. 1721, the 
Glossaries of Ihre and Du Cange, and vv. 690. 4551. 18065, of Lajamon. 
The term culvertage used by the Normans, seems to have been nearly syno- 
nymous, as proved by the instances given by Matthew Paris, sub a". 1213, 
p. 233. 

X 2 

308 NOTES. 

P. 72. V. 1697. — This simile is not in Wace. 

P. 73. V. 1713. enne mcei. — " Un nies," Wace. 

Ibid. V. 1719. monie hundred. — "set vint," Wace, MS.Cott.; "sens cent," 
edit. i. 49 ; " sexcentos," Geoffrey, lib. i. c. 15. 

Ibid. V. 1730. — It is remarkable that this tradition of the death and 
burial of Turnus should have been peri:)etuated on the spot, and the fact 
most clearly acquits Geoffrey of being the inventor. In the inedited prose 
Chronicle of Gulielmus, surnamed Armoricus or Brito, from the land of his 
birth, composed about the middle of the 13th century, (and vi^hich is chiefly 
an abridgement of the Gesta Regis Philippi by Rignoldus or Rinotus, from 
A.D. 1184 to A.D. 1223,) among the additions of Brito bimself, we meet 
with the following curious passage : " Pugnaverunt [Brutus and his fol- 
lowers] cum Gallis super ripam Ligeris, ibique interfectus est Turnus, et 
honorifice in pyramide nobilissima tumulatus, quce ibi usque ad hodiernuni 
diem ostenditur, non procul a Turonis civitate ; et sic ab eodem Turno fun- 
dacionem et nomen accepit civitas Turonica." MS. Cott. Vesp. D. iv.f. 6*. 
See also Seldens notes to Draytons Poly-olbion, p. 20. fol. 1612. 

P. 76. V. 1786. ^t Dertemu^e i Totenes. — In Wace, " A Toteneis en 
Dertemue," which his editor falsely interprets, Totness at tlie mouth of the 
river Dart, vol. i. p. .51. Robert of Gloucester thus renders the passage : 

Hii come here to Engelaud, to the hauene of Totteneis, 

To the on ende of Eugeland, as in the west south, 

A lute bi northe Cornewaile, as in an hauene mouth. — MS. Cott. Calig. A. xx.f. 7. 

Totnes in Wace and Lajamon evidently means the district, and Dartmouth 
the port. See Camdens Britannia, vol. i. p. 161. ed. 1772. 

P. 77. V. 1807. \e heihste. — This expression may refer to his stature 
as well as to his strength. Wace has, " Pur ^9. force e pur sa vigur," MS. 
Cott., but in the printed text, " Por sa force e por sa grandor." Geoffrey 
tells us he was twelve cubits in height, which is increased by Robert of 
Gloucester to " an twenti vet." See Le Roux de Lincj'^s remarks on Gog- 
magog, Analyse, pt. iii. § 3. p. 106. 

P. 79. V. 1864. — Compare the description of this wrestling match in 
Wace, vol. i. pp. 53-57. La5amon introduces some highly poetical lines, 
vv. 1880—1891, which are not in his original. In order to show the su- 
periority of our old poet, the corresponding passage in the inedited portion 
of Robert of Brunnes Chronicle is annexed. 

Gogniagog the Troiens toke ; 
Brutus sayd, th' thei suhl loke, 

NOTES. 309 

Whethir he were stranger or Corineus ; 

A place to play ordaynd Brutus. 

Corrineus was wele o grante, 

For to wristle w' the geante. 

On felde fast bi the see, 

The wristelyng was set to be ; 

Alle thei jede, 3enge & olde, 

Th* wristelyng for to beholde. 

Coniueus vpstirt first, 

& vv' a cloth his body girt ; 

Streit in the flank did hym lace, 

He com & stode forth in the place; 

& Gogmagog ros vp sone, 

He had hym dight, & was alle bone. 

The first pulle so hard was sette, 

Th* ther brestes togidere mette ; 

Ouer bakkes handes the[i] cast, 

Syde to syde was set fulle fast. 

Ther was turne set to turne, 

Th' waikest was, behoued scurn ; 

Forset befor, forset behynd, 

W* krokes ilkon other bynd. 

Oft about ilk other threwe, 

The stem stode whan thei blewe ; 

Thei handeled bothe sore ther nekkes, 

Chynnes, chokes, gaf hard chekkes ; 

Ther teth gnaisted, w' nese snore, 

Hurteld hedes set fulle sore. 

Ilk other pulled, ilk other schoke, 

W* fete in fouche ilk other toke ; 

W* trip, forset, ilk other to gyle, 

In list & writhyng thei fraist vmwhile ; 

Ilk other fro the erth did vp rise, 

W strength more than w' quantise. 

Gogmagog proued his strength ; 

Tuelfelbom he was o length ; 

In armes Corrineus he lauht, 

& on hym drow so strong a drauht, 

Th' thre ribbes brak in his side, 

& had nere cast hym th' tide. 

Than was Coniueus oschamede, 

Th« he was for geant lamede ; 

He recouerde his strength fortene, 

Of scathe he wild hym nomore mene. 

Alle wt ire the geant he hent, 

In his armes so hym went, 

Th' Gogmagog began to suoune, 

& bare w' {sic) the bank doun. 

310 NOTES. 

Donn of the roclie he lete hym falle, 

The name ^it Faleise men calle. 

Are he com doun was fleshe & bone 

Alle to-ryuen fro stone to stone ; 

A grete {sic) ther he lay dede ; 

Tlie water of his blode was rede. — f. lib. c. 1. 

This is probably the earliest technical description of a wrestling match 
extant, and is written, if not with poetical feeling, yet with the spirit of an 
amateur. The author had probably often witnessed these trials of skill 
among the Lincolnshire men. 

P. 81. V. 1902. feower. — "Wace has treis, MS. Cott., which agrees with 
Geoffrey, Robert of Brunne, and Robert of Gloucester, but in Waces 
Ijrinted text it is erroneously " une coste." 

P. 82. V. 1928. Geomagoges lupe. — Wace only says. 

La feleise out le uon, e a, 

Del geant ki si trebucha.— ;/". 27. c. 1. 

but in Geoffrey we read, " Locus autem ille a precipitatione gigantis no- 
men adeptus Lam Goemagot, id est, saltus Goemagot, usque in presentem 
diem vocatur," lib. i. c. 16. In Camdens time, the rock from which the 
giant was supposed to have fallen, was called the Haw. See his Britan7iia, 
vol. i. p. 160. ed. Gibson; and so also Drayton, in his Poly-olbion, p. 12. 

ed. 1C22, 

Upon that loftie place at Plimmouth, call'd the Hoe, 

Those mightie wTastlers met. 

Ibid. V. 1930. — After this line is an interpolated passage of twenty-two 
verses in one of the later MSS. of Wace, inserted in the printed edition, 
vol. i. p. 57, but which forms no part of his genuine text, 

P. 84. V. 1976. — Here occurs another interpolation of four lines in the 
printed text of Wace, vol. i. p. 59, which is omitted in MS. Cott., as well 
as in Lajaraon and Robert of Brunne. It is to the effect, that Gurmund 
died in France, having previously established the laws still held by the En- 
glish in the time of the writer. Compare Wace, vol. ii. pp. 247-249, and 
Lajamon, vol. iii. p. 179. 

P. 87. V. 2049. — The passage here inserted in Geoffrey of Monmouth, 
relative to the dispute between Lud and his brother Nennius, for the nar- 
rative of which he refers to " Gildas historiographus," and of which no 
trace has hitherto been discovered, is omitted by Wace and his English 
jjaraphrasts. The lines which follow in La?amon relative to the change 
of the name of the city differ from the printed text of Wace, vol. i. p. 61, 
as also from MS. Cott. f. 27*, but correspond sufficiently well with a 

NOTES. 811 

MS. in the Bibliothfeque du Roi, marked 73 Cange, wTitten early in the 
13th century, which would seem to preserve here a text similar to that 
used by La^amon for his work. Compare the very similar passage at 
p. 303, and Wace, vol. i. p. 182. 

P. 88. V. 2070. In the MS. Cang6 73, and in MS. Cott. are inserted 
four lines relative to Heli, priest of the Jews, and to the capture of the 
ark by the Philistines. They also occur in Geoffrey, lib. i. c. 18, and are 
borrowed from Nennius, p. 9. ed. Stevenson. They are not, however, in 
the common copies of Wace, and are omitted also by Robert of Brunne. 

Ibid. vv. 2083-2090. — Added by Lajamon to his original. 

P. 89. V. 2091. — Here begins the second book of Geoffrey. 

Ibid. V. 2111. \at su^ lond. — Geoffrey says, " mediam partem insulae," 
lib. ii. c. i., and Wace only 

la region, 

Qui de son non Logres out ii non. 

According to Fordun, Locrins share, called Loegria, comprehended the 
entire south division, from Totnes to the junction of the Trent with the 
Humber, lib. ii. c. 6. See also Higden, Polychron. p. 194, ed. Gale. 

P. 90. vv. 2119, 2120. — These two lines are not in Wace, who on the 
other hand has some verses omitted by La^amon : 

E Chamber ad a sa part prise 

La terre ke Saveme devise, 

Devers le north, e quant il I'out prise, 

De son non I'apela Cambric. 

Grant paleis [ifisf] e grant sales : 

Mais ore ad nun Cambrie Gwales. 

Cambrie out non Gwales apres 

Pur la reine Gualaes ; 

Pur memorie del dux Gualon, 

Out Guales primes icest non. 

Gualesfut de mult grant poissance, 

Sifut de lui grant reparlance. — MS. Cott.f. 27*. c. 2. 

Compare the printed text, vol. i. p. 64, and vol. ii. p. 298. The etymology 
thus assigned to the name of Wales is taken from the conclusion of Geof- 
frey of Monmouths work, lib. xii. c. 19. We are informed further on by 
Lajamon, p. 115, that the Galoes mentioned here was the youngest and 
fairest daughter of king Ebrauc ; a piece of intelligence which occurs 
neither in Wace nor Geoffrey, except by inference. It may be found, 
however, in Higdens verses on the etymology of Wallia, p. 187. 

Ibid. V. 2130. Scotland. — In Wace it is designated as " une terre qui 
ert boscaine." 

312 NOTES. 

P. 90. vv. 2133-2136. — These lines are not in Wace. The discrepancy 
in speaking of the position of Cambers territory, Wace calling it north, and 
Lajamon west of the Severn, is accounted for by the diiFerent loccdity of 
the writers. Compare Fordun, lib. ii. c. 6, and Higden, p. 194. 

P. 91. V. 2141. seouentene }ere. — In Wace no time is mentioned, and in 
Geoffrey the indefinite term diu is used, but in MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi. the 
period is stated to have been " deus auz," and the arrival of Humber to 
have taken place in the third. 

P. 93. V. 2191. he ferde ouer Scott e icater. — The reading of the Cotton 
MS. of Wace is " Humbre passa Escoce uuatre," f. 28. c. 1, in which it 
agrees with MS. Harl. 6508, and a MS. in the library of St. Genevieve. 
I^e Roux de Lincys printed text has erroneously "Escoce et Gatre," which 
he absurdly supposes to mean Waterford in Ireland ! The allusion is 
undoubtedly to the Frith of Forth, otherwise called the Scotte-wattre and 
Scottis-se, and in Fordun, " mare Scoticum," lib. ii. c. 2, and " vadimi Sco- 
ticmn," lib. iii. c. 2. In the Saxon Chronicle, a°. 1072, the writer, descri- 
bing the conquerors expedition into Scotland, states that he " his land- 
fyrde set J'am Gewtede inn l?edde," p. 277, where MS. Cott. Tib. B. iv. 
reads, " ofer ^ Wce^." Ingram translates it by Tweed, but is clearly mis- 
taken, as is manifest by the Annals of Waverley rendering the same pas- 
sage " exercitum suum per terram apud Scodwade introduxit," ap. Gale, 
vol. ii. p. 131. We know also that William passed the Frith of Forth, and 
concluded the treaty with Malcolm at Abernethy, in Perthshire. See the 
Chron. de Mailros, a". 1072. It must not, however, be concealed that 
the etymology of Tweed seems to be from the Saxon •p wa:^, and the same 
root is visible in Scottisivath, the ancient name given to the Solway Frith, 
which by many writers has been confounded with the Frith of Forth. See, 
in addition to what is here remarked, the passages quoted by Jamieson, 
in V. Scotle-watfe. I do not find in Bosworths Saxon Dictionary either 
trteS or gewce^, both of which ought to have been noticed. 

P. 95. V. 2251. hond-fcest. — It would here appear that the ancient north- 
ern custom of betrothing previous to marriage by the ceremony of joining 
hands was in usage in the West of England in the 13th century. In Scot- 
land it existed to a very late period, as we learn from Pennants Tour, pt. 
i. p. 91. 4to. 1772, and from the instances of the word quoted by .Tamie- 
son, in v. " To hand-fast, to betroth by joining hands." In England also 
the term at least remained to a comparatively modern period, as appears 
from Palgraves " Esclarcissement de la langue Franroyse," B. iii. f. 12*. 8°, 
1530, where we find " Unejiansaylcs, an assuryng or hand-fastynge of folkes 

NOTES. 313 

to be maryed." See Hires Glossar. Suegothiciim, torn. i. pp. 435, 781. The 
line is not in Wace. 

P. 98. vv. 2311-2316. — In Geoffre}', Corineus merely shakes his axe, 
as if about to strike, and in Wace he approaches only in a threatening at- 
titude, vol. i. p. 68. The additional lines in La3amon constitute one of 
those graphic touches with which he so often improves on his original. 

P. 100. vo. 2361-2379. — The whole of the narrative respecting ^strild 
is greatly amplified by the English poet, and these lines are entirely of his 
own invention. Compare the printed text of Wace, vol. i. p. 68. Perhaps 
we have here the earliest instance of the use of the term ivhales-bone. 

P. 102. V. 2404, Abren. — ^The folio edition of Geoffrey reads Subren, 
with MS. Reg. 13 D. ii. and so does Robert of Brunne. 
Sabren it hight, white so glas.— /. 13. c. 2. 

P. 104. V. '2AT1. Stoitre. — This river rises in the most northerly part of 
Dorsetshire, and after its entrance into Hampshire, flows into the Avon 
opposite Christchurch. 

P. 106. V. 2498, etc. Auren. — La^amon has here strictly adhered to 
the text of Wace, as we find it in the Cotton MS. 
Puis fut I'ewe u ele fut jetee, 
Del nom Abren Avren apelee ; 
Avren, ke de Abren son nom prent, 
A Criste-cherche en mer descent. — -f. 28*. 

It is very evident that by Auren or Avren the river Avon is intended, 
which, after being joined by the Stour, falls into the sea at Christchurch. 
So far all is intelligible enough, but in the printed text of Wace for Ci-iste- 
cherche is absurdly read Circecestre, which the editor at once declares to 
be Cirencester in Gloucestershire, and interprets Avren to be the Severn. 
The latter error, however, is of ancient date, and is found in the text of 
Geoffrey, who writes, " Jubet enim Estrildem et filiam ejus Sabren prse- 
cipitari in fluvium qui nunc Sabrina dicitur. Unde contigit quod usque in 
hunc diem appellatum est flumen Britannica lingua Sabren [Hnvren'} , quod 
per corruptionem nominis alia lingua Sabrina vocatur," lib. ii. c. 5. He 
is followed in this by the Welsh translations, by the anonymous author of 
the metrical Anglo-Norman Brut, in MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi. f. 45*. c, 1, by 
Robert of Gloucester, vol. i. p. 27, and by Robert of Brunne : — 

Scho did take faire Estrilde, 

& Sabren, th' was hir childe, 

& did thain in a water cast, 

The name for tham is rotefast. 

Senerne it hate for the chikl Sabren, 

For th' childe the name we ken.—/. 13*. e. 1. 

314 NOTES. 

The mistake appears to have arisen from confounding the Hampshire 
Avon with the river of the same name in Warwickshire, into which flows 
a second Stour, and which falls into the Severn at Tewksbury. The above 
legend is perpetuated also by Drayton in his Poly-olbion, p. 90. 

P. 106. V. 2512, 2513. — This passage is not in Wace, and seems to have 
been a common place among the early English and French writers. See 
the eulogium on the Conqueror in the Saxon Chronicle, a°. 1087, p. 295. 
and on Henry I., a". 1135, p. 364. So also in Benoit St. Mores Chro- 
nicle of Normandy, MS. Harl. 1717. IF. 55*. 56. from William of Ju- 
mieges, ap. Du Chesne, p. 232. ed. 1619. See also a Note in my edition 
of the Romance of Havelok, p. 184. printed for the Roxburghe Club, 4to. 

Ibid. V. 2516. ni^en dawees. — The nine days are added by Lajamon, and 
do not appear in any other writer. 

P. 108. V. 2561. — After this line in some copies of Wace, as also in 
Geoifrey and Robert of Brunne, is inserted a notice of Saul being at that 
time king of the Jews, and Euristheus of the Greeks, which was omitted, 
apparently, in the text used by Lajamon. 

P. 109. V. 2583. mid teonen he wes i-funden. — "Ceo fut contre son deS' 
turber," MS.Cott. In the sixth line following, where La^amon has hinde, 
Wace writes " Ne sai si hisse u cerf sui," and Geoffrey only says, " dum 
venationem exerceret." This is a short but sufficient specimen of the 
manner in which the three texts often vary. 

P. 110. V. 2607. — Here again in some copies of Wace is an addition 
relative to the prophet Saul and the poet Homer, which in Geoffrey comes 
in previously, lib. ii. c. 6. immediately after the accession of Madan. 

P. 111. ?;?;. 2624-2629.— Not in Wace. 

P. 112. V. 2640. — Compare the French text, vol. i. p. 74, in which the 
Flarnans and Tiois (Germans) are specified. 

Ibid. V. 2653. — After this line a further insertion appears in some copies 
of Wace, referring to the reign and actions of Da\dd, etc. The passage is 
omitted by Robert of Brunne, as by Lajamon, but will be found in Geoffrey, 
lib. ii. c. 7. 

P. 113. V. 2665. Adud. — This should be Achd (or more correctly, 
Alclud), but in MSS. of the r2th and 13th centuries cl is often mistaken 
by the copyists for d, and vice versa. The etymology is given by Bede, 

NOTES. .315 

lib. i. c. 12. It is the ancient name of Dunbarton, the capital of the king- 
dom of Strathcluyd. Consult Camdens Britannia, vol. ii. p. 279. edit. 
Gibson, and Chalmers's Caledonia, vol. ii. p. 29. 1810. vol. iii. p. 856. 4to, 
1824. Those who suppose it to be Aldburgh, or Aldborough, on the Ouse, 
in Yorkshire, are mistaken. See Higden, p. 199. 

P. 113. vv. 2668-2673. — Wace instead of these lines has the following : 

Cele ke out le iion de Ebraic 

Fut puis apele Eborac ; 

Franceis le nom si corumpirent 

E de Eborac Everivike firent.— il/A Cott.f. 29. c. 2. 

and so also Robert of Brunne, 

In the north he made a cite ; 

Kaer Ebrauk he called th' toun ; 

Another, Aklud opon Breton. 

Kaer Ebrauk first men spak, 

Sithen men calde it Eborak ; 

Frankys spech is not so Uke, 

For Eborak thei caldc it Everwyk.—f. 13*. c. 2. 

The intimation added by Lajamon of the subsequent change in the pro- 
nunciation of the name by the 'Northern men, is remarkable, and, could 
the fact be chronologically established, might perhaps assist in determi- 
ning the date of his work. In the Saxon Chronicle it is written Eofertvic 
from the year 1100 to 1123, Eferwic in 1125, and Euorwic in 1138. The 
same forms occur in Henry of Huntingdon and Simeon of Durham ; but in 
Hoveden, who wrote in the beginning of Johns reign, it is Eworwic. The 
Pipe Rolls I have been able to consult do not assist in the inquiry ; for in 
the 29 Hen. II. I find it written Euerwiche, and in the 4 John, Euerwic. 
A very slight change in pronouncing the « as w would produce the altered 
form. In the interpolated copy of Robert of Gloucester in the College 
of Arms, of the 14th century, are these lines inserted : 

And suth me clefeth Euerwicke this ilke toun y-ms, 

And York also, thorgh light speche, y-hote also hit is. — ed. Hearne, p. 27. 

The name of the city was undoubtedly derived from the river Eiire 

(written Your in Drayton), on which it stands. See Drakes Eboracum, 

pp. S,6.fol. 1736. 

Ibid. V. 2678. Maidene castel. — In Geoffrey this castle, built upon mount 
Agned, " quod nunc Castellum Puellarum dicitur, et Montcm dolorosum," 
is clearly distinguished from Alclud; yet by an obscurity in the text of 
Wace they have been by some confounded together. Robert of Brunnes 
version is curious : 

Aklud he called Maydens toun, 
Kaer-lauerok is now the renoun ; 

3I() NOTES. 

Maydens castelle bi th* day, 
W maydens had lie ther his play.—/. IS'', c. 2. 
The editor of Wace writes a confused and ill-advised note on the passage, 
vol. i. p. 75. There can be no doubt, hovi^ever, that by Agned and the 
Castellmn Puellarum is meant Edinburgh. See Macphersons Geographical 
Illustrations of Scottish History , 4to, 1796. invv. Edinburgh ^wd. Puellarum, 
Chalmers's Caledonia, vol. ii. pp. 29, 536. and MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi. f. 45*. 
c. 2. 

P. 114. V. 2693. — La3amon contents himself here with transcribing the 
names of Eljraucs children literally from Wace, of which names numerous 
unimportant orthographical variations occur in the French MSS. 

P. 115. V. 2719. & Ano]ier wes aire best itowen. — A few lines above she 
is called Andor, M'hich should probably be Anaor, as in Geoffrey. "Wace 
and Robert of Brunne have Anor. This line is one of Waces additions to 
Geoffrey, and in one MS. are four other lines inserted, which are not in 
La3amon. See the printed edition, vol. i. p. 77. 

P. 116. V. 2751. 'pider.—ln Wace it is not stated that Ebraucs sons 
accompanied their sisters to Lombardy, but simply that they prepared an 
expedition to Germany. Geoffrey says they had assistance from Sylvius 
Albanus, lib. ii. c. 8. 

P. 118. V. 2779. Kaer Leil. — In MS. Cott. Karliun; but Carlisle and 
Caerleon are firequently confounded. The commendatory couplet is an ad- 
dition by La3amon. In the metrical version of MS. Reg. 1 3 A. xxi. is added, 

Icist fist Esecesire, 

E la cite de Porecestre ; 

Puis si fist citez plusiirs, 

E les clost de riclie niurs. — /. 46. c. 1. 

P. 119. V. 2798. — After this line Robert of Brunne has a passage 

borrowed from Peter Langtoft, which concludes thus : 

Leyl lygges at Karlele, thus the story spak, 
Brutus lygges at 3ork, besides Ebrak. — J". 14. c. 2. 

P. 120. V. 2822. Cestesburi castel. — In Wace, 

Cist fist Wyncestre e Cantorberie, 

E le chastel de Cesteherie, 

Ke est al mont de Paladur.—MS. Cott.f. 30. c. 1. 

which Robert of Brunne thus translates : 

He mad W^ynchester «& Cantirbyre, 
& the castelle of Chestirschire ; 
One spak ther & prophecied, 
Aquile; men sals he lied.—/. 14. c. 2. 

Geoffrey has, " atque ojjpidum montis Pahidur, quod nunc Sephton di- 

NOTES. 317 

citur. Ibi tunc aquila locuta est," etc., lib. ii. c. 9. MS. Keg. 13 D. ii. 
Following his authority, writers of a later period have generally fixed the 
locality at Shaftsbury. See Camdens Britannia, vol. i. p. 173, and Seldens 
Notes on Drayton, p. 35. Both in this place and in lib. xii. c. 18, where 
these prophecies are again referred to, (and where the printed edition 1587 
has qui falsely for qua of the best MSS.,) it is clear that Geoffrey intended 
to speak of an eagle, endowed with a prophetic voice. Roberts, however, 
p. 39, will have it, that the word enjr in the Welsh original (as he pleases 
to call it) is a corruption for aerur, and that one of the priests of the tower 
or temple on the hill was intended. However improbable this may be, it is 
certain that Leland has converted the eagle into a prophet named Aquila, 
and under that name he is admitted into the Bibliotheca Britannica of 
Tanner ! What the prophecy was, we are left in the dark ; for Geoffrey 
writes, " cujus sermones, si veros esse arbitrarer, sicut cetera, memorise 
tradere non diffugerem." It is not a little provoking to find a man who 
had admitted so many incredible stories into his history, should here be 
so fastidious ! Fordun quotes some Latin verses, ascribed to Gildas, in re- 
ference to this prophecy, lib. iii. c. 22, which relate to an alliance be- 
tween the Britons and the Scots, and the restoration of the name of Bri- 
tain. Wace owns he knew not what the eagle said, and La^amon adds, 
that the bird betokened the death of Rudhudibras. Leland says of Aquilas 
prophecies, " Qualia tamen ea fuerint, cum non, quod ego sciam, extent, pror- 
sus ignoro." In the Royal MS. 15 G. xvi. f. 182*, of the 14th century, 
I find the " Prophecia Aquile " appended to a copy of Geoffrey, and com- 
posed in a style resembling the prophecies of Merlin. It occupies rather 
more than two folio columns, and commences, "Arbor fertilis a primo 
trunco decisa, ad spacium trium jugerum a radice propria separabitur," 
etc. In MS. Cott. Claud. B. vii. f. 230*. c. 2. occurs also part of a pro- 
phecy ascribed to Aquila, relative to the future glory of Cambria ; and in 
MS. Arundel 57. f. 4*, are Versus Gylde de prophecia Aquile, with an expo- 
sition. I need only add, that some copies of Wace convert the eagle into 
an angel, and so also in the metrical Chronicle of John Hardyng. 

P. 120. V. 2836. — Previous to this line are some lines in several MSS. 
of Wace, relative to Solomon, etc. See edition, vol. i. p. 79. 

P. 121. vv. 2847-2851. — Wace and Geoffrey only speak in general 
terms of the formation of Bladuds baths, and instead of the lines in La^a- 
mon the former has a passage relative to the derivation of the name of 
Bath from its founder. The popular local traditions no doubt furnished 
the addition in the English text, and to the same source we are indebted 
for the variations given by later writers of the same story. In the French 
metrical Brut, MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi. we read, 

318 NOTES. 

Icist fit faire Kairbadura, 

E les cliauz bainz qui dedenz sunt ; 

Cist out tut-dis en sa mance 

Od sei I'art de iiigromance ; 

Pur CO les bainz atemprat 

Od le suffre que mis 1 ad ; 

Maistre esteit de fisike, 

De astrouomie e de musike.— ^. 4G. c. 1. 

and in Robert of Branne, 

The hate bathe he did mak 

For mykille gode to mans sak ; 

He did ley, ther it springes, 

Tunnes of bras, quante thingcs, 

Th' makes the water euer hote, 

What is ther in no man wote, etc.—f. 14. c. 2. 

Another authority, however, has peeped into the tuns, (the use of which 
word might make some suspect that we should read tunne for cunne in La- 
jamons text,) and tells us what was the composition within. 

Two tunne ther bath of bras, 

And other two imaked of glas ; 

Seue saltes ther buth inne 

And other thing imaked with ginne ; 

Quick brimston in other also. 

With wilde fur imaked therto ; 

Sal gemme and sal petre, 

Sal arraonac ther is eke ; 

Sal abrod, and sal alkyn, 

Sal gemme is mengd with him ; 

Sal comin, and sal almetre brijt, 

That brenneth bothe day and ni3t, etc. 

See the remainder of this curious metrical fragment in Seldens Notes 
to Drayton, p. 52. He says he took them "ex untiq. sched." but I have 
found the original inserted in the Cotton copy of Robert of Gloucester, 
Calig. A. XI. f. 12. written in a hand of the beginning of the 14th century, 
from which Seldens quotation has been materially corrected. Compare 
also Robert of Gloucesters account, vol. i. p. 28. 

P. 121. V. 2860. — It is worthy of notice that Geoffrey here adds a mar- 
vellous circumstance omitted by Wace. " In cujus \^scil. Minervae] sede 
inextinguibiles posuit ignes, qui nunquam deficiebant infavillas, sed ex quo 
tabescere incipiebant , in saxeos globos vcrtebantur," lib. ii. c. 10. This pas- 
sage is copied, with slight variation, from Solinus, cap. 35 ; but it is, never- 
theless, found in the Welsh translation attributed toTysilio, p. 40. These 
saxei globi are evidently the same as the stccn cunne of our text. 

NOTES. 311) 

P. 12-2. vv. 28G8-2895.— The narrative of Bladuds flight is here given 
at much greater length than in the French original. 

P. 123. iw. 2902-3780.— The whole of this narrative of King Leir and 
his daughters has heen printed in Thorpes Analecta, pp. 143-170, 8vo, 
1834; a volume vi^hich maybe recommended to all those who wish to 
study the gradual formation of the English language. Camden in his 
Remaines, p. 306, ed. 1674, tells the same story of Ina, king of the West 
Saxons, but does not give any precise authority for it. 

P. 123. V. 2915. Leirchestre. — Geoffrey and Wace add, that the city 
was built on the river Soar. The allusion made by Wace to the early 
prosperity and subsequent decay of Leicester, is an addition to Geoffrey, 
and refers probably to the destruction of the city in the year 1173, by 
William Rufus, on account of the rebellion of Robert, earl of Leicester. 
See Nichols's History of Leicestershire, vol. i. pt. i. p. 72, pt. ii. pp. 356, 

P. 124. V. 2930. Gornoille. —Geoflrej has Gonorilla and MS. Reg. 
13 A. xxi. Gonorille. By later writers this form was rendered the popular 
one. Ragau is right, and the more modern Regan, even to the time of 
Shakspere, is a corruption. 

P. 124. V. 2967. — The sarcasm thus levelled against women in general, 
is an addition of our English poet. 

P. 129. V. 3053. — In Robert of Brunne, the reply of Cordeille is in 

these terms : 

Right as thou has, so ert thou worthi ; 
So mykelle luf to the ouh I.—/. 14*. c. 2. 

P. 130. V. 3069. — In the original this couplet is as follows : 

Li peres fut de mult graut ire, 

De maltalent deviut tut pers.—MS. Cott.f. 30*. c. 2. 

which his editor renders, "Leir devint hleu [read noir~\ de colere." 

P. 133. vv. 3147-3234. — The whole of this is comprised by Wace in 
twenty-four lines, vol. i. p. 88. Instead of a letter, as in Lajamon, Leir 
sends a message in general terms. 

P. 139. V. 3274. feowerti. — In Geoffrey and Robert of Gloucester the 
number is sixty, and in the printed text of W-dceJifty, but the MS. Cott. 
and MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi. agree with Lajamon. 

P. 141. vv. 3325-3370. — This conversation of Maglaunus and Gornoillc, 
with her subsequent proceedings, and the wailings of the old king, as also 
the speeches of Regau and Hemeri, are all poetical additions of La^amon, 
and do not occur in his original. 

320 NOTES. 

P, 143. V. 3369. Ilemeri. — In Wace, Hennin, and so in Robert of 
Gloucester. Geoffrey has Henuinus, MS. Reg. 13 D. ii, 

P. 145. vv. 3411-3441. — Here again the inventive powers of the En- 
glish poet are called forth, as in tlie French text we find simply two 

lines : 

' Chartif,' dist il, ' mar i vine, 
Si vil fu la, plus vil sui 9a.'— y. 31*. c. 1. 

So also his judgement is exercised in p. 147, in retrenching the com- 
mon-place reproaches against Fortune, which Wace causes him to utter. 
The version of this part of the narrative by the anonymous author in MS. 
Reg. 13 A. xxi. f. 47. is much superior to Wace. 

P.149. V. 3499. — In Geoffrey and the anonymous Anglo-Norman metri- 
cal Brut the king has two attendants ; but in Wace no number is specified. 

Ibid. V. 3503.— In the Cott. MS. of Wace, 

A un port en Kaleis &Ti'\xdL.—f. 32. c. 1 . 
Other copies read Chaus, Chain, etc., all of which are intended to de- 
signate Calais, the Karicia of Geoffrey, which in Robert of Gloucester is 
rendered by Curie. 

Ibid. vv. 3516-3597. — Considerably amplified from the French text. 

P. 154. vv. 3630-3643. — Supplied by La^amon. This is one of the 
many passages which are valuable from the incidental illustrations they 
afford of the state of manners at the end of the 12th and beginning of the 
13th century. The proclamation of Leir, p. 155. and the speech of Aga- 
nippus, p. 156, are also so much amplified, as to present a completely new 
text. Wace merely states in brief, that Aganippus assembled a large 
navy, and sent Leir back to Britain, accompanied by his youngest daughter. 

P. 158. V. 3725. al Siva pe bac tellet. — The authority here meant is, of 
course, Wace. Geoffrey adds, lib. ii. c. 14, that the place of sepulture 
was in a subterranean vault beneath the bed of the river Soar, built by 
Leir in honor of Janus. 7'iiis passage is literally rendered in the metrical 
English Brut of the 14th century, preserved in the University library at 
Gottingen. See what is said by Gibson on the subject of this temjjle, in 
his additions to the Britannia, vol. i. p. 415, and Nichols's Leicestershir-e, 
vol. i. pt. i. p. 5, pt. ii. p. 355. 

P. 159. vv. 3734-3754. — Not in Wace ; and the same maybe stated of 
vv. 3832-3841. 

P. 164. v. 3867. Margan. — In Wace, according to the Cott. MS., 
De Margan ot Margan cest nun, 
Unkes ii'i out altre achesun.— y. 33. c. 2. 

NOTKS. 321 

which Robert of Brunne translates, 

Thorgh th* lias it name nowe ; 
Clon-morgan is now the name, 
For Morgan died in th' same.— y. IG. c. 2. 

And in the Welsh translation of Geoffrey, ascribed to Tysilio, it is added , 
that he was slain at Maesmawr, in Glamorganshire, nearly on the spot 
where the monastery of Margan stood, p. 45. Le Roux de Lincy mis- 
prints the name Marge, and then in a note refers the locality to Mai-gate, 
in Kent ! ! ! 

P. 165. t'. 3882. \yritti. — This seems to contradict what is said above in 
line 3872. Geoffrey and Wace read thirty-three, but Robert of Brunne 
has thirty. The MSS. of Robert of Gloucester have both numbers. Pre- 
vious to this line is inserted a passage in some copies of Wace, relative to 
Ezechias, king of Juda, edit. voL i. p. 101., but it does not appear in the 
Cotton MS. 

P. 1G7. vv. 3914-3923. — The dates of the reigns of these five kings are 
not given by Wace ; and on the other hand, La^amon omits to state that 
I>ago was nephew of Gurgustius, and Kinemark son of Sisillius. 

P. 168. vv. 3957-3983. — In Wace this passage is comprised in four 
lines, vol. i. p. 103. 

P. 170. V. 3992. Judon. — The MSS. present here an unusual degree of 
variation. In the printed text of Geoffrey, Widen ; in the Welsh transla- 
tion, Widon; in the Cotton MS. of Wace, Ludon, (which Le Roux de 
Lincy misprints Ludon) ; and in MS. Harl. 6508, Juden. The Royal MS., 
13 D. ii. of Geoffrey', and Robert of Brunne read as in Lajamon. Lord 
Buckhurst, in his tragedy of Ferrex and Porrex, corrupts it further into 

P. 172. v. 4033. — In Wace and Geoffrey there is no notice whatever 
of the death of the queen Judon; but it is singular that the Welsh have 
jn-eserved the tradition, that the partisans of her son put her into a 
sack, and threw her alive into the Thames. See Roberts, p. 4G. 
This affords us a proof, which is elsewhere corroborated, that La^amon 
had access to other authorities than those named by him in his preface, 
or else, from his proximity to Wales, was well acquainted with its national 

Jbid. V. 4046. feowere. — Five in Geoffrey, Wace, and Robert of Brunne ; 
but only four kings are subsequently named. 

P. 173. V. 4057. Logres. — So also in MS. Cott., but the printed text of 
Wace has here and elsewhere Londres. By Logres is understood England, 

322 NOTES. 

as distinguished from Wales, Cornwall, and Scotland. See Note in my 
edition of <S'yr Gawnyne, etc., p. 320. 

P. 174. V. 4079. Donioallo MoUnus. — Called in the Welsh copies, 
Dyfnwall Moelmyd. We are informed, that in the 38th Triad he is 
named son of Prydain, and elsewhere son of Cyrdon ; Roberts, p. 47. 
The name of his father is Clydno in the Welsh version, and Diocenis, in 
MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi. 

Ibid. V. 4082. — See Note on the romance of Haiclok, v. 1). 

Ibid, vv. 4092-4105. — In Wace the j^assage is thus : 

Puis volt Escoce e Guales prendre, 

Mes li rois se voldreit defendre ; 

Contre lui unt fait aliance, 

Par serment e par fiance. — MS. Cott.f. 34. c. 1. 

In the English text it would appear as if the hostile kings had made a 
feigned treaty of peace with Donwallo, previous to their invading his ter- 
ritories. Moreover, it is not stated in the French text that Donwallo 
marched to Wales, but only manifested an inclination to conquer it. 

P. 176. vv. 4122-4155.— All omitted in Wace; but the latter adds, 
that Dunwallo had a force of 30,000 men. 

P. 178. V. 4179. six hundred. — " Set cenz," Wace. 

P. 181. vv. 4247-4249. — These lines are not in Wace. The testimony 
is valuable, if dependence may be placed on it, as to the existence of 
several written accounts of the reign of Dunwallo previous to the 13th 

P. 182. V. 4264. hurje. — The words of Wace are, edit. vol. i. p. 109, 

Que tuit li temple et les cites 
Eussent si grant dignites, etc. 

which agrees with the text of Geoffrey, lib. ii. c. 17., who here and else- 
where, lib. iii. c. 5, refers to Gildas as his authority for the laws them- 
selves, which he states were translated out of Latin into Saxon by king 
Alfred. His words are copied by many subsequent compilers, and often 
appealed to by the Welsh writers ; but the laws themselves, did the}'' ever 
exist, are nowhere to be found. In the collection of Welsh laws edited 
by Wotton, it is stated, p. 155, that the laws of Molmutius were abrogated 
by Howel Dda, except those relating to the measurement of land, which 
were retained. The statement respecting any Saxon translation of these 
laws, is a mere figment ; yet it is true that regulations establishing the 
churches as sanctuaries or places of refuge were made by Ina and Alfred, 

NOTES. 323 

and were continued by their successors. Consult Wilkins's Leges Anglo- 
Saxonic(B, pp. 15, 34, &c. fol. 1721. 

P. 183. V. 4286— In Wace, 

Lez le temple Seint Concorde.— f. 34*. c. 1 . 
and in Geoffrey, " prope templum Concordiae ;" which Mr. Jones tells us 
stood where Black wall is now situated. See Roberts, p. 49. The men- 
tion of a gold coffin or shroud is an addition of the English writer. 

Ibid. V. 4288. — Here commences the third book of Geoffrey. 

Ibid. V. 4292. — There is no- mention of the quarrel and reconciliation of 
the brothers in Wace ; but we find it in Geoffrey, which would cause ua to 
suspect the loss of some lines in the French text. 

Ibid. V. 4306. — In Robert of Brunnes version of this passage, he intro- 
duces some curious prefatory lines, which are worth quoting. 
So thei held it fyue 3ere, 
In pes & ill faire raauere ; 
Bot coiitek & covetise 
Out of the North wille algate rise. 
For thus men said he old dawe, 
& 3it it is a comon sawe, 
Sothrou dere gos northward, 
& northern were to the south is hard ; 
Bot northern dere & southron were 
Non dredes other, thei thei com not nere ; 
Bot northern were th' is to doute, 
& southren dere the north dos loute.— /. 17*. c. 1. 

P. 185. V. 4350. Cheflon. — The name of this prince and of his ten-i- 
tory varies greatly. In Geoffrey, MS. Reg. 13 D. ii., we read " Cheulfo, 
duci Morianoriim," but in the edition of 1517. it is " Chenulfo, duci Mau- 
rorum," and Moranorum, ed. 1587. In Robert of Brunne, and Wace, MS. 
Cott., it is Cenfio, but in the printed text Cesio. Roberts, p. 50, recog- 
nises the Morini in the name of the country (as in Geoffrey, lib. iv. c. 7.), 
and Le Roux de Lincy, with his usual geographical skill, determines it to be 
Savoy ! There can be no doubt, however, that Moray, in Scotland, is here 
intended. The notice of this chieftains death is an addition by Lajamon. 

P. 186. V. 4372. Alfinge. — So also in Wace, but Geoffrey reads Elsin- 
gii; and in the Welsh version ascribed to Tysilio, p. 50, (by a mis-trans- 
lation probably of the editor,) Elsing is made the name of the king of 
Norways daughter. In the metrical Latin version, MS. Cott. Jul. D. xi, 
f. 12., it is Elsinus. 

P. 188. V. 4404. — This name is supplied b)^ La^amon, and is not found 
in Wace or Geoffrey, or elsewhere. 

Y 2 

:V24 NOTES. 

Pp. 189. 190. vv. 4430-4439. 4448-4457.— Not inWace. whose narra- 
tive here is very brief throughout. 

P. 191. V. 4482. Delgan. — This name again is not to be found in the 
French original, nor elsewhere. 

Pp. 192. 194. vv. 4506-4525. 4549-4557. 4560-4573.— Not in Wace. 

Pp. 195-199. vv. 4583-4602. 4611-4632. 4636-4682.— Not in Wace, 
who contents himself with a short narrative. Compare edit. vol. i. p. 120. 

P. 196. V. 4606. to Yisse londe. — Wace says, " en Engleterre,'" and 
Geoffrey, more circumstantially, " in Northumbriam." So also in MS. 

Keg. 13 A. xxi. 

En I'ewe de Tine est arive.— /. 48. c. 2. 

P. 200. V. 46S3. feoicer hundred. — In Wace, " od grant navie." 

P. 202. V. 4734. Kalatere. — On the authority of Camden (preceded 
however by earlier writers, as Higden, ap. Gale, pp. 199, 214), Biitannin, 
vol. ii. p. 116, this has generally been supposed to be the forest of Guul- 
tres, in the north riding of Yorkshire ; but the narrative here, and at p. 2S3, 
evidently obliges us to place it in Scotland, and there in truth we find it, 
in Perthshire. The modern appellation is Torwood. It may be added, that 
from the antient name of this forest, as variously spelt and pronounced, 
the thanes of Cawdor derive their name. See Macphersons Illustrations, 
in vv. Calatrin, Coihtdar. 

Ibid. V. 4751. sixii ]msende. — In Wace the estimate is only 15,000. 

P. 204. V. 4782. ]>reo \>usund punden. — No sum is named in the French 

P. 205. V. 4808. — Wace omits mention of the laws, but Geoffrey has, 
"leges quas pater invenerat, confirmavit....Maxime autem indixit, ut civi- 
tates et viae quae ad civitatem ducebant, eandem pacem quam Dunwallo 
statuerat, haberent. Sed de viis orta est discordia, quia nesciebatur qui- 
bus terminis diffinitie essent." lib. iii. c. 5. And this is assigned as the 
cause for the establishment of the four great roads. 

P. 206. V. 4829. Toteneis.—So also in the Cotton MS. of Wace. In 
Geoffrey we only have, "a Cornubico mari." The printed text of Wace 
is here, as usual, corrupt, and the note of the editor absurd. "\"ol. i. j). 127. 
After copying Geoffrey, Higden adds the following correction of his state- 
ment: " Verius tamen, secundum alios, incipit in Cornubia, tendensque per 
Devoniam, et Somersete, juxta Tetteburiam, supra Cotteswold, juxta Co- 
ventriam, usque Leicestriam procedit, indeque per vasta plana versus New- 
ark progrediens diutius, apud Lincolniam terminatur." p. 196. 

NOTKS. 3'2r) 

P. 206. V. 4834. Sic6-hamtone. — "Del port de Hamtone," Wace, and 
"ad portum Hcimonis," Geoifrey; yet this plain text is in the Welsh ver- 
sion converted into Northampton, and the sapient commentators will needs 
have it mean Yarmouth in Norfolk! See Roberts, p. 52, This was the 
Irmin street of the Romans. 

Ibid. V. 4835. ];e \>ridde. — Wace and Geoffrey mention two others, which 
of course were the Wat ling and Ikenild streets. With regard to these four 
roads and the directions they took, consult Gales Essay, in vol. vi. of Le- 
lands Itinerary, and his Letter to Hearne, at the end of Lelands Collec- 
tanea, vol. vi. p. 273, Pegges paper in the Bibl. Top. Brit., vol. iv. no. 24, 
aad Nichols's Leicestershire, vol. i. pp. cxlvii-cliv. 

P. 208. V. 4877-8. — These lines are omitted in Wace, and Geoffrey tells 
us, that Brennus, having failed in his application to the other princes of 
Gaul, ])roceeded to the duke of Burgundy (ducem Allobrogxim). Lajamon 
adds Britanny to his dominions. 

P. 209. vv. 4907-4934. — In Wace only a few Hnes of narrative. 

P. 213. vv. 4993-4998. — La^amon seems here to have misunderstood 
his original. Wace does not say that the mother of the hostile brothers 
previously put on tattered clothes to excite pity, but that after she had 
embraced her son, she tore her dress down to the girdle, and showed her 
naked bosom, imploring him to remember the breasts he had sucked. 
The address in the French text is perhaps more touching and natural than 
in the English version. Compare the printed edition, vol. i. p. 132. The 
mothers speech of reconciliation, vv. 5091-5102, is entirely an addition 
by La3amon. 

Pp. 217. 218. vv. 5107-5120. 5123-5132.— These lines are not in Wace. 

P. 219. V. 5140. feoicer. — In Wace, " plusors reis." 

Pp. 219. 220. vv. 5149-5158. 5169-5246.— The whole of this in Wace 
is comprised in eighteen lines, vol. i. p. 138- 

P. 224. V. 5255. Mungiu. — Corrupted from Mons Jovis. It is the pass 
of the Great St. Bernard, a mountain of the Pennine Alps, on the frontiers 
of Piedmont. It was by this road the French army under Bonaparte en- 
tered into Italy in 1800. 

Ibid. V. 5259. Taurins and Iiiorie. — Turin and Ivrea, cities of Pied- 

Ibid. V. 5261. Versaus. — The Cott. MS, of Wace reads Verceles. It 
is easy to recognise Vercelli. 

326 NOTES. 

p. 224, V. 5263. Taurim. — The river Taro, which rises at the foot of the 
Apennines, and falls into the Po, thirteen miles below Cremona. 

Ibid. V. 5264. Bardun. — Wace reads, "E puis passerent Mow^ Bardon." 
By this name are designated the mountains on which stand the town and 
citadel of Bardi, in Lombardy, within the limits of the Duchy of Parma, 
and a principality of the Val di Taro. The editor of Wace makes a very 
weak conjecture on the locality. 

Ibid. V. 5266. Salome. — I do not find any such place, and the word it- 
self seems to be an error arising from the corrupted text of Wace. The 

Cotton MS. has, 

Tuscane imt conquise e robee, 
Une terre de saluee. — -f. 38*. c. 1. 

but in the printed text is, "Une tere des aloee," which the editor explains, 
" tres louee, tres bonne." 

P. 225. vv. 5291-5475. — In Wace, as usual, this passage is comprised 
in a brief narrative of thirty-four lines, without speeches or ornament, 
vol. i. p. 140. The amount of the promised tribute is due to the inven- 
tion of La3amon, as well as the odd introduction of Tervagant and Dagon 
as the gods of the Romans. With regard to the former deity, see Rit- 
sons note in Anc. Metr. Rom. vol. iii. p. 257. Lajamon is, perhaps, the 
earliest existing English author who has used this term, which must have 
been borrowed from the Anaflo-Norman writers. 


P, 233. vv. 5484-5489. — Not in Wace, although the narrative very 
properly requires these lines. 

P. 234. vv. 5494-5500.— In Wace, 

Si luit pris de lur chevalers 

Ne sai quanz cenz ne quauz millers. — MS. Cott. f. 39. c. 1 . 

P. 236. vv. 5542-5569. — Wace has only two lines for the whole of 

this : 

Cels de France e eels de Burgoigiie 
Mena Brenne en sa besoigne. — Ibid. 

P. 237. vv. 5575-5577. — In the French text is no mention of Godlac, 
nor of the Danes. 

P. 239. vv. 5604-5640. — Wace ho.; only four lines, stating that peasants 
were employed as guides to show the shortest route to the enemy, vol. i. 
p. 144. 

NOTKS. 327 

P. 240. V. 5G49. — In the French original are here introduced some 
lines, injudiciously omitted by the English paraphrast, 

Beals fii li tens, cum en este, 
Bele la nuit, U air sanz on"ee, 
La lime clere [read bien] cler raya. — MS. Cott.f. 39. o. 2. 

In the description of the attack there is considerable variation. Compare 
Waces printed text, vol. i. p. 146. 

P. 242. V. 5685. — Wace is here more minute, 

Perieres, troies e multons, 

E engins de plusors facoiis. 

Firent fere, e al mixr hurter, 

Pur le mur freincke e enfundrer. — MS. Cott.f. 39*. e. 1. 

Ibid. V. 5692. grund-hat Iced. — No doubt this is the meaning of the 
word plwm'es or plornees used in the original, which Le Roux de Lincy 
erroneously interprets balle de plomb. 

P. 245. vv. 5748-5771. — Wace simply says, that the people within 
Home waited until a certain day, when they knew the earls would arrive 
with their forces from Puille and Lombardy, and then made a sally. Vol. i. 
p. 148. 

P. 247. V. 5804. — The jest in the original is passed over; perhaps with 


Nus vus frum vostre sang beivre, 

Pur espa[r]iiier I'ewe de Teyvre.— ;^. 40. c. 1. 

P. 248. vv. 5812-5911.— Throughout this description of the battle 
Lajamon varies much and unusually from the French text. Compare Wace, 
vol. i. pp. 149-152. 

P. 252. vv. 5926-5973.— The whol» of this is supplied by the English 
poet, and is a curious instance of amplification. La3amons text is to 
Wace, what the latters is to Geoffrey. It is remarkable, that in Geoffrey 
we have a reference to the " Romanes historits," for the rest of the acts of 
Brennus, lib. iii. c. 10. Compare Livy, lib. v. c. 38-43. 

P. 255. vv. 5986-5997. — These lines are also supplementary, and not 
in the French text. 

P. 256. V. 6006. Kair-Lion. — Caerleon on Usk, in Monmouthshire. 
Wace, and after him Lajamon, speaks of it as being in Glamorganshire. 

Ibid. vv. 6008-6017. — Wace states it shortly thus: "Long time after 
the death of Brennes, it befell, that the Romans held England in their 
hands, and took great pains to maintain themselves in it." He proceeds 

328 NOTES. 

to sav, that they had always itco, three or four legions stationed in Britain, 
and that a legion consisted of 6666 men, etc. Vol. i. p. 153. 

P. 258. r. 6061. Eeli//ies;af. — In Robert of Brunnes version of Wace, 
we have the following lines : 

Long man called tille now late 

After Belvn, Belvns gate ; 

Thorgh schort langage, I told ar how, 

BilUngesgate men calle it now. — -f. 22. c. 2. 

P. 259. rr. 6070-6071.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. V. 60S2. — Wace says, more explicitly, 

Li corsfit ars, la cendre piHse, 

Si fu eu un baril d'or mise. — -f. 41. c. I. 

P. 260. V. 6092. Bertruc. — The Welsh MSS. read Varv-tricch, which 
is intei-preted Grim-beard ; but in the Latin metrical text, MS. Cott. Jul. 
D. XI., it is rendered " Gorguandus barbse rubeae," f. 14\ 

P. 261. IT. 6120-6176. — In Wace this is all comprised in nine lines, 
vol. i. p. 157. Neither Wace nor Geoffrey states that the king of Den- 
mark was Gudlacs son. 

P. 266. vv. 6237—6254. — Wace merely says in six lines, that Gur- 
guint was un\^-illing to receive them into his territories, but sent them to 
Ireland. He omits the name given to this people by Geoffrey, who says, 
" Ut igitur Gurguint Barbtruc et ipsos ex Hispania venisse, et Basclenses 
esse vocatos," etc. MS. Reg. 13 D. ii., where the printed text falsely 
ha? Barclenses. Tlie Basques or Biscayners are probably intended. See, 
on the probability of this tradition. Turners History of England during 
the Middle Ages, vol. i. p. 276. edit. 1830, and Guans Notes on Nennius, 
p. 115. 8vo. 1819. 

P. 267. vv. 6267-6278. — Wace, following Geoffrey, savs they had wan- 
dered in the sea " an et demi." The rest of this curious passage is wholly 
an addition of La^amon, in the place of which Wace has others, giving a 
description of the state of Ireland, when first colonised. "\'ol. i. p. 160. 

P. 268. vv. 6294-6299. — This testimony to the reijutation of Marcia 
proceeds from the English poet; but the account which follows of the Mgr- 
cenelage is taken closely from Wace and Geoffrey. Robert of Brunne in 
his version judiciously omits Alfreds name, and writes. 

In the Bretons t^nne, as I wene, 
Thei called th' law Marciene ; 
Fro kyng to kyng th' lawe men wrote, 
» » [./ line tcantirig.'} * * * 

NOTKS. 329 

Marcheiilawe the Inglis it callede, 

lu auht schires th' lawe men halde ; 

Gloucester, Wircester, Herford, Werwik, 

Oxenford, Schropschire, Chester, Staford.— /. 23. c. 1. 

So also in Brompton, in Twisdens Decern Scriptores, col. 956. fol. 1652. 
Roberts seems to consider it very possible that Alfred caused these Welsh 
laws to be translated into Saxon by Asser ; but it is scarcely necessary to 
add, that there is not an iota of evidence in the Saxon laws themselves of 
the fact ; and the whole account of Marcia is probably fabulous. The ab- 
surdity of deriving the Myrcenelage from the name of the British queen is 
sufficiently obvious. See Higden, p. 202. 

P. 270. vv. 6345-6. — Not in Wace. 

P. 271. V. 6351. Rummarus. — So also in Wace, but in GeofFroy, Ki- 
marus, in Robert of Brunne, Kymare, and in the Welsh MSS. Cynvarch. 

Ibid. V. 6356.— Geoffrey supplies the name, — " quemex Tangustela con- 
cubina genuerat," lib. iii. c. 14. 

P. 272. vv. 6391-6394. — Wace only says, "E a gaster la comen9a." 

P. 274. vv. 6419-6428. — In the French original. 

Si dist rum ceo, en verite, 

Ne sai coment il fu prove, 

Ke Morpidus plus conquist, 

E sa mein plus en occist, 

Ke ne fist tote I'asemblee 

De la gent k'il out amenee. — MS. Cott.f. 42. c. 2. 

There is nothing said by Wace about burying the dead. 

P. 275. vv. 6461-6510. — Wace dilates very considerably the combat of 
Morpidus with the sea-monster, and improves on his original. See Le 
Roux de Lincys edition, vol. i. p. 166. It is curious to compare the 
Latin, French, and English texts here, to mark how one circumstance is 
invented after another by succeeding writers. Geoffrey says the monster 
swallowed the king " velut pisciculum," but adds not a word of the 
creatures death, and La3amon only mentions it casually, and subsequently 
to the combat. Wace, however, has several lines to express the death of 
the monster from the wounds it had received. 

P. 282. vv. 6611-6646. — The narrative here receives some embellish- 
ment ; for in the original it is merely said, that Argal, after an absence of 
five years, met his brother in the wood of Calatere, begged forgiveness, 
and was forgiven. The account which ensues of the homage enforced by 
Elidur to his brother, is told by Lajamon with the same degree of latitude. 

3,30 NOTES. 

Compare Wace, vol. i. pp. 170-172. See, as to the wood of Calatere, a 
previous note, p. 324. 

P. 288. V. 6768. — Geoffrey says, that the king from this act of grace 
towards his brother was surnamed Pius, and Wace introduces here some 
lines to the same purpose, omitted by Lajaraon. 

P. 289. V. 6784. — Wace omits to mention the burial-place of Argal, 
which by Geoffrey is stated to have been " in urbe Kaerleir," lib. iii. 
e. 17, which is rendered Carlisle by the author of the anonymous metrical 
Brut in MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi. f. 51. c. 2. as also by Langtoft, Robert of 
Brunne, and the Welsh version. 

P. 292. V. 6852. — Robert of Brunne has the following addition, out of 


In Aldburghe castel was be laid, 

Elud th' time the name was said.—/. 24. c. 2. 
Aldborough, in the West Riding of Yorkshire, is meant, which, accord- 
ing to some authorities, was the British Alclud. See Drakes Eboracum, 
p. 3, and a previous note, p. 315. 

Ibid. vv. 6857-6860. — These lines are not in Wace, nor does the name 
of this king occur in any other writer I have consulted. On the other 
hand, there is a passage in the French text in praise of Margan or Morgan, 
which is passed over by La3araon, but Wace has no notice of the duration 
of his reign. 

P. 293. V. 6878.— In Wace is added, 
Sis am mena sa tyrannic, 
Sa cruelte e sa folie.— 3/5. Cott.f. 43*. c. 2. 

and so also in Geoffrey and Robert of Brunne, but in the printed text of 
the former, vol. i. p. 175, it is erroneously "sept ans." 

P. 294. V. 6903. seouen ^ere. — No time is mentioned in Wace. 

Ibid. V. 6908. Rime. — In the Cotton 3IS. Rimo, but in other copies 
and in Geoffrey, Runo ; in Welsh, Rhun. 

P. 295. V. 6916. — An addition of La3amon, not found elsewhere, as well 
as the lines 6921-6926. If these and numerous similar instances are not 
mere inventions on the part of the English writer, it results that he must 
have had access to other British authorities than those used by Geoffrey. 

P. 296. V. 6953. feouioer 3ere. — In Wace only, "Mesj^o/ de tens re- 
gnercnt," f. 44. c. 1. 

P. 297. vv. 6967-6972.— Not in Wace. 

P. 298. vv. 6991-6996. — The statement that Cap was 5on of Bledon,and 


Sillius son of Ocin, rests solely on the dictum of Lajamon, who (perhaps 
for the sake of a rhyme) has given a bad character to Oein, not in his 

P. 298. vv. 6099-7012. — Compare the corresponding lines in Wace, 
vol. i. p. 178. Robert of Brunne thus translates them, and names the 

king Bleyabret, 

Til' was a syngere of the get ; 

Of song & of mynstralcie, 

Of alle men gaf him maistrie ; 

The note he couth of alle laies, 

& mynstralcie alle the sales ; 

He couth so mykelle musik and chyme, 

Th' the pupille said in his tyme, 

He was god of fithelers, 

Of jugelours & sangesters ; 

For he was euer glad & gamen 

Fele in seruise held he samen.— ;/". 24*. c. 2. 

P. 299. y. 7018. Arkinmis. — VJa.cQ\ia.s A rchinal, ?a\^ BxMune ArcJimaul ; 
the Welsh copies Arthmal, and Geoffrey Arthmail. The term of his reign 
is mentioned by La3amon only. 

P. 300. vv. 7039-7040. 7042. 7045-6.— Lines not in Wace. 

P. 301. V. 7053. Eligille. — Wace and Geoffrey state him to be the son 
of Capor. In the printed French text we have the corrupt reading A7e«w2M5, 
although the editor might by collating Geoffrey, here and elsewhere, have 
established the correct name. The Welsh copies read Manogan, which is 
justified by Roberts, on account of Beli Main- (the Heli of the text) being 
called in an old Welsh poem, son of Mynogon, and in Nennius, " Belinus, 
filius Minocanni," p. 17. edit. Stev. The period of his reign is omitted in 
the French and Latin texts. 

Ibid. vv. 7061-7063. — Not in Wace. Robert of Brunne adds, out of 


A nohle man and a wys, 

He died, & at Castre lys.— ^. 25. c. 1. 

Ibid. V. 7064. preo snelle sunen. — In the Welsh version, four sons are 
mentioned, namely Lludd, Llefelys, Caswallon, and Nyniaw, and a jjassage 
is inserted respecting the marriage of the second to a daughter of the king 
of France. See Roberts, p. 66. Then follows an interpolation of the 
three calamities of Britain, evidently inserted by the translator. 

P. 302. vv. 7081-7084. 7092-3. 7095-6 — All omitted in Wace. 

332 NOTES. 

p. 303. vv. 7115-7118.— In Wace thus, 

Puis vindrent Norman e Franceis, 

Ki ne seurent parler Engleis ; 

De Lundene nomer ne seurent, 

Einz distrent, si cum dire peurent ; 

Lundene uut Lundres novaee, etc. — MS. Cott.f. 44*. c. 1. 

Compare Geoffrey, lib. iii. c. 20, and vol. i. p. 87. of La^amon. 

P. 307. V. 7195. — Here commences the fourth book of Geoffrey : " In- 
terea contigit, ut inRomatiis reperitur historiis, Julium Csesarem, subjugata 
Gallia, ad littus Rutenorum venisse," etc. Wace opens in a different 

Seisante anz einz ke Jhesu Crist 

De la sainte Virgine nasquist, 

A eel tens est Cesar meuz, etc.—f. 45. c. 1. 

So also Bede, lib. i. c. 2. from Orosius. 
Ibid. vv. 7203-7214.— Not in Wace. 

P. 308. vv. 7219-7224. — These lines are an addition by La^amon, and 
are curious. 

Ibid. vv. 7229-7235. — In Wace the order of Csesars conquests is stated 


Primerement conquist Burgoine, 

E puis Averne e Gascoigne, 

Pegtou, Normendie, e Bretaine ; 

Puis prist son tur vers Alemaine. 

Vdx plusors lius fesait chastels, 

E citez e recetz novels ; 

Mult espleitout ben sa bosoine 

En Flandres vint e Boloine. — MS. Cotl.f. 45. c. 1. 

Compare the printed text, vol. i. p. 186. 

P. 309. V. 7240. Flaundre lond. — Geoffrey says, "ad littus Ruteno- 
rum," which by the anonymous author of the Anglo-Norman metrical Brut, 
MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi. f. 51*. c. 2. is rendered Witsand. Bede says, " venit 
ad Morinos, unde in Britanniam proximus et brevissimus transitus est," 
lib. i. 0. 2., which is taken from Csesar himself, De Bello Gall. lib. iv. c. 
21. It is certain, that Caesar embarked from Witsand, a port situated be- 
tween Calais and Boulogne, and which as late as the 15th century conti- 
nued to be the direct place of transit between France and England. See 
the treatise of Du Fresne annexed to the " Portus Iccius " of Somner, 12mo. 
Oxon. 1G94. 

P/). 310. 311. vv. 7263. 7265. 7282-7285. 7300-7301.— Not in Wace, 
and instead oivv. 7288-7200, are some lines in the French text, to the 

NOTKS. :vMi 

efFcct tliat Rome had become of i:;;reater jiowcr than in former times, and it 
was right that tlic JJritons should restore vvliat they had talicn away. See 
edit, voh i. p. 188. 

P. 314. vv. 7359-7377. — This part of the letter differs from Wace, who 
enlarges on the Britons determination to live and die free, vol. i. p. 190. 
Compare Nennius, p. 16. ed. Stevenson. 

P. 315. CO. 7378-7391. — Wace only states, that when Caesar had read 
the letter, he became aware that it would be necessary for him to cross the 

Ibid. V. 7392. sixti scipen. — Wace has " quatre vint," which he bor- 
rowed probably from Bede, lib. i. c. '2. or from Caesar himself, De Bello 
Gallico, lib. iv. c. 22. But in Nennius we find a statement as in Lajamon : 

" Tunc Caesar iratus est valde, et venitad Brittaniam cum sexaginta 

ciulis." p. 17. 

P. 316. V. 7415. Douere. — It is clear that Wace intends by Dover to 
express the " Dorobellum oppidum " of Geoffrey, lib. iv. c. 3. In MS. 
Keg. 13 A. xxi. it is rendered. 

En Dorobelle, la grant cite ; 

Issi out nun a, icel tens 

Doint I'apelent nos j)arenzs. — -f. 52. c. 2. 
Geoffrey, however, seems to have borrowed here from Nennius, and the 
text of the latter is unfortunately corrupted in this passage. See Steven- 
sons edition, p. 17. and Gunns note, p. 125. who supposes Deal to be 
meant. In all probability the real landing-place of Caesar was between 
Walmer Castle and Sandwich. 

P. 317. V. 7424. Belan. — In Wace, Bdins, called by Geoffrey " Beli- 
mis, princeps militiae." Nennius appears to mention him as the " procon- 
sul regis," but confounds him with Beli Maur, or Cassibelaunus. 

P. 318. vv. 7450-7453. — These lines are not in Wace, nor in any other 
authority I have seen. 

P. 320. vv. 7492-7495.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. V. 7497. fader. — This is an error probably of the scribe, which is 
corrected in the second text. Androgens and Tennancius were the sons 
of Lud, and nephews of Nennius and Cassibelaunus, according to the 
genealogy of the Brut. The conflict is described in Wace at greater 
length, and with more energy than in the English paraphrase. See Le 
Roux de Lincys edition, vol. i. p. 195. 

P. 323. V. 7561. — It is remarkable, that Lajamon should here omit the 
notice of the death of the tribune Labienus, whose head is severed from his 

,334 NOTES. 

body by a blow from the sword of Nennius. See Wace, vol. i. p. 198. The 
name of Labienus was probably borrowed by Geoffrey from Bede, lib. i. c. 
2. who had it from Orosius, lib. vi. c. 9. But the person meant was Quin- 
tus Laberius Durus, who was killed on the second landing of Caesar in Bri- 
tain. De Bell. Gall. lib. v. c. 15. See Stevensons note on Bede, p. 13. 
edit. 1838. as to the place of his burial. 

P. 323. vv. 7570-7585. — Not in Wace, nor elsewhere. 

P. 324. V. 7595. Flandre. — So also in Wace, but Geoffrey has, " in 
Galliam," and so Bede, from Orosius. 

Pp. 325. 326. vv. 7622-7G25. 7643-4. 7649-7650.— Not in Wace. 

P. 328. vv. 7683-7694. — Not in Wace, but the previous passage re- 
specting Caesar is fuller than in Lajamon. 

P. 329. vv. 7711-7756. — The whole of this is added by La^amon, dila- 
ted from the French text. Compare Geoffrey, lib. iv. c. 5. 

P. 331. v. 7768. O'^ercs. — Geoffrey writes, " tumm quam in loco, quae 
Odnea vocatur, construxerat," lib. iv. c. 7. Tiiis is the Tour d'Ordre or Old 
Man of Boulogne, said to have been built for a light-house by Caligula, and 
by popular tradition transferred to Csesar. We owe to Wace the description 
of this tower, which is curiously improved on by La^amon. Compare the 
French text, vol. i. p. 203, and a Dissertation by Montfaucon, inserted in 
the Mem. de VAcadtmie des Inscriptions, tom. vi. p. 586. 4to. 1729, in 
which an account is given of the ultimate fate of the tower It remains to 
be noted, that the term of thirteen months in the English paraphrase, v. 
7771, is two years in Wace and Geoffrey, and three in Nennius. The 
superior chronological accuracy of La3amon is here apparent, since Caesars 
first expedition took place B.C. 55, and the second in the following year. 

P. 333. vv. 7805-6. — An addition by La3amon. It is singular that 
nothing should be said by Wace or our English writer of the military 
forces collected on this occasion by Caesar. Geoffrey says, " cum innumc- 
rabili multitudine militum mare ingressus est," lib. iv. c. 7. which the ano- 
nymous author of the metrical Anglo-Norman Brut, in MS. Reg. 13 A. 
xxi. renders in the following curious lines. 

II out od sei iMoridiens, 

E Pincenaos e Indiens ; 

II out od sei les JNIacedons, 

E d'Affrike les barons ; 

De Arabic e de Romanic, 

E tuz icels dc Iliingric ; 

II out od sei les Burgoignons, 

E tuz icels dela les mons,— ;/". 54. c. 1. 

NOTES. 3.35 

Instead of the grave and sober narrative of history we are carried at once 
into the regions of romance ! Could the popular legends respecting Caesars 
expedition have had any share in this account ? 

P. 334. V. 7821. — Wace merely says, he knew not who conveyed the 
information to the Britons. 

Ibid. vv. 7833—7840. see lithende men. — Lajamons description of these 
stakes is more minute and accurate than in the French text. Csesar only 
speaks of them as being pointed, and concealed by the water. De B. G. lib. 
V. c. 18. Nennius calls them " sudes ferreas, et semen bellicosum, id est 
Cetiloii," which, according to Roberts, is derived from the British coethawl, 
a stake. Bede has nearly the same words as Csesar, but adds, that ve- 
stiges of the stakes remained in his time, and were about the thickness of 
a mans thigh, bound round with lead, lib. i. c. 2. Then comes Geoffrey, 
and evidently having Bede before him, writes, " palis /errm atque jo/mot- 
batis, instar femoris grossis," which the anonymous Anglo-Norman Brut, 
so often quoted, renders very remarkablj^ 

L'ewe de Tamise fust ben pale, 

Les pels tresben ascere ; 

Les chefs de suis sunt ascerez, 

Icels de suz tresben plumez ; 

Si com disent li paisant, 

En eel ewe, que tant est grant, 

Uncore pout I'em asez trover 

Ben grant trun9uns de ces peus. — -f. 53*. c. 2. 

P. 335. vv. 7855-6. — Not in Wace. Bede says, XhstX forty ships were 
destroyed, lib. i. c. 2. 

P}}. 336. 337. vv. 7869-7886. 7889-7928.— Not in Wace. 

P. 339. vv. 7943-7996.— This is related differently from Wace, who 
only states, that Csesar, on perceiving the force of the Britons to be su- 
perior to his own, drew up his men in order, gave a final assault to the 
enemy, and made good his retreat to the ships that remained, into which he 
enters himself last of all, and they run before the wind to Boulogne. Vol. 
i. p. 207. 

Pp. 341-350. vv. 7999-8194. — W^ace states in comparatively few lines, 
that Cassibelaunus, rejoiced at his double victory over Csesar, resolves to 
celebrate a high feast of thanksgiving and sacrifice to the gods. He sum- 
mons all his people to come to London. They assemble with their families, 
dressed richly, to celebrate the festival, and each made a fitting sacrifice. 
Forty thousand kine, thirty thousand hinds, and one hundred thousand 
sheep, besides a marvellous quantity of fowls, were offered. After the feast, 
they turned their thoughts to pleasure ; the knights began to joust together. 

330 NOTES. 

and the bachelors to fence, throw the stone or dart, and leap. Then fol- 
lows \n fourteen lines the episode oi Hirelgas and Evelin. See vol. i. pp. 
208-210. The additional details in the English text are wholly due to 
the invention of Lajamon, who perhaps here as elsewhere, may have been 
assisted by some floating popular traditions. 

P. 347. vv. 8127-8134. — The corresponding lines in the inedited por- 
tion of the Chronicle of Robert of Brunne are, 

Mynstrals bigan to glewe & rjme, 

As tlier custom was th' t3me ; 

Knyglites & squyers inad burdis, 

In ther quantise of purpur and bis ; 

& other bachelers skirnied fast, 

Wristled, skipped, stones kast. 

In felde & toun at ilk a way, 

Ilkon plaied th' he couth play. — -f. 29. e. 1. 

P. 350. V. 8215. — The conjectural reading is supported by the French 


Si dist, ke pas ne le meura, 

Kar francs home est, e sa curt si.—f. 48'. c. 2. 

P. 351. vv. 8233-8240.— Not in Wace. 

Pp. 352. 353. vv. 8249-8276.— In Wace only /re lines, vol. i. p. 211. 

P. 355. vv. 8313-8318.— Not in Wace. 

Pj). 356-360. vv. 8355-8442. — The story is here again much dilated 
from the brief narrative of Wace, and with considerable variation. The 
author of the later English text has not thought proper to repeat the story. 

P. 361. vv. 8459-8474.— Not in Wace. 

P. 362. v. 8504. Cenan. — Wace gives the name Scenan, and Robert of 
Brunne, Senna, which the Welsh copies represent by Cijnan ; but in Geof- 
frey it appears under the Romanised form of Sc<Evnm. Why the author 
of the second English text should have substituted Madan, is not very 

P. 363. t'. 8524. Douere. — So MS. Cott. and other copies of Wace, 
yet Le Roux de Lincy has thought proper in his edition, vol. i. p. 218. to 
insert a false reading, which assigns Romney as the landing-place of Ca-sar. 
Geoifrey has, " in Rtitiipi portum," respecting which see Somners " Trea- 
tise of the Roman ports in Kent," 12mo. Oxf. 1693. 

F. 364. vv. 8538-8556. — Wace has no mention of this castle, and says, 
generally, that Fame conveyed to the king the news of the Romans arrival. 

P. 366. vv. 8591—8620. — There is no S2:)eech assig-ned to Androgens in 

NOTES. 337 

Wace, but one somewhat similar is given to Cjesar. The number of 
Caesars troops is not mentioned, and those of Androgens are estimated at 
five thousand. 

P. 369. V. 8674. muchel and unifoh. — Geotrrey says of the battle, 
" Concidunt in utraque parte vulnerati, quemadmodum in autumno arbo- 
rum folia," lib. iv. c. 9 ; which is copied by Robert of Gloucester, vol. i. 
p. 56. Wace only sjieaks in general terms. 

P. 371. vv. 8700-8717. — Not in Wace, who merely says, they defended 
tliemselves so well as to get the better of the Romans. Robert of Brunne 

For ilke man tok a tre to stalle, 

Trostere than a castelle walle.— /. 30*. c. 2. 

But in Wace it is Caesar, who surrounds the Britons with trunks of trees 
to prevent escape, vol. i. p. ^22. 

P. 372. vv. 8742-8753.— An addition by Lajamon. 

P. 376. V. 8836. — In one MS. of Wace are some lines here interpolated, 
which certainly do not form part of the genuine text, although the editor 
has admitted them into it, vol. i. p. 227. They are of no moment, except 
that M. Le Roux de Lincy takes occasion to infer from them, that Andro- 
geus is the same person as the ilfawrfn/ifl/ms mentioned in Caesar, De Bella 
Gall. lib. v. c. 20. 

P. 380. vv. 8914-8933.— Wace has only the two following lines : 

Cesar par tant se paia, 

E ceo qu'il quist li otria.— MS. Cott.f. 51*. c. 1. 

P. 381. "VV. 8942-8948. — A curious addition on the part of Lajamon, as 
no such generosity in Caesar is mentioned by Geoffrey or Wace. 

P. 382. V. 8971.— The Cotton MS. of Wace and two others cited by 
his editor have here four lines omitted in Lajamon, relative to the building 
of Exeter by Julius Caesar ; and the passage is also found in Robert of 

P. 383. vv. 8976-8991. — Nothing is said in Wace in regard to any 
power or command possessed by Androgeus, and some error seems to have 
crept into the text, either from a misconception of the English paraphrast, 
or a blunder of the scribe, for Wace writes, 

Cassibellan set anz vesqui, 
Puis ke Cesar de hii parti ; 
Tren reddant vesqui set anz, 
Ne sai s'il ont feuinie u anUma.—f. 51 \ c. 2. 

338 NOTES. 

P.383.ry. 8992-9033. — The whole of this is an ampHfication offour lines 
in Wace, who merely says that Tenuancius of Cornwall was elected king 
after Cassibelan. The period of his reign is not mentioned either by Wace 
or Geoffrey, but in the anonymous Anglo-Norman Brut in MS. Reg. 

13 A. xxi. we read, 

Trente anz pleners e alques plus 

Kegnat dan Tenuacius ; 

Icil refist plusurs citez, 

Ki chaeit erent d'antiquitez.— ^. 56*. c. 1. 

P. 385. vv. 9040-9061. — Another addition by Lajamon. The lines also 
which follow, respecting the birth of Jesus Christ, and the prophecy of 
Taliesin, are very considerably amplified from the French text. See the 
printed edit. vol. i. p. 231. It may be remarked, moreover, that in 
Geoffrey there is no mention whatever of Taliesin, or his prophecy, which 
Wace must have collected from the Welsh traditions. 

P. 387. V. 9089. twa and twenti ^ere. — Wace says, after Geoffrey, " DIs 
anz fu rels, e puis fina,"/. 52 ; and so Robert of Brunne. — Compare v. 

P. 391. vv. 9184-5. inne Eoinierwike. — La3amon states this of himself, 
and I do not find it in any other authority. In the French and English 
prose Bruts, it is said he was buried at London. MS. Harl. 200. f. 14. 
MS. Harl. 24. ca. 39. 

P. 392. vv. 9202-9207.— Not in Wace. 

P. 394. V. 9242-9247. — Wace does not say that the city was Ili<n de- 
stroyed by Claudius, but subsequently , 

Porcestre fu cite nomee, 

Mes arse {npuis e gaastee.—f. 52. c. 1. 

P. 395. V. 92G5. Hauniund. — So also in Wace, but in Geoffrey he is 
named Ltclius Hamo, MS. Reg. 13 D. ii., which in edit. 1587 is fali^ely 
printed Leuis Hamo. 

P. 396. V. 9300. al Brutisc. — La^amon omits to tell us how he ac- 
quired a knowledge of the British tongue, but, according to GeoftVey and 
Wace, he learnt it of the hostages at Rome. The English poet much im- 
proves on his original in describing the stratagem of Hamun. The cir- 
cumstantial account also of the kings death, vv. 9308-9321, is entirely 
due to La^amon, and does not elsewhere appear. 

P. 398. V. 9342. ni^en thusende. — The numbers here and in the next 
page, as also frequently in other passages, are supplied by La^amon. 

P. 400. vv. 9371-9381.— In Wace, Arv-iragus smites off the head of Ha- 
mun with his sword. There can be no doubt, that the spot intended by 


NOTES. 3,39 

Geoffrey and his copiers was Southampton ; yet Roberts, in his notes on 
the Welsh version, p. 85, would place it at Northampton, on the river 
Nen, and Le Roux de Lincy, by an unpardonable error, transfers it to 
Hampton, in Neiv Hampshire, America ! ! ! 

Pp. 402. 404. vv. 9438-9455. 9470-9533.— These lines are either want- 
ing in Wace, or the sense is expressed in a brief narrative. Vol. i. p. 240. 

P. 407. vv. 9538-9541. 9548-9549.— Not in Wace. With regard to 
the name of the daughter of Claudius, in Geoffrey it is Geuuissa, but Pon- 
ticus Virunnius in his abbreviation of this writer, p. 105, cites a work of 
Gildas, in which she was named Juvenissa, and, according to the same 
writer, p. 93, Gildas lived about that period. 

Ibid. vv. 9554-9559. — Bede (copying Orosius) and Nennius only state, 
that Claudius subdued the Orkneys, without any mention of Arviragus. 
Geoffrey says, " auxilio Arviragi usus," which phrase, as translated by 
Wace, is interpreted by Lajamon, that Arviragus accompanied the em- 
peror, and shared in the conquest. Thus is fiction developed by degrees ! 
The number of the islands is also an addition by Lajamon. 

P. 408. vv. 9580-9585. — Not a word of this appears in the French text. 
Geoffrey states, that the town was built by Claudius at the suggestion of 

P. 409. vv. 9598-9628. — Here again we are indebted to La^amon for a 
story which is not met with elsewhere. Geoffrey and Wace only say, that 
according to some, the name of the city w'as derived from Gloi, whom Clau- 
dius had begat there, but they add not a word respecting his mother. In 
Nennius, p. 40, we also find the foundation of the city attributed to Gloui, 
who is made the ancestor of Vortigern in the fourth degree. 

P. 412. vv. 9658-9673. — Not in Wace. La^amon, however, has fallen 
into an error, in supposing that Arviragus refused to yield tribute to Rome 
after the death of Claudius. In Geoffrey it is stated expressly, lib. iv. 
c. 16, that Vespasian was sent by Claudius to Britain; but this circum- 
stance having been omitted by Wace, the English paraphrast has too 
hastily concluded, that Vespasian himself was emperor at the period. This 
is a sufficient proof, that the Latin text was never consulted. The lines 
which follow, from v. 9674 to v. 9774, are an amplification of eighteen 
lines in the French text, vol. i. p. 243. 

P. 416. V. 9755. yExechcestre. — Geoffrey writes, " Nactus deinde tel- 
lurem, Kaer Penhuelgoit, quae nunc Exonia vocatur, obsessurus, eandem 
adivit," lib, iv. c. 16. MS. Reg. 13 D. ii. In the editions it is erroneously 

z 2 

340 NOTES. 

printed Oxonia, and such must have been the reading of some early MSS., 

for in Robert of Brunnes Chronicle we read 

Tille Oxenford thei gan alle ride, 

To take the toim in the euentide ; 

Karpetihuelgoit, opon Bretoun, 

Onne Inglisse, Oxenford the toun.— ^. 33*. c. 2. 

See Gales note on Nennius, p. 138. 

P. 418. vv. 9808-9865.— Not in Wace. 

P. 422. V. 9893. — Here occurs in Geoffrey a long eulogium on An-ira- 
gus, with a reference to Juvenal, Sat. iv., and a notice of his being buried 
at Gloucester ; all of which is omitted by Wace. It is curious to remark 
how this passage has been misunderstood by the monkish rhymer, Robert 

of Brunne. 

Gode kyng he was, we find in boke ; 

A boke men calle it Juuenal; 

Of stories it speJces alle ; 

At Gloucester it sais he lies, 

& the qiiene, dame Genuys.— y. 34. e. 1. 

Ibid. vv. 9898-9909.— Not in Wace. j 

P. 425. vv. 9962-9969. — La^amon here almost literally translates his 
French original, and Geoffrey writes in similar terms. Previous, however, 
to the latter, William of Malmesbury had noticed a monument at Carlisle, i 
which would appear to be the same with that mentioned in the text. He I 
calls it " triclinium lapideum, fornicibus concameratum," and say?, that 
in the front was the inscription marii victoriae. De Gest. Pontif. lib. iii. 
pref. Fordun gives a still more minute description of the monument, 1)ut ; 
omits the inscription, and calls Marius a Roman general, lib. ii. capp. 30, 31 , j 
for which he is taken to task by Higden, p. 216. Later writers fix the i 
site of this memorial on Stanmore, where Reicross afterwards stood, and 
give the inscription verj' differently. See Ushers Antiquitates, p. 303, and 
Camdens Britannia, vol. ii. pp. 123, 177. j 

Ibid. vv. 9978-10073. — The whole of this only occupies fourteen lines I 
in Wace, vol. i. p. 246. The name of the Irish king, Gille Caor, with 
the notice of the introduction of the Irish language into Scotland, are j 
curious additions by La^amon. See on the subject of these Picts, Usher, \ 
p. 302, and Chalmers, vol. i. p. 225. ; 

P. 430. V. 10079. — Robert of Brunne adds in his Chronicle the follow- \ 
ing lines, out of Langtoft : I 

Marius kyng in his lyf here L 

L^'ued nvne & fourtv vere, ] 

NOTES. 34 1 

& biried is at Salesbiri, 

Th*^ stands onne a playn fulle miri.— /. 34. c. 2. 

So also of his successor the same writer adds, 

Ten jere he regned wele and riche, 
He lies biried at Notivich. — ib. 

Compare Langtoft, MS. Cott. Jul. A. v. f. 14*. 

P. 431. vv. 10114-10123.— Wace only says, that Eleutherius heard 
Jesus Christ spoken of, and the miracles he did ; without a word about 

P. 433. vv. 10172-3.— Not in Wace. 

P. 434. vv. 10178-10189. These lines are curious, and are amplified 
from the following passage in Wace : 

Les temples u li deu esteient, 

Ke li paien einceis creeient, 

Uni sanctifiez e mundez. — MS. Cott.f. 54. c. 1. 

It must be observed, that Wace converts the famines and archifl amines 
of Geoffrey into bishops and archbishops, and so also in the Welsh ver- 
sion. Robert of Brunne renders the lines in a singular manner : 

In th^ loud were temples olde, 

Aulit & tuenty grete, men tolde ; 

The Latyn sais the temple flamyns, 

Som of Mahoun, & of Jppolyns ; 

Som of Diane, som of Berit ; 

Two archeflamyns were ther 3it ; 

At London was the archeflame, 

& at 3ork the tother se ; 

The tother flamyns in the lond ware, 

Als the bisshop sees now ar.— /. 34*. c. 2. 

P. 435. vv. 10204-10207. 10214-10229.— These lines are not in Wace. 

P. 436. V. 10223. — Geoffrey has here a passage which Wace has thought 
proper to omit : " Confirmatione vero facta, reversi sunt in Britanniam, 
comjiluribus aliis comitati, etc. Eorum nomina et actus in libro reperiun- 
tur, quern, Gildas de Victoria Aurelii Ambrosii inscripsit," lib. iv. c. 20. 

342 NOTES. 


P. 1. vv. 10230-10243. — Not in Wace or Geoffrey, whose fifth book 
commences about this place. 

P. 2. V. 10254, an hundred ^ere and sixti. — In Wace, as in Geoffrey, 
the date of the kings death is given A.D. 156. The MSS. of Nennius 
read A.D. 164 or 167, as the date of his baptism. See Ushers Antiqui- 
iates, pp. 19-21. ed. 1687. 

P. 3. V. 10270 Wace and Geoffrey state that two legions were sent 

under Severus into Britain. 

Ibid. vv. 10278-10307.-— The whole of this passage is founded on four 
lines of Wace, who says, that by promises and gifts Severus succeeded in 
bringing a part of the Britons over to him, by whose aid he vanquished 
the remainder. Vol. i. p. 251. 

P. 5. V. 10327. Deeire. — Robert of Brunne writes: 

In a cuntre men did grete schame, 
Beire was than the name ; 
Fro Scotland vuto Thrilwalle, 
Peihtlond thei told it alle.— /. 35. c. 1. 

P. 6. V. 10354. scidwal. — Wace has " un /?«/?>. " See Bedes account 
of it, lib. i. c. 5. The verses that follow, 10356-10363, are not in the 
French text. 

P. 7. V. 10375. Cise. — So also in the text of Wace, MS. Cott., but two 
lines are here omitted in the printed edition. See Forduns remark on 
Scythia, lib. ii. c. 30, and Nennius, p. 28, " Scythicam vallem." 

P. 9. vv. 10424-10441. — Amplified from the original, which merely 
states, that at the entreaties of the Romans, his body was interred at York 
with great honor. 

P. 12. vv. 10478-10483.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 10494-10541. — In Wace, as in Geoffrey, Carausius is rejire- 
sented as making a short statement to the Roman Senate, but there is no 
speech, nor is it easy to divine whence La3amon has borrowed the name of 
Cyrian. Compare Bede, lib. i. c. 6. 

Pp. 15-17. vv. 10564-10595. 10610-10617.— Not in Wace, who di- 
lates on the ravages committed by Carausius previously to his arrival in 
Britain. Vol. i. p. 257. 

NOTES. 313 

P. 19. vv. 10G4-2-10644. 10G4G.— Not in Wace. What authority La- 
?amon had for fixing the battle near York, I am ignorant. The line in the 
French text, " Carais ad le rei occist," is only meant to express generally, 
that he was killed in the battle ; but La3amon has understood it literally, 
as if he had been slain by the usurper himself. 

P. 20. V. 10668. tioa ferden. — Wace and Geoffrey have three legions, 
but Robert of Brunne agrees with La^amon. 

P. 23. vv. 10742-10755. — Wace only says here, he sent messengers 

" par tut," but afterwards adds, 

Al comand Asclepiadot 

Viudrent Waleis e Escot ; 

De tutes parz Breton vindrent 

Od tute cil ke lur part tindrent. — MS. Cott.f. 56. c. 1. 

P. 25. V. 10798. Scottene king. — Geoffrey says, " venerunt Venedoti." 
i. e. the men of North Wales, and Wace names both the Scottish and 
Welsh forces. The verses which follow, 10802-10821, are an addition by 
La^amon, who has also invented the name of the king of Scotland, or de- 
rived it from some authority not now extant. 

P. 27. V. 10839. Gain. — In Wace Nengallum, MS. Cott., and Nantigal 
in the anonymous Anglo-Norman Brut, MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi. f. 59*. c. 2. 
Geoffre3'has " Brit^.nmce Nautgallun, Saxonice vero G«//flJroc," MS. Reg. 
13 D. ii. The supposed locality still bears the name of Walbrook. 

P. 28. vv. 10862-3. — Not in Wace, and this addition seems to have 
been suggested to Lajamon by the erroneous reading of Gloiichastre, v. 
10856, which, although supported by the printed text of Wace, vol. i. 
p. 264, and by the Welsh version, is in the best MSS. Colecestre ; and that 
the latter is the correct reading we know from Geoffrey, lib. v. c. G, and 
it is confirmed by MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi. f. 24. 

Ibid. vv. 10870-10909. — The whole of this passage is founded on an 
error. Wace only says that Maximian was sent into the west to destroy 
all the Christians dwelling beyond Mount Giu (the Great St. Bernard), 
and that the persecution extended into every country. In Britain is then 
noticed the martyrdom of Alban, Julius, and Aaron. La3amon has inferred 
that Maximian came himself to Britain, and has constructed his narrative 
on that mistaken notion. 

Pp. 30. 31. vv. 10919-10920. 10934-5.— Not in Wace. 

P. 31. V. 10940. — In Wace and GeoflVey it is more specifically men- 
tioned, that he had subdued Spain to the Roman power. 

314 NOTKS. 

P. 32. vv. 10954-10999. — The substance of this, briefly narrated in 
sixteen lines, is in Wace, vol. i. j). 1GQ, 

P. 34. vv. 11016-11029. — Not in Wace. It is hardly necessary to 
note, that Eutropius and Bede speak of Helena only as concubiae to Con- 
stantius, lib. i. c. 8. 

P. 36. vv. 11062-11077.— Not in Wace. 

P. 37. V. 11078. thrittene ^ere. — Wace says, " Unze anz, un poi plus 
aveit," and so Geoffrey, who fixes the death of Constantius at York ; but 
according to Nennius it took place at Caer Sergeint, near Caernarvon, 
where his tomb remained, and where later historians state his body to have 
been found in the reign of Edward the First. See Gunns note, p. 98, 
and Stevensons, p. 20. 

P. 40. vv. 11140-11145. — Not in Wace or Geoffrey, who merely state 
that Maxentius was deprived of his kingdom. The mention also of Helena 
being at Rome, v. 11148, is introduced by Lajamon, in the same manner 
as the account of her going to Rome is engrafted by Wace on the original 
Latin text. 

Ibid. V. 11153. bitcehte Rome. — This is a misinterpretation of the 
French text, which only says that they were made of senatorial dignity, 
vol. i. p. 270. 

P. 41. vv. 11170-11173. 11176-7.— Not in Wace. 

P. 42. V. 11194. Walsce land. — Geoffrey says, "dux Geioisseorum" 
which in the Welsh translation is rendered " earl of Erg'mg and Enas," 
which Roberts informs us are two small districts of Monmouthshire, p. 97. 
We learn, however, from Bede, lib. iii. c, 7. that the West Saxons an- 
ciently bore the name of Gewissce ; probably from Gewis, the great grand- 
father of Cerdic. 

Pp. 43. 44. vv. 11214-11221. 11226-7. 11232-11235.— Not in Wace. 
The forces brought over by Trahern are stated in the French text to be two 
legions, but in Geotfrey, three. 

P. 44. V. 11251 . — Wace has here (out of Geolfrey) two lines, designa- 
ting the field of battle, which are omitted by Lajamon, 

En un champ ki out non Maisure 

Fu la bataille entr'els mult dure.— A/5. Cott.f. 576. c. 1. 

The editors note, vol. i. p. 271, is very faulty. It is remarkable tliat these 
lines should also be omitted by Robert of Brunne. According to the Welsh 
copies the spot was named Maes Urien, i. e. the field of battle of Urien. 

NOTES. :i4.5 

p. 45. vv. 11256. 112G4-11267. 11274-11277.— Not in Wace, who 
omits again the locality of the battle as given by Geoffrey ; — " in provincia 
quae Westmarialandia [Westmoreland] vocata fuit, dimicavit." lib. v. c. 8. 

P. 4G. vv. 11290-11295.— Not in Wace. 

P. 47. vv. 11302-11339. — The whole of this is due to the invention of 
La^amon. Wace merely says, in four lines, that Octaves secretly prayed 
the friends he had left in Britain to put Trahern to death. 

P. 48. vv. 11342-11345. 11348-9.— Not in W^ace. 

Ibid. vv. 11350-11369. — The name of this earl is solely found in La3a- 
mon, and the narrative is altered and amplified. Geoffrey only says, 
" comes oppidi municipii," and Wace, " un quens." Compare the printed 
text, vol. i. p. 273. The duration of Traherns reign, v. 11382, is also un- 
noticed in the French text, and Geoffrey writes in general terms " usque 
in dies Valentiniani et Gratiani," but Langtoft fixes it at thirty-tivo years. 

P. 50. vv. 11396-11401.— Not in Wace. 

P. 51. V. 11415. — The Conan here named was Conan Meriadoc, the 
kings nephew. 

P. 52. vv. 11424-11459. — These lines are due to La^amon alone, in 
which it must be confessed he has shewn a sad ignorance and disregard of 
history and chronology ; although in a narrative of this kind we ought 
not to expect much accuracy in either. He supposes, apparently, that 
Constantine and Helena survived to the time of Gratian andValentinian, and 
were then king and queen of Jerusalem ! — errors so extravagant as to 
exceed even those of the Latin Brut. According to the best historical evi- 
dence, Constantine came to the empire A.D. 306, and died A.D. 337. 
His mother Helena died, aged eighty, A. D. 326. Gratian and Valentinian 
junior became joint emperors, A.D. 374. and the accession of Maximus as 
tyrant of Britain, (for whom Nennius and Geoffrey falsely substitute Maxi- 
mian) took place A.D. 382. 

P. 54. vv. 11484-11517. — This is comprised in Wace in six lines, which 
merely state that Conan, by the kings leave, sent his son Maurice to seek 
Maximian at Rome. There is no mention of Orien elsewhere, but the 
"Welsh copies call the kings daughter Helen. 

P. 56. vv. 11536-11617. — In Wace this occupies only four lines. 

P. 60. vv. 11626-11633. 11636-11639.— Not in Wace. In Geoffrey, 
lib. V. capp. 10. 11. are some details relating to the arrival of Maximian, 
which are omitted by the French versifier. 

346 NOTES. 

p. 61. vv. 1 1646-1 1657. — These lines also are not in Wace. The town 
referred to is Conisburgh, halfway between Doncaster and Rotherham, in 
the West Riding of Yorkshire. Lajamon commits an error in placing it 
in Scotland. See Camden, vol. ii. p. 82. It was here that Hengist was 
at a subsequent period taken prisoner. 

P. 62. V. 1 1 675. fif^ere. — In the printed text of Wace and MS. Cott. we 
read " en treis anz," but Geoffrey has " emenso quinquennio," and with this 
agrees the metrical Anglo-Norman Brut in MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi. f. 62. c. 2. 

F. 63. vv. 11690-11695. 11704-5. 11710-11721.— Not in Wace. 

P. 64. V. 11735. — The death of Humhold is not noticed by Wace, but 
occurs in Geoffrey. 

P. 65. vv. 11742-11755. — In Wace and Geoffrey this passage is in- 
serted subsequently. The latter has " iverunt Redonum," which Wace 
renders, " D'iloc sunt a Resnes ale." In the printed text the line is given 
falsely, vol. i. p. 281. 

P. 66. vv. 11766-11769.— Not in Wace. 

Pj}. 67. 68. vv. 11786-11807. 11825-11838.— These passages must be 
taken together, and contain considerable variations from the French and 
Latin texts. In the latter, after the capture of Rheims, Maximian sends 
to England, and orders 100,000 workmen to be sent over, and 30,000 
knights, who might defend the people. There is no mention of A^ionard 
(Dlonot) in this transaction, nor any notice of u'07nen to be sent, and in- 
deed tliere ought not to be, since the application for them properly comes 
[n afterwards, and proceeds from Conan. See with regard to this expedi- 
dition of Conan [Cynan Meiriadog] the remarks in Lobineau, Hist, de 
Bretag?ie, torn. i. p. 6. fol. 1707, in the Cambro-Briton, vol. i. p. 87, 8vo, 
1819, and in "Britannia after the Romans," p. 17, 4to, 1836. See also 
the curious passage in Nennius, p. 20. ed. Stev. on the limits of the 
territory granted by Maximian to the Britons. 

P. 69. V. 11848. Luueine. — For Lovaine some copies of Wace read 
Alemaigne, as in Geoffrey. Other MSS. add, that Maximian made Treves 
the capital of his kingdom. 

Pp. 69. 70. VV. 11852-11856. 11867-11884.— Wace only speaks of the 
deaths of Caradoc and Maurice incidentally, as preceding the departure of 
Maximian from England. To the kingdom of Cornwall, which was the 
heritage of Caradoc, succeeded Dionot, his younger brother, to whom 
Maximian committed the custody of Britain. 

P. 70. VV. 11859-11862. — Wace says, on the contrary, 
L'lin en cliaya, e I'antre occist. — MS. Cott.f. 59. c. 2. 

NOTES. ,347 

Compare Geoffrey, lib. v. c. 14, where it is remarkable that he borrows 
the very words of Gildas, p. 21. edit. Stevenson. 

P. 71. vv. 11897-11914.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. V. 11924. — In the original he requests also to have vavasors 
daughters sent to him, as wives for his principal men, and peasants 
daughters for the inferior classes. The lines which follow in Lajamon, 
11925-11936, are an addition of his own. 

P. 73. vv. 11945-11954. — Wace says that Dionot assembled 11,000 
maidens of gentle birth, and 60,000 of lower degree. 

P. 74. V. 11960. seouen and twenti scepen. — The number of ships is 
not mentioned in Wace. 

P. 75. vv. 11981-11984. 12001-12010.— Not in Wace, whose descrip- 
tion of the tempest, vol. i. p. 285, should be compared with the English 
version. As to the name of Oriene, v. 12004, and v. 12099. of the earlier 
English text, it would appear to be a mistake for Ursele. The error would 
seem to have arisen from the previous introduction of the name Oriene, as 
the daughter of Octaves, pp. 55. 59. 

P. 76. vv. 12011-12116. — The narrative of La3amon differs so much 
here from his original, that it will be best to give a version of the corre- 
sponding passage in the French text. — " Many of the ships were destroyed 
by the storm, and many of the maidens drowned. Some of them, who 
escaped, and arrived among pagans, were slain, sold, or reduced to 
slavery. Eleven thousand were taken to Cologne, and there beheaded. 
Ursele was among the number. They were martyrs, and are saints, and 
the people of the country celebrate their festival. Many of them met with 
the fleet of Ivains and Melga, roving on the sea. Ivains was king of 
Hungary, and Melga of Scythia [falsely printed Escoce in Le Roux de 
Lincys edition, vol. i. p. 287]. They put to death many of the maidens, 
because they refused to cohabit with them," Vol. i. pp. 286-288. It will 
be remarked that La^amon omits designedly all mention of the Cologne 
legend, and attributes the death of Ursula to the pagan Melga, with the 
addition of circumstances which take away all her pretensions to a crown 
of virginity. Geoffrey also has nothing of this legend, but adds a circum- 
stance unnoticed by Wace, " Erat autem Guanius rex Hunnorum, Melga 
vero Pictorum, quos asciverat sibi Gratianus, miseratque in Germaniam, ut 
eos qui Maximiano faverent, inquietarent," lib. vi. c. 16. The scene of 
the slaughter of the maidens he places " in barbaras insulas," which in 
Robert of Brunne is converted into Barbary, and the pagan kings called 

348 NOTES. 

by him Saracens ! See, on the subject of this legend, the collections of 
Usher, Antiquitat. pp. 108. 331. 

P. 82. vv. 12149-12180. — Not in Wace, who says only, 

E il lur tramist Gratian ; 

Un chevaler mult succurable, 

De dous legions conestable. — MS. Cott.f. 60. c. 1. 

It is evident that La^amon has here again fallen into error, and supposed 
this Gratian to be the same with the emperor, who, he tells us previously, 
had been put in bonds by Maximian. This is quite contrary to history, 
which informs us that Gratian was slain by one of the generals of Maxi- 
mus, A.D. 383. On the other hand, this Gratian dispatched to Britain is 
identified by GeoflPrey with the Gratianus Municeps, who in A.D. 407. 
became emperor in Britain, and was slain after a reign of a few months. 
Yet this is equally at variance with true chronology, since Maximian 
(or more truly Maximus) was slain A.D. 388, a period of nineteen years 
before the appearance of Gratian Municeps in Britain. But it is useless 
to discuss further such contradictions in a work which properly belongs 
to a cycle of fiction. 

P. 83. vv. 12187-12236. — Much of this proceeds from the invention of 
the English paraphrast, since Wace only states that the relatives and 
friends of Valentinian, with the assistance of Theodosian [Theodosius], 
took Maximian by force at Aquileia, and put him to death. Those of his 
British forces who escape join their comrades in Armorica. In this brief 
narrative it is curious to remark, that he corrects Geoffrey, Avho says, that 
Maximian was slain at Rotne ; a tradition which, apparently, must have 
been popular, since we meet with it again in Lajamon. 

P. 86. V. 12239. — Here begins the sixth book of Geoffrey. 

Ibid. vv. 12253-12336. — We have in this passage a singular example of 
the mode in which Lajaraon has engrafted his own inventions, or perhaps 
traditions gleaned from unknown sources, on the short narrative of the 
original writers. The account Geoffrey gives of this circumstance is com- 
prised in a single line, " catervis factis, plebs in eumirruerent et interfice- 
rent," lib. vi. c. i. Wace adds, that the people tore his body to pieces 
like enraged mastiflfs. MS. Cott. f. 60. c. 1. The anachronism in the 
English text of introducing Saxon names before the settlement of the 
Saxons in England will not fail to strike the reader. 

P. 91. vv. 12360. 12364-5.— Not in Wace. 

P. 93. vv. 12401-12406. 12417-12420.— In the French text it is briefly 
stated that a single legion was sent, and no mention is made of the com- 

NOTES. .^349 

manders name, nor do I elsewhere find it. See Turners remarks on this 
event, who fixes its chronology to the year 399. Hist, of Anglo-Saxons, 
vol. i. pp. 169-172. ed. 1836. It is certain, from a passage in Claudian, 
De Bello Getico, that the legion then sent to Britain had returned to Italy, 
and was at the hattle of Pollentia early in the year 403. 

P. 93. vv. 12422-12426.— Compare Bede, lib. i. c. 12. § 29. 30. ed. Ste- 

P. 94. vv. 12433-12529. — Wace only notices that a meeting was held, 
but does not say where. Vol. i. p. 292. Instead of Fhebus, v. 12461, he 
says, " un sage home i out," and the speech is much amplified in the En- 
glish version. In Geoffrey, lib. vi. c. 2, the speech is given to Guethelinus, 
bishojj of London. 

P. 99. V. 12544. Bruttes bihfden. — According to Bede, the Romans 
finally quitted Britain A.D. 410. See Turner, vol. i. p. 180. 

P. 101. vv. 12590-5. — Not in Wace. It is remarkable that Geoffrey 
in the description of this assault of the wall copies the exact words of 
Bede, lib. i. c. 12. § 31, who borrows them from Gildas, § 19. 

Ibid. V. 12609. — Wace says, " ont envoye as senators," but in Geoffrey 
(as in Bede and Gildas) the Britons are stated to have addressed them- 
selves to Aetius, who was consul with Symmachus, A.D. 446. See Tur- 
ners remarks, loc. cit. 

Pp. 103. 104. vv. 12640-12655. 12662-12697.— Not in Wace; who 
merely says, that Guencelin passed to Armorica by the advice of the as- 
sembled bishops. 

P. 106. vv. 12724-12735.— Not in Wace. 

P. 109. V. 12795. — In the Cotton MS. and several other copies of Wace 
six lines are here added from Geoffrey, intimating that the archbishop 
bestowed his solemn benediction on Constantine. 

Pp. 110. 111. vv. 12815-12822. 12832-12841.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 12842-12879. — All that Wace has on the subject is comprised 

in four lines : 

Ke vus frai jeo lung plait 

Tant unt erre e tant fait, 

La male gent unt vencue, 

Ke laterre aveit confundue. — MS. Coit.f. 62. c. 1. 

P. 113. vv. 12881. Selechcestre. — Geoffrey has Silcestriam. MS. Reg. 
13 D. ii., but Wace Cireceslre, as in the later English text, which is also 

;350 NOTES. 

found in Alfred of Beverley, Higden, and others. Robert of Gloucester reads 

P. 114. V. 12893. of Bruttene. — "Wace on the contrary says, " Ke de 

gentilz Romains fu nee," and so Geoffrey. In Robert of Brunne it is 

oddly translated. 

Wife he toke auenant and gode, 

Sibbe the bisshop of Romeyns h\ode.—_f. 42. c. 1. 

Ibid. vv. 12910-12911. — The similarity of the corresponding lines in 
Robert of Brunne, who wrote near 130 years afterwards, is remarkable. 

The tother sone hight AureHus, 

His to-name was Amhrosius.— ^. 42. c. 1. 

P. 115. V. 12927. iwa;If.— So the best MSS. of Wace, but the printed 
text has deus. Geoffrey reads decern, and with him agree the anonymous 
metrical Brut, MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi., Robert of Brunne, and one of the 
Welsh copies. 

Ibid. vv. 12931-12953. — There is nothing of this in the French text, 
which only says, 

Un traitor, un mal felon, 

Ki longement I'aveit ser\-i, 

Puis Tout, ne sai pur quei, hai.—f. 62. c. 1. 

The name of the traitor is found only in La3amon. 

P. 117. V. 12967. — In one manuscript copy of Wace ai'e two lines attri- 
buting the murder of the king to Vortigern, vol. i. p. 305 ; and Robert of 
Brunne appears to have used a similar copy, for he writes, 

Priuely tlic fame jede, 

Th* Vortiger gart do th' dede. 

Vortiger was of the Walsherie, 

An earle th' lufed tricherie, etc.—f. 42. c. 2. 

P. 118. vv. 12995. Aurelicen Ambrosiam. — Wace only says, " Un des 
dous aveient choisi," and Geoffrey, "alii itaque acclamabant Aurelium 
Ambrosium, alii Uther Pendragoncm, alii ceteros ex generatione propin- 
quos," lib. vi. c. 6. 

Ibid. vv. 13002-13014. — In Wace, Vortigerns speech is in favor of 
making the monk Constant king, and offering to take the sin of such a 
proceeding on himself. The barons consent, although it seemed to them 
a horrible thing to do. 

P. 119. vv. 13021-13024.— Geoffrev calls him "consul Gewisseorum ." 

NOTES. 351 

Wace only says, 

Un fort home, en Gwalcs maneit, 
Riches fii, e quens esteit.— y. G2. c. 2. 
See a previous note, p. 344. 

P. 120. vv. 13043-13062.— Not in Wace. 

P. 121. vv. 13067-13070. 13075-13088.— Not in Wace, who says 
briefly, that Constant swore to all that was required of him. 

P. 122. vv. 13097-13242.— All this is comprised in eight lines of the 
French original, by comparing which, vol. i. p. 307, the curious additions 
of Lajamon will be obvious. There is nothing said in the former of any 
stratagem used to carry off Constanz from the monastery, but simply that 
Vortigern brought him away, put royal garments on him, and conducted 
him to London. The anachronism relative to St. Benedict, v. 13159, who 
lived a century after the time of Vortigern, is to be laid to the charge of 
the English writer. 

P. 129. V. 13243. i pere ilke wike. — Wace and Geoffrey merely say, 
that the archbishop had died previously. 

P. 131. VV. 13319-13328. — In Wace, the enumeration of the enemies 

is much briefer, — 

Ke semble sunt li Daneis, 

E de Norwege les Noreis.— ^/l 62*. c. 2. 

The allusion to Russia at this early period (which does not occur in 
Wace) is of interest. We know from Fitzstephen, that in the reign of 
Henry II. foreign merchants brought furs from Russia to London as arti- 
cles of commerce, so that by the commencement of the 13th centurj% 
when La3amon wrote, some general knowledge of this remote country 
must have been diffused. 

P. 134. V. 13377. tJireo hundred. — In Wace no number is given, but in 
Geoffrey it is said one hundred Picts were invited. 

Pp. 135-142. vv. 13381-13420. 13423-13432. 13453-13464. 13511- 
13516. 13537-13556. 13562-13590.— Not in Wace. 

P. 142. V. 13564. Gille Callcet. — This name is remarkable, supposing 
it to have been gleaned from any tradition. It does not appear in history. 

P. 144. vv. 13593-13718. — This is told in Wace in thirteen lines. The 
Picts present the kings head to Vortigern, and desire him to assume the 
sovereignty. He pretends great grief, assembles the people of London 
[falsely printed Rome'], and causes the traitors to be executed; edit, 
vol. i. p. 313. 

352 NOTES. 

p. 150. vv. 13739-13740.— Not in Wace. 

P. 151. vv. 13777-13784. — No such intention is mentioned in Wace or 

P. 152. V. 13789. inne ]iere Temese. — The Cotton MS. reads, "A 
Sandwiz, un port, ariverent," and so does the MS. du Roi, 73 Cange. 
Geoffrey has only " in partes Caniia," but the Saxon Chronicle and other 
authorities state, that Hengist and Horsa landed at Ebsfleet, in Thanet. 
Compare Gildas, p. 30, Nennius, p. 24, Bede, lib. i. c. 15, and Turners 
Hist, of Anglo Saxons, vol. i. p. 254. 

Ibid. vv. 13793-13800. — Not in Wace, nor is the number of the 
Saxons elsewhere mentioned. Turner seems to think, that in the present 
instance La3amons statement must be near the truth. 

P. 153. vv. 13821-13840. — Wace only says, the king looked at the two 
brothers, who were taller and fairer than the rest, and inquired from what 
land they came. 

P. 154. 155. vv. 13849-13866. 13873-13882.— In Geoffrey, " Saxonica 
^eZ/MS nos edidit, una e Germania regionibus," and in Nennius, "a Germa- 
nia." Wace has, " De Saissoig/ne, dist il, venom." The lines which follow 
in La^amon seem to have been erroneously translated by him, or, at least, 
with not sufficient precision. Wace does not say, that the youth were as- 
sembled at periods of fifteen years, but that all those oi fifteen years of age 
and upwards were collected, and the strongest among them chosen to settle 
elsewhere. See on this subject, Gunns note to Nennius, p. 149. 

P. 156. V. 13889. — In Wace Hengist says, that they have come to 
Britain under guidance of their god Mercury, on hearing which, the king 
inquires respecting their faith ; and so also in Geoffrey. 

P. 157. vv. 13909-13912. — Geoffrey only names Satiirnus, Jupiter, 
Mercurius, and Frea ; to which Wace adds Phebiis. Both notice that 
Mercurius was the same with Woden ; a circumstance that La^amon has 
overlooked. The versification of this passage in the metrical Latin Brut 
composed in the 13th century is curious : 

Respondens Engistus ait, Nos numina celi, 
Cum Jove Junonem colimus, emu Pallade Martem, 
Saturnumque seuem, satiros, fanesque {sic) laresque, 
Innumerosque alios ; prcponiuius oniuibus illis 
Mercuriiim.—MS. Cott. Jul. 1). xi./. 30'. 

The additional names in the English version of AppoUin and Tervagant 
were in all probability borrowed from the Anglo-Norman writers of the 
r2t]i centurv. See the Chanson de Roland, edited by M. Michel, 8vo, Par. 

NOTES. 353 

1S37. In the Roman de Lancelot, written by Walter Map in the 12th 
century, a Saracen is made to say to Joseph of Ariinathsea, " Nous ne avons 
que quatre dieux, Mahom, Tcrvagant, Apolin, et Jupin," vol. ii. f. xlvi. ed. 
1533. See a previous note, p. 326. 

P. 158. vv. 13929-13930. 13933-13936.— Not in Wace.— See Turner, 
Hist. Anglo-Sax., vol. i. p. 216. 

P. 159. vv. 13961-13966.— Not in Wace. 

P. 160. vv. 13971-14016. — The first portion of this passage is com- 
prised by Wace in two lines : 

Sempres fu la curt respleine 

De mut gent bachelerie. — MS. Cott.f. 64\ c. 1. 

He then proceeds to state, that the Picts soon after passed the H umber 
with a great force, and burnt and destroyed the country. The king was 
informed of it, and marches against them with the Saxons and Britons. 
VoL i. p. 322. 

P. 163. vv. 14039-14048. 14051-14060.— Not in Wace. With regard 
to the territory bestowed on Hengist, Nennius says it was the Isle ofThanet, 
p. 24. ed. Stevenson, but Geoffrey writes, "in Lindeseia regione," in Lin- 
colnshire, MS. Reg. 13 D. ii. 

Pp. 166-169. vv. 14105-14124. 14143-14146. 14189-14194.— Not in 

P. 170. vv. 14201-14230. — Wace has only four lines on the subject. 

P. 171. vv. 14241-14246.— These lines are curious, if they can be de- 
pended on. In the Cotton MS. of Wace they do not occur, but in the printed 
text, vol. i. p. 327, are some lines which seem to countenance the statement : 

Premieremetit ot nom Wancastre \^Thuancastre], 
Or I'apelent pluisor Lancastre. 

The site is placed by Camden at Caster, six miles from Great Grimsby, 

in Lincolnshire, vol. i. p. 431 ; but others, with more probability, place it 

at Tong, near Milton, in Kent. See Lambards Perambulalion of Kent, 4to. 

1596. p. 243, and Hasteds Hist, of Kent, vol. ii. p. 601. 

P. 172. vv. 14249-14254. — Geoffrey and Wace only say, that eighteen 
ships arrived, filled with men. In Nennius the number is stated to be six- 
teen or seventeen, as the MSS. vary, p. 28. ed. Stev. 

P. 173. vv. 14279-14282.— Not in Wace. 

P. 174. V. 14317. — The name of the interpreter is not given in Geoffrey, 
but Wace borrowed it from the text of Nennius, p. 28. In some copies 
of the French text are added the following lines : 

VOL. III. 2 A 

354 NOTES. 

Brez ert, et bons latinicrs ; 

Co fu li primers des Bretuns, 

Ki solt le language as Saissons. — MS. Coit.f. G5\ c. 1. 

Robert of Brunne has mistaken Brez for a proper name, and renders the 


A knight ther langage lerid in jouthe ; 
Eljrez hight th' knight, born Bretoun, 
Th' lerid the langage of Sessoun, etc.—/. 45*. c. 1. 

P. 175. vv. 14339-14342.— Not in Wace. 

P. 176. vv. 14353-14356. — Compare the corresponding lines in Robert 
of Gloucester, vol. i. p. 1 18. In addition to the notes of Selden on Dray- 
tons Poly-olbion, p. 153, and of M. Le Roux de Lincy on the printed text 
of Wace, vol. i. p. 331, see Gaimar, MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi. f. 134. c. 1; an 
article in the Foreign Quarterly Review [by Thomas Wright] , No. 32, Jan. 
1836, p. 391 ; another in the Athenaum, for December, 1836; Bosworths 
Preface to his Anglo-Saxon Dictionary, p. liv. ; and a note of M. Michel, 
in his Rappoi't to the Minister of Public Instruction, p. 61. 4to. Paris, 1839. 

P. 178. vv. 14393-6. — Not a word about London occurs in Nennius, 
Geoffrey or Wace ; and with regard to Kent, they state it was previously 
made the condition of Rowenas nuptials. 

P. 179. vv. 14413-14422. — Wace only says, the kings sons hated and 
abandoned him, on account of the Pagans. Their mother was then dead. 

Ibid. vv. 14423 — 14443. — These lines are not in Wace, in whose text at 
this place there seems to be some defect, from the abrupt introduction of the 
speech of Hengist. In one of the MSS. the scribe has endeavoured to remedy 
the hiatus, but very awkwardly. See the printed edition, vol. i. jd. 334. 

P. 181. v. 14469. ived-bro^er. — Nennius writes, " filium meum, cum 

fratrueli suo," p. 29, and Geoffrey, "filium meum Octam, cum fratre suo 

Ebissa." Wace in the first instance calls Ebissa cousin of Hengist, and 

afterwards nephew. In the Saxon Chronicle, a°. 656, the term wed-brother 

signifies a brother by baptism, pledged at the font together. 

Ibid. V. 14472. worS ende. — Wace has " vers Escoce," and Geoffrey 
" juxta murum inter Deiram et Scotiam ;" which he borrows from Nennius. 

Pp. 181. 182. vv. 14480-14483. 14490-14501.— Not in Wace. 

Pp. 183. vv. 14508-14527. — Geoffrey and Wace also fix the number 

of ships at 300, but do not give the number of the adventurers, except in 

general terms. In Nennius, p. 29, the number of ships is reduced to 

forty. Geoffrey adds, that Cerdic came with Octa and Ebissa, Ub. vi. 

c. 13. Comj)are the Saxon Chronicle, a". 495. 

NOTES. 355 

P. 185. vv. 14568-14591. — Not in Wace, and the rest of the speech is 
comprised in a brief narrative of six lines. The kings reply is given in 
two lines, simply to the etFect that he would not give up his mercenaries, 
since they had served him well. The lines which follow in Lajamon, 
14608-14625, are entirely due to his own invention. 

P. 188. vv. 14628-14637.— Not in Wace. 

P. 189. vv. 14650-14749. — Lajamon has here greatly dilated his ori- 
ginal, and, by an error, has confounded together the first two conflicts be- 
tween the Britons and Saxons. Wace states, that Vortimer conquered 
the Saxons four times : first on the river Derwent ; secondly, near Epiford, 
at a ferry ; thirdly, on the sea-coast ; and lastly, in the Isle of Tkanet. It 
is certain, however, that he was ignorant of the localities, for he speaks of 
the Saxons flying from beyond the Humber to Kent. The order of the 
battles is the same in Geoffrey, and in the text of Nennius, as printed by 
Gale, but in the emended edition by Stevenson, p. 35, the first conflict is 
assigned to the Isle of Thanet ; the second, on the Derwent, conjectured 
to be the Darent, in Kent, and the same with the battle of Crayford, 
placed in the Saxon Chronicle under the year 457 ; the thiy-d, at Episford, 
supposed to be near Aylesford, on the Medway, in Kent, assigned by the 
Saxon Chronicle to A.D. 455 ; and the fourth, at a place called Lapis Ti- 
tuU, opposite the French coast, which is conjectured to be Stonar, in the 
Isle of Thanet, or Folkestone, in Kent. See the notes of Gunn and Ste- 
venson, and Turners Anglo-Saxons, vol. i. p. 262. ed. 1836. In the later 
Chroniclers these names are much corrupted„ 

P. 191. V. 14711. — Bede says, lib. i. c. 15, that the monument of Horsa 
still existed in his time, in the eastern part of Kent, the site of which is 
supposed to he Horsted. See Hasteds Kent, vol. ii. p. 177, a,ndArchaolo- 
gia, vol. ii. p. 107. 

P. 193. vv. 14748-14771. — Wace tells us briefly, that the Saxons sent 
to Vortigern, praying him to intercede with Vortimer, that they might de- 
part out of the land in peace. 

P. 194. vv. 14792-14797.— Not in Wace. 

P. 195. vv. 14806-14815. — With regard to this mission of Germanus, 
bishop of Auxerre, and Lupus, bishop of Troyes, who were sent by the 
Gallic Synod (some say by pope Celestino,) to combat the Pelagian heresy 
in Britain, A.D. 429, a gross anachronism has been committed. Germa- 
nus came over a second time in 447, and died the following year. It is 
therefore probable, that to this second arrival the narrative of Nennius 
must refer, p. 24, although even then it is impossible to reconcile the date 

2 A 2 

356 NOTES. 

with the fables told of the Saints Intercourse with Vortigern. Geoffrey has 
borrowed from Nennius (to whom he refers under the name of Gildas), but 
by associating Lupus with Germanus, he confounds the Jirst arrival of the 
bishop of Auxerre with the second, lib. vi. c. 13. Then comes Wace, who 
increases the difficulties, by placing the mission of these bishops in the time 
of Vortimer [A.D. 464-468], and by way of heaping absurdity on absur- 
dity, names the pope who sent them Romanus, whereas the only pope of 
that name who appears on the list, usurped the See from Sept. 897 to Feb. 
898 ! La^amon, of course, copies these errors, and invents some additional 
circumstances. See on this subject Bede, lib. i. c. 17, Usher, pp. 204- 
206, and Lingards Antiquities of the Anglo-Saxon Church, vol. i. p. 6. 8vo. 
1806. The name of the bishop of Troyes is given correctly in Geoffrey, 
Lupus, which in Wace takes the form of Lous or Leous, and thence the 
Leois of Lajamon, and Loys of Robert of Brunne. 

Pp. 195. 198. TO. 14816-14879. 14884-14891.— Not in Wace. 

P. 199. vv. 14902-15027. — Instead of this long and curious detail, Wace 
has only two lines, 

Rowen, cuni mal marastre, 

Fist enveniraer son filastre. — MS. Cott.f. 66*. c. 1. 

Nennius is wholly silent as to the cause of Vortimers death, and Geoffrey 
says, that Rowena, " ascitis universis veneficiis, dedit illi per quendam fa- 
miliarem suum \chamherUnn, MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi. f. 67*. c, 1.] venenmn 
potare, quern innumerabilibus donariis corrumperat," lib. vi. c. 14. It is 
difficult to conceive that La3amon should here have departed so much from 
his original, unless he borrowed from some popultir tradition of the trea- 
chery practised. 

P. 206. V. 15057. an chxsten. — Geoffrey writes, "jussit sibi pyrami- 
dem fieri tcream ;" a circumstance omitted by Wace. The locality indi- 
cated in vv. 15070-1, is an addition by La^amon. 

P. 207. V. 15089. an hundred ridceren. — "petit de gent," Wace; "cum 
paucis," Geoffrey. 

P. 208. vv. 15102-15105. — In Geoffrey and Wace the number of ships 
is not given, but the forces are stated to amount to 30,000. The Welsh 
version ascribed to Tysilio (if any dependence can be placed en the printed 
text) estimates the ships at sixty sail, and the author of the anonymous 
Anglo-Norman Brut says, 

Nefs amenat plus que treis cent.—f. 68. c. 1. 
The place of landing occurs only in La^amon. 

P. 209. vv. 15136-15159.— In Wace only two lines;— that the Britons 

NOi'KS. ,'357 

should retain such a number of men as they chose, and the rest should go 

P. 210. vv. 15168-15183.— Not mWace. 

P. 211. V. 15184. eenne isetne dcei. — According both to "Wace and Geof- 
frey, the meeting was fixed to take place on the calends of May. 

Ibid. vv. 15190-1. — These two lines are an addition by Lajamon, and 
in all probability the allusion is to Allington, about four miles from Am- 
bresbury, the ancient name of which was Ellen-dune (Sax. Chron. a°. 823.), 
" that is," says Gibson, out of Brian Twynes Collections, " Ellenge doune, 
or a place naked, desolate or wild." See Camdens Britannia, vol. i. p. 200. 
Others refer the name of Ellendune to Wilton. In either case Lajamon 
is mistaken as to the site of Stonehenge. 

P. 212. vv. 15192-15209. — In Wace thus: — the king required that 
Hengist should come accompanied by only a few followers, which he 
granted, and asked in return, that no arms should be borne, for fear of an 
affray. Vol. i. p. 344. 

P. 213. vv. 15220-15247. — Not in Wace, except as above cited. 

P. 215. V. 15270. feouwer hundred and fife. — The number of the slain 
is stated in Wace and Geoffrey to amount to 4 GO ; but in Alfred of Bever- 
ley, in the anonymous Anglo-Norman Brut, in Robert of Brunne, and in 
the Welsh copies, the number is 3G0. Nennius reduces the number to 
300. In the printed edition of Geoffrey, 1587, is an interpolation by a 
later hand (borrowed from lib. viii. c. 9.), that the bodies of ihe slain were 
buried by St. Eldad in the cemetery of the convent of Ambresbury, not 
far from Kaercaradauc or Salisbury, lib. vi. c. 15. 

P. 216. vv. 15290-15293. 15298-15301.— The details here given are 
due to the invention of Lajamon. Geoffrey only says, that Eldol seized a 
stake (palutn), which he found by chance, and Wace expressly writes. 

Tint un grand /le/ en sun poin destre ; 

A sez pez Tout gisant trove, 

Ne sai ki la Void aporte. — MS. Cott.f. 67*. c. 1. 

Ibid. V. 15306. ]weo and fifti. — In Wace and Geoffrey the number is 
seventy ; in Robert of Brunne " seventi and ten." 

P. 217. vv. 15312— 15321.— Not in Wace. 

P. 218. vv. 15350-15382. — Most of the circumstances here related 

appear to be due to the imagination of the English writer ; at all events, 

they are not to be found elsewhere. Wace tells us, that Vortigern granted 

"the Saxons the provinces of Sussex, Essex, and Middlesex, in fee, which 

358 NOTES. 

corresponds with the text of Nennius, as edited by Gunn, But it is sin- 
gular that Wace here should differ from the Latin of Geoffrey, which he 
usually copies closely, and in which it is stated, that pursuant to the com- 
pact with Vortigern, the Saxons took possession of the cities of London, 
York, Lincoln, and Winchester, and slaughtered the people like sheep. 
See the judicious remarks of Turner on these exaggerated statements, in 
his Anglo-Saxons, vol. i. p. 264. The truth appears to be, that Hengist 
never extended his conquests beyond the boundaries of Kent. 

P. 220. vv. 15389-15391. 15394-5.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 15400-15471. — The corresponding lines to these in the French 
text, vol. i. p. 349, merely state, that Vortigern assembled his sortiss^ors, 
and sought from them counsel how to defend himself. They advise him 
to build a tower, so strong as to be impregnable. He then chose a spot 
whereon to build it, and fixed on the hill of Reir for that purpose. To 
prosecute the work the best masons are employed. Vol. i. p. 354. Geof- 
frey tells the story in nearly the same terms, which he appears to have 
borrowed from Nennius, p. 31. The hill of Reir, Rir, Erir or Heriri, is 
believed to be Snowdon in Caernarvonshire, on which still remain the 
traces of a building, called by popular tradition Dinas Emris, i. e. the fort- 
ress of Ambrosius. See Gunns Notes, p. 164. 

P. 224. vv. 15478-9. 15488-15493.— Not in Wace. 

P. 225. vv. 15506-15509. 15512-15519.— These lines are not in the 
French original, nor is the name of Joram there mentioned. The re])ly 
relative to the child is given as proceeding from the whole body of sor- 
cerers, and not from their chief, as in Lajamon. 

P. 227. V. 15551. — Nennius fixes the spot where Merlin was found at 
a place called Campus Ellecti, which is supposed by Roberts, with some 
probability, to be the village called in Welsh Bassaleg, in Monmouthshire. 
See Cambrian Popular Antiquities, 8vo. 1815. p. 58, and Stevensons Notes 
on Nennius, p. 31. 

P. 229. vv. 15596-15657. — In Wace this passage is given thus: The 
messengers of the king, hearing these words, inquired of the neighbours 
concerning Merlin, and are told that his mother, daughter of the king of 
Dcmetia, a part of Wales, was a nun in the town, and that she knew not 
by whom her son had been begotten. They then go to the provost (whose 
name is not mentioned), and order him to send the boy and his mother to 
the king, which is done. — With this narrative Geoffrey agrees, but adds, 
that Merlins mother was a nun " in ccclesia Sancti Petri." 

P. 232. vv. 15662-15665.— Not in Wace. 

NOTES. 3.) 9 

P. 232. vv. 15GG8-15681. — In the French text there is no question put 
to the hidy resjiecting her parentage, nor does the name of Conaan, as her 
father, occur elsewhere. Nennius causes Merlin to say, that he is the son 
of a Rornaii consul, which can scarcely be reconciled with Geoffreys story. 
In the French Roman de Merlin, composed in prose by Walter Map before 
the close of the 12th century, his mother is represented as the daughter 
" d'ung preudhomme moult riche," f. ii. ed. 4to. 1498. 

P. 233. vv. 15696-15705.— Not in Wace. 

P. 234. vv. 15710-15711. 15714-15715.— Wace is not so circumstan- 
tial, but only says, as rendered by Robert of Brunne, 

Bot th^ thing am I wele ograunt, 

Th* I was of elde auenaunt ; 

One com to my bed I wist, 

W* force he me halsed & kist ; 

Als a man I him felte, 

& als a man he me welte.— /. 48. c. 2. 
The Latin text of Geoffrey, " quidam in sitecie pulcherrimijuvenis," comes 
nearer to Lajamons version. See also Robert of Gloucester, vol. i, p. 129. 

P. 235. vv. 15742-15771. — This is expressed in Wace by four lines, 
merely signifying, that the king caused Magant, a wise clerk, to be sum- 
moned, and inquired if what the nun had stated could be true. Then 
follows the account of the incubi, for which circumstance Geoffrey quotes 
the authority of Apuleius de Deo Socratis, but this is omitted by the French 
translator. The lines 15776-7. 15786-7. 15790-1. are added by the En- 
glish paraphrast, and were probably gleaned from the popular belief. Robert 
of Brunne renders the passage very closely, with the exception of the fol- 
lowing lines, 

Thise spirites do women schame ; 

Incubi demones is called ther name. 

Fendes in bedde, so thei sayn 

Th^ many women hafforlayn. — -f. 48. c. 2. 

Compare Robert of Gloucester, vol. i. p. 130, who has elvene instead of incubi. 
The curious passage in Geoffreys metrical Vita Merlini, p. 31. edit. 1837, 
should be consulted on this branch of popular fiction, and in the legend of 
St. Margaret, composed probably about the year 1200, a fiend speaks thus : 
" ye liuieS bi ]'e lufte . aire mestendel . edie meiden . ant hure peies beo'5 
abuuen pi6 J)e pindes . & beo6 apakere to purchen al ■]!) pa . 1) pe eauer ma- 
hen moncun . & meast riht rihtpise men ant meidenes as jra art." MS. Reg. 
17 A. xxvii. f. 50*. 

P. 238. vv. 15814-15821.— Not in Wace. 

P. 240. vv. 15854-15857. 15864-15875.— Not in Wace, nor does he 
mention the number of Jorams companions. 

360 NOTES. 

P. 241. V. 15890. Joram. — Here and subsequently, instead of Joram 
singly, the whole body of diviners are spoken of by Wace, Geoffrey and 

Ibid. vv. 15896-15959. — Lajamon seems in this passage to have been 
led into error by misunderstanding the French text, which reads, 

De suz ta tur, el fundement, 

Ad un esianc grant e parfunt. — MS. Cott.f. 69. c. 1. 

This " xoater j)ol," as Robert of Gloucester renders it, being emptied, the 
two dragons are found at the bottom, sleeping in two hollow stones. This 
account is perfectly similar to that given by Geoffrey, and differs in some 
particulars from the earlier narrative of Nennius, p. 32. See Gunns note 
in his edition, p. 166. La^amons narrative is here much amplified. Com- 
pare Wace, vol. i. p. 359. 

P. 244. V. 15960. — Here commences the seventh book of Geoffrey, 
which is prefaced by a short introduction, and a prologue addressed to 
Alexander, bishop of Lincoln. 

P. 245. vv. 15970-16003. — Not in Wace, who mentions the combat of 
the dragons in general terms, and does not state the issue of it. In Geof- 
frey, the white dragon at first prevails, but is at length compelled to re- 
treat ; and in Robert of Brunne, the white kills the red, and dies itself, 
" for wo," the fourth day after; f. 49. 

P. 246. vv. 16004-16039. — La^amon here departs wholly from his French 
original, in which the king inquires only what the dragons signify. In re- 
ply to this question Geoffrey inserts the long series of prophecies which 
occupy the remainder of his seventh book, but Wace dismisses them with 
the following brief notice : _ 

Dune deist Merlin les prophecies 

Ke vus, CO crei, oi avez 

Des reis ki avenir esteient, 

Ki la tere tenir deveient. 

Ne voil sun livre translater, 

Quant jo n'el sal enterpreter. — MS. Cott.f. G9. c. 2. 

The khig then asks respecting his death, etc. In Robert of Brunne the 
corresi)onding passage is as follows : 

Merlyn said than many thinges 
What in th'' lond suld tide of kynges, 
Th' in Blase boke is writen ; 
Tho th' it haf, thei it witeii ; 
& ill Tholomer, & ser Auntayn : 
Tliise had Merlyn bokes playn. 

NOTES. 3()l 

Thise thre wrote his i)ro])liecies, 

& were maistres at sere parties. 

Som haf tham mykille in hande, 

Th* can not tham understande. 

I say for me, I haf no witte, 

To open the knottis that Merlyn knytte. 

Non may say more than he has said, 

Ne nouht therto may be \—AIS. Cott.f. 49. c. 2. 
The allusions here are to the French prose Prophecies de Merlin, in which 
BJaise, Tholomer and Anthoine play a conspicuous part. They form the 
third volume of the printed Roman de Merlin, 1498. See also " Galfridi 
de Monemuta Vita Merlini," p. Ixv. 8vo. Par. 1837. 

P. 248. V. 16040.— Here begins the eighth book of Geoffrey. 

Pp. 249-251. vv. 16069. 16128-16131.— Not in Wace. 

P. 252. V. 16135. vnimete ferde. — The number of their forces is not 
given by Wace, but Geoffrey says it amounted to 10,000. 

P. 253. vv. 16168-16172. — Nennius relates that Vortigem retreated to 
a castle bearing his own name, in North Wales, near the river Tivy, but 
Geoffrey calls the castle Genoreu, and places it in the district of Erging, 
on the Wye, lib. viii. c. 2. Camden would locate this Caer Guortigern in 
Radnorshire, vol. ii. p. 2, but there can be no doubt that the spot intended 
is Gennarew, in the hundred of Wormelow, Herefordshire, three miles from 
Monmouth. It is also, in my belief, certain, that the Cloarcius of Geoffrey 
the Clouart of Wace, and Cloard of La3amon, are all intended, although 
disguised by a blunder of the first transcriber, who changed d into ci or cl, 
— an easy transmutation, — for mount Doward, situated in the same hun- 
dred, and not far from Gennarew. There existed on this hill in the last cen- 
tury the marks of ancient fortifications, and the bones of a gigantic person 
(which a sanguine Welsh antiquary might take to be those of Vortigern) 
were found in a vaulted structure. See Gibsons Additions to Camden, 
vol. ii. p. 494. 

P. 256. V. 16231. — In the ancient legend of St. Germanus, quoted by 
Nennius, the death of Vortigern is attributed to the prayers of the Saint, 
p. 38. ed. Stev. In this and other circumstances of the history of Vorti- 
gern, it is impossible not to be struck with the similarity of the incidents 
to those related of Gerontius, a British officer attached to Constantine ; 
and Sharon Turner has conjectured, with great probability, that Geoffrey 
may have confounded Gerontius, who died in Spain, with Vortigern in 
England. See Hist, of the Anglo-Saxons, vol. i. p. 178. note '■'-. 

Ibid. vv. 1 6234-1 6239. — InWace the mention of Aldolf occurs previously. 

362 NOTES. 

and it is stated that he joined Aurelius, previous to tlie destruction of Vor- 
tigern. See vol. i. p. 365, and compare Geoffrey, lib. viii. c. 2. Neither 
has any notice of his being made " steward." Shortly after, Geoffrey in- 
serts a laboured panegyric on Aurelius, which is omitted by Wace. 

P. 257. vv. 16272-16288. — In Wace this is expressed in two lines : 

A tuz pramist restoreraent, 

Si il repeirout seinement. — MS. Cott.f. 70. c. 2. 

P. 260. vv. 16331-16346.— Not in Wace. 

P. 261. vv. 16355-16366.— Wace only says, he chose 3000 of the 
forces he had brought from Armorica, to act as cavalry. Of the Britons 
he made two companies, one division of whom [the men of North Wales, 
according to Geoffrey] was stationed on the hills, the other [the men of 
South Wales] was sent to guard the wood. The mention of Scots by La- 
^amon seems to be an error, for Wace had previously stated that they had 
taken the part of Hengist. 

P. 264. vv. 16425-16428.— In Wace only, 

Paiens lur fals deu8 apelouent.— /. 71. c. 1. 

Ibid. V. 16434. Kunigges-burh. — Conisburgh, on the river Don, in the 
West Riding of Yorkshire. See a previous note, p. 346. The remains of 
a castle still exist, to which Hengist is said to have retired, and Gibson, in 
his Additions to Camden, states, that an agger used to be pointed out as 
the burial-place of the Saxon. Britannia, vol. ii. jjp. 75. 82. 215. 

P. 265. VV. 16447-16460.— Not in Wace. 

P. 266. V. 16474 — These were the 3000 Armorican horse, as previously 
stated by Wace and Geoffrey. 

P. 267. vv. 16493-16500. 16509-16512.— These details of the com- 
bat are not in Wace. It is observable, that Lajamon has rendered " nasal" 
{nasale cassidis, Geoffrey), by " burne hode." 

P. 268. vv. 16525-16562. — In Wace this is told very differently and 
briefly, " Knights," said Eldolf, " God be praised, I have accomplished 
my desire ! We have vanquished the man who has done us so much in- 
jury. Kill this rabid dog, who had no pity upon us. This man was the 
chief of the war," etc. Hengist is then put in chains and delivered to the 
king. Vol. i. p. 374. 

P. 270. V. 16573. Eomierwic. — So also in Wace; but Geoffrey states, 
that Octa fled to York and Eosa to Alcluid (Dunbarton). 

P. 272. V. 16612. an hali biscop. — Geoffrey tells us he was bishop of 
Gloucester, and he is recognised as such by the Welsh biographers. His 


speech is very much amplified in La3amon from the text of Wace, vol. i. 
p. 376. 

P. 276. V. 16722. after he^ene la]en. — So also Wace ; hut in Geoffrey 
more circumstantially, " jussit eum sepeliri, et cumulum terra super corpus 
ejus, pagano more, opponi," lib. viii. c. 7. See my note on Wartons Hist. 
Engl. Poetry, Diss. i. p. xi. edit. 1840. 

P. 277. vv. 16733-16736. 16743-16768.— Not in Wace, who simply 
states, that Octa resolved to sue for mercy, and, with the consent of his 
relatives, issue from the city, to carry this into effect. Lajamons ideas of 
the humiliation of the Saxons seem to have proceeded much further than 
those of his original author. 

P. 279. vv. 16780-16800.— Wace merely has, 
Trestut li deu nus unt failli, 
U nus solum aver fiance ; 
Tis deus est de greiniu- puissance.— il/S'. Cott.f. 72. c. 1. 

and does not add a word as to the offer of the Saxons to embrace the Chris- 
tian faith. On the deities named, see a previous note, p. 352. In addition, 
we have here Didon and Mamilon, two personages who do not seem to have 
figured elsewhere in the mythological cycle of the north. 

P. 280. vv. 16819-16826.— Not in Wace; nor is the condition after- 
wards expressed in vv. 16839-16844, at all mentioned by him. 

P. 282. vv. 16851-16854. 16859-16884.- Not in Wace, who, instead 
of the latter part of the bishops speech, has mention of the mercy shown 
by the Jews to the conquered Gabaonites, vol. i. p. 380. 

P. 283. V. 16887. \reo and fifti. — The number of hostages is not given 
in the French text, nor the quantity of land bestowed. Geoffrey has "re- 
gionem juxta Scotiani," which the author of the Anglo-Norman Brut, in 
MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi., renders, 

Catenes lur ad le rei bailie 

U il se sunt tuz lierberge.— ;/". 71*. c. 2. 

P. 284. tv. 16909-16942. — There is no speech in Wace, who states, in 
general terms, that the king restored to his people their lands and rights, 
commanded the monasteries to be rebuilt which had been destroyed, and 
appointed sheriffs and officers to receive his rents. Vol. i. p. 381. 

P. 287. vv. 16975-17113. — This is all comprised in Wace in eighteen 
lines, vol. i. p. 383. With regard to the spot where Merlin was found, 
V. 17024, Geoffrey writes, " invenerunt eum in natione Gewisseorum, ad 
fontem Galabes, quern solitus fuit frequentare," lib. viii. c. 10. Waces 
text reads, 

364 NOTES. 

A Lahanes, une fonteine, 

Ki en Guales ert, bien loingtaine, 

Ne sai u, kar unc nefui. — MS. Cott.f. 72*. c. 2. 

In the Welsh version of Geoffrey, ascribed to Tysilio, the well is placed in 
Ewias, and by the Wynnstay MS. in Lower Giient. Roberts notes, that 
Ewias is the name of a common in the hundred of Gwent-uch-coed, or Gwent 
above the vi'ood, i. e. Upper Guent, near which is Clydach, which he wishes 
to identify with Galabes, p. 127. 

P. 295. vv. 17156-17171.— Not in Wace. 

P. 297. vv. 17214-17239.— Not in Wace, who has instead four lines, 
which state, that the stones had been carried by giants from Africa into 
Ireland. After this follows the passage relative to their medicinal virtue, 
which occurs in La3amon higher up. Wace adds also, that the Britons 
were chiefly induced to bring over the stones, by this representation of 
their wonderful properties. Vol. i. p. 387. 

P. 299. vv. 17268-17291.— Not in Wace. 

P. 301. vv. 17314. 17316-17333.— The oath is supplied by La^amon, 
as is also the threat to invade and conquer Britain. 

P. 303. vv. 17352-17365.— Not in Wace. 

P. 304. V. 17374. to ]mn hidle. — "ad Killaraum montem," Geoffrey, 
lib. viii. c. 12. The MSS. of Wace read Kilomar or Killeinar, and the 
anonymous Anglo-Norman Brut, in MS. Reg., Gillarami. Giraldus Cam- 
brensis writes with more precision, " in Kyldarensi planitie, non procul a 
castro Nasensi (Naas)." Top. Hibern. dist. ii. c. 18. See Ushers Antlqtii- 
tates, p. 242. Camden and Roberts assign the locality to Killair, in the 
county of Meath, but more recently the Rev. W. D. Conybeare, in a very 
ingenious geological argument, drawn from the substance of the inner 
circle of stones at Stonehenge, would refer them back to Kildare. See the 
Gentlernans Magazine for November, 1833. p. 454. 

Ibid. VV. 17384-17387. — Not in Wace, who, instead of the speech which 
follows from Merlin, merely causes him to ask, in four lines, if they have 
force enough to remove the stones, vol. i. p. 389. 

P. 305. VV. 17412-17435. — Wace comprehends this passage in eight 
lines. Compare Geoffrey, lib. viii. c. 12. 

Pp. 308. 309. vv. 17460-17473. 17488-17493.— Not in Wace. 

P. 309. vv. 17496-7. — Instead of these two lines, the French text here 
makes mention of the erection of the stones by Merlin, and adds four lines 
on the name of Stonehenge, which are omitted by Lajamon. Vol. i. p. 391. 


In Geoffrey, the erection of the monument takes place after the arrival of 
the king, and by his order. Those who wish to see how the same event 
is related in the Roman de Merlin, may consult vol. i. f. xlviii. edit. 1498. 
Robert of Brunnes version of this story is printed by Hearne in the Ap- 
pendix to his Preface to "Peter Langtofts Chronicle," p. clxxxviii. He 
has twice printed erroneously quirisoun for coniurisoun, not understanding 
the contraction used in the MS. 

P. 310. V. 17513. Passent. — He is mentioned in Nennius, who says of 
him, " qui regnavit in duabus regionibus, Buelt et Guorthigirniaun, post 
mortem patris sui, largiente Ambrosio illi, qui fuit rex inter omnes reges 
Brittanica; gentis." p. 39. ed. Stev. 

Ibid. V. 17523. fif hundred monnen. — Wace does not mention the num- 
ber of Pascents companions on his arrival in Germany ; and instead of the 
" muchel vole" collected there, says, " Mes n'ont mie grant compaignie." 
Geoffrey, however, agrees here with La3amon, lib. viii. c. 13. 

P. 311. vv. 17540-17563. — In Wace this occupies only two lines, in 
general terms, vol. ii. p. 2. 

P. 313. vv. 17579. 17583.— St. Davids in Pembrokeshire. See Cam- 
den, vol. ii. p. 33. 

Ibid. vv. 1 7588-1 7G03. — Instead of this speech Wace briefly states, that 
the king Ambrosius lay ill at Winchester. 

P. 315. vv. 17622-17627. 17632-3. 17640-17645.— Not in Wace. 

P. 316. V. 17653. an hundrad pund. — In the French text Pascent agrees 
to give £1000. 

Ibid. V. 17661. — Wace has here six additional lines, in which it is men- 
tioned, that Appas was well skilled in medicine, and could sjjcak many 
languages, but that he was faithless and treacherous, vol. ii. p. 4. In 
Geoffrey he is named Eopn. 

Ibid. V. 17664. tweicn iueren. — No companions are mentioned in the 

P. 317. vv. 17669-17717. — Instead of this long narrative it is simply 
stated by Wace, in six lines, that Appas went to the Court as a physician, 
spoke to the king, and promised to cure him in a short time, if the king 
would place himself in his hands, vol. ii. p. 5. 

P. 319. vv. 17724-17843. — The entire story is amplified with much 
art from the brief account in Wace, which barely occupies a page. The 
poisonous qualities ascribed by Lajamon to scawony, do not, in reality, 
belong to it, and the statement must have arisen from an ignorance of its 

366 NOTES. 

real nature, since, as it was supplied to Europe from the East, In all pro- 
bability it could have been but little known, even to physicians, at that 
early period. Cancl (cinnamon) and gingiver (ginger) are often mentioned 
in the English poetry of the 13th and 14th centuries. 

P. 324. vv. 17849-17859. — There is only one line in the French ori- 
ginal which corresponds to these : 

A Meneve out Yreis trovez. — MS. Cott.f. 74*. c. 1. 
The next four hnes are inserted by La3amon, with the intention probabl)'^ 
of rendering the appearance of the comet more marvellous. Roberts sup- 
poses, p. 131, that the comet of A.D. 504, noticed in the list ajipended to 
Sir Edward Sherburnes edition of ManiUus, fol. Lond. 1675, and which is 
reported to have been " crowned with a dragon," may be the one here al- 
luded to. 

P. 327. vv. 17906-17913. — Tliis is a curious instance of paraphrastic 

translation. The French text reads, 

E Merlin mult se contrubla 

Dol out al quor, mot ne suna.— ;/. 74*. c. 2. 

P. 328. vv. 17929-17935. — Not in Wace, who afterwards interposes 
tlu-ee lines, on the grief of Uther at his brothers death. 

P. 330. V. 17980. a dohter.—W&ce adds, 

Ki vers Escoce ert mariee. — -f. 75. c. 1. 
It does not clearly appear who is intended here. The only daughter of 
Uther mentioned by Geoffrey and his followers, is Anna, who was married 
to Loth, king of Lothian (see Lajamon, vol. ii. p. 385.), and the romance 
writers do not even acknowledge her to be Uthers daughter, but the daugh- 
ter of Ygerne by Gorlois, or by Howel. The Welsh writers state, that this 
Anna was the wife of Amwn Ddu, king of Graweg in Llydaw, by whom she 
had Saint Samson. Owens Cambrian Biography, pp. 7. 10. 

Ibid. V. 17997. — In Wace, Uther causes his forces to rest during the 
night, and arm in the morning to assault the city, vol. ii. p. 8. 

P. 331. vv. 18005-18021.— Not in Wace. 

P. 332. vv. 18022-18121. — This long passage is comprised in fifteen 
lines of the French text, vol. ii. p. S, and the amusing details of Lajamon, 
as well as the dramatic structure of the narrative, are entirely wanting. 
Wace merely states, that the Irish armed themselves, and came out to 
battle ; they fought fiercely, but were quickly conquered. Their king and 
Pascent were slain (he docs not state by whom), and those who remained 
alive fled to the sea, and escaped in their ships. The naked and unprotected 
state of the Irish is elsewhere more than once alluded to, (see La^amon, 
vol. ii. pp. 303. 515. etc.,) and is fully corroborated by the testimony of 


contemporary writers. Giraldus Carabrcnsis, writing from his own per- 
sonal observation, says, " Nudi et inermes ad bella procedunt ; habcnt 
enim arraa pro onere, inermes vero dimicare pro audacia reputant et ho- 
nore." Top. Hibern. dist. iii. c. 10. A passage also in Graftons Chronicle, 
vol, ii. p. 168. ed. 1807. (copied by Hall), deserves notice, from its close cor- 
respondence with the text of La^amon. Speaking of the battle of Stoke in 
the reign of Henry the Seventh, he states, " Of the other side the Irishe 
men, although they fought hardily, and stucke to it valiantly, yet because 
they were, after the maner of theyr countrie, almost naked, loithout harnesse 
or armure, they were striken downe and slain like dull and brute beastes." 
To a comparatively recent period they went with the legs and feet bare, 
as appears from many authorities. See Planches History of Costume, j)]). 
360-370. It would appear also from the passage in Lajamon, p. 332, 
that although they may have worn the truis or breeches (as in an illumi- 
nated copy of Giraldus, in the possession of Sir Thomas Phillipps, Bart.), 
yet that it was put off on going into battle. It is remarkable too, that 
Lajamon should, here and at p. 515, arm them with battle-axes, spears, 
and skeins or knives, which corresponds accurately with the accounts of 
Giraldus, Froissart and Monstrelet. Of these weapons the axe was the 
most formidable, the use of which the Irish borrowed from the Northmen. 
Compare the descrii)tion of the Welshmen in the verses of Guilielmus 
Brito quoted by Camden, in Remains, p. 14. ed. 8vo. Lond. 1674, and 
Higden, Polychron. p. 188. 

P. 336. V. 18128. ]ireo cnihtes. — Wace says, " En eir encontra un mes- 
sage," who told him how Uther was dead, and buried by the bishops, 
according to his desire, in the " karole as jaianz." 

Pp. 338. 340. vv. 18174-18205. 18220-18223.— Not in Wace. 

P. 341. V. 18231. — After this is an interpolation of sixteen lines in one 
of the later MSS. of Wace, but inserted in the text by the editor, vol. ii. 
p. 11. 

P. 341. vv. 18236-7. — There is an error here, repeated in pp. 350, 351. 
386. 388. 395. 397. 398. 477, which has been occasioned by the confusion 
made between the names of Ebissa and Eosa. In Geoffrey, Octa " cum 
fratruele suo," Ebissa, are stated to have come to England together, lib. vi. 
c. 13. (which is copied from Nennius, p. 29, ed. Stev.), and the latter 
is never again mentioned, but in his place Eosa, called the cognatus of 
Octa, is introduced, lib. viii. c. 6, and they continue together till their 
death. Wace adopts the name of Ebissa until the death of Aurelius Am- 
brosius, and then substitutes Eossa, with whom agree Robert of Brunne 
and Robert of Gloucester. The author of the metrical Brut in MS. Reg. 
13 A. xxi. reads Eosa for Ebissa throughout, and so does the Welsh ver- 

368 NOTES. 

sion attributed to Tysilio. He is called however Ehlssa at his death both 
by Robert of Bruiine and the metrical Brut. Lajamon therefore finding 
Ebissa mentioned at first, and Eosa mentioned subsequently in the French 
text, concluded they were two different persons, and continues, without any 
authority, so to consider them. It is remarkable, that in the genealogy of 
the Kentish kings appended to Nennius, p. 50, it is stated, " Hengist ge- 
nuit Octha ; [Octha] genuit Ossa." 

P. 342. vv. 18254-18263.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 182G4-18275. — In Lajamons original this is expressed in two 

lines : 

La gent que Pascent out amene, 

Ke de Uther ert escliape. — MS. Cott.f. 75^ c. 1. 

Pp. 343. 345. vv. 18278-18281. 18332-18335.— Not in Wace. 

P. 345. V. 18336. Dunian. — The MSS. of Wace read Danien, which is 
a corruption of Geoffreys Damen. — In the metrical Anglo-Norman version 
of MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi., its author gives us some additions of his own, 
which are curious ; 

leel mont a eel ee 

Diamned esteit apelee, 

Mes nus, qui el pais maiium, 

Windegates ore I'apelum. 

El souvei-ain est un coudrei, 

E al milieu un grant perrei ; 

Desuz si curt un russellet, 

Ke nus apeloni Coquet.— f. 74*. c. 1. 

The locality is here removed from York to Northumberland, in which latter 
county, about six miles from Rothbury, in Morpeth wood. Wind Gates lies. 
The author of the Scalachronica mentions also the same tradition, as ap- 
pears by the extracts made from his work by Leland, Collectanea, vol. ii. 
p. 510. 

P. 346. vv. 18362-18377.— In Wace the king is merely said to ask the 
earls advice. 

P. 350. V. 18453. — Wace introduces a simile here of a lion falling on 
a flock of sheep, and slaying indiscriminately the rams, ewes, and lambs, 
vol. ii. p. 16. 

Ibid. vv. 18458-18470. — Not in Wace, but he has some lines instead 
relative to the flight of those who escaped from the battle. 

P. 352. V. 18496. an jEster. — Wace adds, that the king had appointed 
Easter day for his coronation, and so also Geoffrey. 

P. 354. V. 18535. Igcerne. — According to the Welsh authorities, Eigr, 
daughter of Amlawdd the Great, ^ho was a prince of North Britain. 

NOTES. 300 

Pp. 354. 355. vv. 18544-18549. 18560-1. 18572-3. 18578-9.— Not in 

P. 355. vv. 18580-18601.— Wace has only four lines, to the effect that 
the earl would not return, and held at nought the menaces of the king. 
Vol. ii. p. 20. (where for S'il we should read Cil). 

P. 357. V. 18610. Tintaieol. — Remains of the castle still exist on a 
lofty crag almost surrrounded by the sea, in the parish of Dundagell or 
Tintagel, hundred of Lesnewth. See Paroch. Hist, of Cornwall, by Davies 
Gilbert, vol. i. pp. 324. 340. It is very frequently mentioned in the Ar- 
thurian romances, and its construction ascribed to giants. See the Ro- 
mances of Tristan, vol. ii. p. 94. 12mo, 1835. 

Pp. 357. 358. vv. 18616-18635. 18645. 18649-18655.— Not in Wace. 

P. 358. V. 18646. ane ofiere castle. — In the Cottonian MS. of Wace 
are here two lines omitted in the printed edition. 
Dimilioc ert apelez 
Le chastel u il est alez.— /. 77. c. 1. 

and it is named in Geoffrey, and in the anonymous Brut, MS. Reg. 13 A. 
xxi. f. 75. c. 2. 

P. 359. vv. 18666-18671.— Not in Wace. 

P. 360. V. 18677. Tambreis. — The river Camel, which falls into the 
Bristol channel at Padstow. See a subsequent note on vol. iii. p. 140. 

Ibid. V. 18693. — Wace adds, that the earl would not yield because he 
expected succour from the king of Ireland, vol. ii. p. 22. 

P. 361. vv. 18707-18711. — In the French text we have only " un sien 
baron prive." Geoffrey calls him Ulfin de Ricaradoch, which iu the Welsh 
version appears in the form of Caer Caradoc, i. e. Salisbury. 

Ihid. V. 18721. — In Wace the kings passion for Ygerne is expressed 
much more forcibly and more at length, vol. ii. p. 23. 

P. 362. vv. 18742-18761.— Not in Wace. 

P. 363. vv. 18762-18909. — Instead of this long and curious narrative, 
we find in Wace only seven lines, thus briefly expressed : " Consult Mer- 
lin, who has arrived among the host, and who is skilled in many arts ; if 
he is unable to counsel you, we know not how to help you." The king, 
by the advice of Ulfin, caused Merlin to be sought and brought to him. 
He shewed to him all his desire, etc. Vol. ii. p. 23. So also Geoffrey, 
lib. viii. c. 19. Compare the Roman de Merlin, vol. i. f. Iviii*. 

P. 367. vv. 18856-18869. — This highly poetical passage relative to 
Arthurs future greatness seems to bear reference to the prophecy in Geof- 
frey, " In ore populorum celebrabitur, et actus ejus cibus erit narrantibus," 

VOL. III. 2 b 


370 NOTES. 

lib. vii. c. 3. p. 49, but no doubt tbe popular traditions were also called 
in aid by the English writer. It is certain from this and several other 
passages that La^amon was acquainted with the prophecies attributed to 
Merlin, but there is no direct proof that he derived them from Geoffrey of 
Monmouth ; on the contrary he would appear from many circumstances not 
to have consulted the Historia Britonum. It is not improbable, however, 
that he may have read the Prophecies in an Anglo-Norman version, simi- 
lar to that inserted in the Durham copy of Wace, and in the anonymous 
translation j^artly preserved in MS. Harl. 1605. 

Pp. 370-372. vv. 18921-18931. 18967-18981.— Not in Wace. 

P. 373. vv. 18982—3. — The French text is here rather more in detail, 
vol. ii. p. 25. From this passage the author or scribe of the Anglo-Nor- 
man metrical Brut in the Royal MS. 13 A. xxi. has adopted wholly the 
text of Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 18990-19053. — All this is omitted in the text of Wace, which 
in three lines relates that the king was well received by those who be- 
lieved they recognised their lord, vol. ii. 26. In the MS. Reg. 13 A. 
xxi. are some lines previously inserted, wliich approach nearer to the pa- 
raphrase of La3amon and the text of Geoftrey. 

Al chastel si sunt venut, 

Un poi devant qu'anutc fut, 

Li porters vit Ii due venir, 

Mult tost Ii veit la porte overir. 

Ben quidat que co fust Ii sire ; 

Si n'el osat contredire. 

En Tintagol, efc.—f. 75*. c. 1. 

P. 376. vv. 19064-19067.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. V. 19071. prt cnihtcs. — In the printed text of Wace we have "Li 
gent al due," which is nonsense. We should read " Les gentz le rei," as 
in the best MSS. 

Ibid. vv. 19074-19121. — Not in Wace. The subsequent assault is told 
by him in seven lines, which in the English jjocm extends to v. 19157. 

P. 381. vv. 19176-19181. — Not in Wace, who makes the king say, 
that he left the castle for dread of some treason, without letting any one 
know it, vol. ii. p. 27. 

Ibid. vv. 19190-19195. — Instead of these lines Wace writes, with more 


Igerne ad eel conseil Ice, 

Ki tut tens out le rei dute ; 

E Ii reis I'at dune eubraee, 

Si I'ad al dcpartir beisc. — MS. dttt.f. 78. c. \. 


P. 382. vv. 1920G-19218.— This is altogether different from the French 
text, which states, that the king inquired how the castle had been taken 
and the earl slain, and pretended to be angry at the death of Gorlois. He 
then returns to Tintagel, and summons those within. Vol. ii. p. 29. So 
also in Robert of Brunne. 

P. 383. vv. 19220-19225. 19230-19237.— Not in Wace. 

P. 384. vv. 19254-19269. — This curious passage is not in Wace, who 
contents himself with stating, 

Ertur ont nun ; de sa bunte 

Ad grant parole puis este.— y. 78. c. 2. 

It will be remarked that the elves in Lajamon bear a greater affinity to the 
fays of romance than to the popular fairies, between whom there is a marked 
difference. On this subject Keightleys amusing work on the Fairy Mytho- 
logy may be consulted, who remarks, that in the romances of Arthur and 
his Round Table the fairies appear but seldom, but are exhibited in all their 
brilliancy and power in those of Charlemagne and his Paladins, vol. i. 
p. 49. It may perhaps admit of a question, whether La3amon derived his 
elves, who presided at the birth of Arthur, from the French romances, or 
from ancient British or Armorican traditions. Similar narratives are to 
be found in the romances of Guillaume au Court nez, and Ogier le Danois, 
as also in the later compilations of Huon de Bordeaux and Isaie le Triste, 
the comparison of which with the lines of our old English poet would be 
highly interesting in a work expressly on the subject, but can here only 
be briefly alluded to. It is almost certain that the French received their 
knowledge of these /«ys from the Northern mythology, in which the attend- 
ance of certain norns or fairies at the birth of a child was recognised ; but 
we also find the same belief existing in Britanny, as appears by the ancient 
romance of Brun de la Montague, quoted by M. Le Roux de Lincy in his 
interesting work entitled Liore des Legendes, Introduction, 8vo, Par. 1836, 
which may be read with advantage, on the subject oi fairy -lore, pp. 175- 

P. 385. V. 19275. — In one of the later MSS. of Wace is an interpolated 
couplet here, mentioning the birth of Walwain, son of Loth, and so also 
in Robert of Brunne, f. 57. 

Ibid. V. 19287. seoue ^ere. — Wace says " lo7igement,'" and Geoffrey, 
" mullis diebus." The next four lines are an addition by La^amon. 

P. 386. vv. 19298-19355.— Here again the invention of the English 
poet is exercised. In the French text we only read, that Octa and Eosa, 
partly by promise and partly l)y bribe, corrupted the guard placed over 
them, and fled together to their native country, vol. ii. p. 31. 

2 B 2 

372 NOTES. 

P. 389. viK 1937G-7. — Wace says, in general terms, they rolilicd and 
burnt the country. 

P. 392. vv. 19436-19441.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. V. 19449. Vcrolam. — St. Albans, in Hertfordshire. 

P. 393. vv. 19472-19507.— Not in Wace. 

P. 395. vv. 19520-19559. — This speech, as well as the lines on the 
battle, are additions by Lajamon. 

P. 397. vv. 19562-3. 19566-19585.— Not in Wace. This notice of the 
popular songs is of interest ; but the passage is illustrative not of the British 
but of the Anglo-Saxon period. 

P. 399. vv. 19622-19625. — Instead of this repetition Wace has some 
lines omitted by the English paraphrast, and which are necessary to com- 
plete the narrative. He writes, that the king wished to pursue the fugitive 
Saxons, but by the advice of his barons was persuaded to remain in the 
city (Verolam, and not Winchester, as in the English text) until he should 
recover his health. He dismisses his army, and only retains with him his 
household. Vol. ii. p. 36. 

P. 400. vv. 19626-19815.— The entire narrative of Uthers death by 
poison is greatly amplified and improved from the original, which occupies 
in the printed edition little more than two pages, vol. ii. pp. 36-38. 

P. 408. V. 19826. — Here commences the ninth book of Geoffrey. 

Ibid. vv. 19832-19927. — The whole of this narrative jirocceds from 
Lajamon, and is singularly at variance with the text of Wace, who only 
states in four lines, 

Ertur, le filj Uther, mandcrent, 

A Cilcestre le coronerent ; 

Juvencels esteit de quinz anz, 

De su eage forz c granz. — MS. Cott.f. 79*. c. 1. 

The Royal MS. reads Cicestre, and so does Robert of Brunne, but the 
printed edition of Wace, Circestre, as in the later English text. William 
of Worcester in his Itinerary fixes it at Cirencester, and says Arthur was 
crowned in the chapel of St. Cecilia, p. 299, 8vo, 1778. Geoffrey, how- 
ever, has " in civitatem Cilcestrice." 

P. 412. V. 19928. houen to kinge. — Geoffrey tells us, that Arthur was 
crowned by the archbishop Dubricius, or Brice, lib. ix. c. 1. 

P. 413. vv. 19942-19951. — Not in Wace, whose eulogium of Arthur, 
vol. ii. p. 39, should be compared with that of the English poet. 

NOTES. 373 

P. 414. vv. 199G4-19979. — Wace says nothing of this meeting at Lon- 
don, nor of the oath taken by Arthurs knights. 

P.AlG.vv. 20018-20021. — Not in Wace. Geoffrey mentions previously 
that Colgrim had arrived from Germany, and had subdued all the northern 
part of Britain, from the Humber to Caithness, lib. ix. c. 1. 

P. 418. V. 20047. Scotleode — Roberts asserts, p. 139, that this is the 
first time the Scoti are mentioned in Geoffrey ; but this is not true, since 
they are mentioned lib. iv. c. 17. lib. vi. c. 1. lib. viii. c. 3. etc. 

Ibid. V. 20068. Duglas. — The river Douglas, near Wigan, in Lancashire. 
See Higdens Polychron. ap. Gale, p. 225, and Whitakers Manchester, 
vol. ii. p. 36. Nennius places the battle or battles of Arthur on the Du- 
glas second in the series of his engagements against the Saxons. 

P. 419. vv. 20082-20175.— This spirited and curious detail of the con- 
flict is entirely supplied by La3amon. 

Pp.423. 424. vv. 20182-20185. 20187. 20192-3. 20210-20219.— Not 
in Wace. 

P. 424. V. 20198. Childric— The Cheldric of Geoffrey and Wace is ge- 
nerally supposed to be the Cerdic of the Saxon chroniclers ; but Roberts, 
p. 139, rejects this notion, and conjectures, M^ithout probability, that under 
the names of Baldulf, Colgrim, and Cledric, the three sons of Ella are de- 


P. 425. V. 20229. seoue milen. — Wace has " cine leues," Robert of 
Brunne, " fyue rayle," and Geoffrey, " spatio decern mihariorum ab urbe." 

Ibid. vv. 20236-20269. — The narrative here again is quite new, and 
due to La^amon alone. In Wace we read simply, 

Mes acuns, k'is vit enbuscher, 

Le curut al rei a conter. — MS. Cott.f. 80. c. 1. 

Arthur summons Cador to his counsel, and gives him the command of six 
hundred (so the best MSS. read, and Geoffrey, but in the printed edition 
we have " set ") knights, and three thousand footmen, with which force he 
surprises Baldulf, vol. ii. p. 42. 

P. 427. V. 20279. ni^en hundred. — Wace says, more than half Baldulfs 
forces, and was prevented only by the approach of night from slaughtering 
the remainder. 

Ibid. vv. 20286-20294.— Not in Wace. 

P. 428. V. 20306. Crosse. — In the French text we read, 

374 NOTES. 

Re fist par mi la barbe rere, 

E le chef par mi ensement, 

E un des gernuns sulement, 

Bien sembla leccheor wfol. — MS. Cott.f. 80. c. 2. 

Geoffreys words are " cxAtnra joculatoris," and in Robert of Brunne he is 
called " difolted knaue." In the English romance of Ipomedon we have 
some lines so closely resembling those of Wace, that they (or at least the 
French original, from which it is translated) must have borrowed from the 
Brut. See Webers Metr. Romances, vol. ii. p. 340. 

P. 429. vv. 20313-20326 Not in Wace. 

P. 430. vv. 20339-20406. — La^amon here again draws on his imagina- 
tion, for Wace merely tells us that news came to Arthurs tents of the 
arrival of Cheldric in Scotland with six hundred ships. The kings friends 
advise him to retreat to London, where he would be able to collect a greater 
force. Vol. ii. p. 44. 

P. 433. vv. 20411-20442. — Instead of these lines we only have in the 

French text. 

Dune veissez terre mellee, 

Chastels guarnir, gent effvee.—f. 80*. c. 1. 

P. 434. V. 20445. Hoele his male. — Geoffrey writes, " Erat autem Hoe- 
lus filius sororis Arturi, ex Budicio [falsely printed Dubricio in the edi- 
tions], rege Armoricanorum Britonum generatus," lib. ix. c. 2; and Wace 
calls him Arthurs nephew, and son of his sister. The Welsh writers make 
him son of Emyr Llydaw of Britanny. See Cambr. Biogr. p. 185, and In- 
troduction to Syr Gawayne, p. xii. n, and a previous note, p. 366. 

P. 435. vv. 20469-20510. — Wace only tells us, in six lines, that the 
barons and relatives of his lineage quickly got ready, and prepared their 
shi])s, the number of which is not stated. The army consisted of 12,000 
knights, without foot-soldiers and archers. Geoffrey says, " quindecim 
milibus armatorum." 

P. 437. V. 20511. Hamtone. — The Welsh version ascribed to Tysilio 
absurdly reads Northampton. 

Pp. 437-439. vv. 20513-20550. 20561-20566. 20571-20576.— Not in 

P. 440. vv. 20587-20640.— All this is additional matter, for the French 
text merely states, in two lines, that Arthurs host fell upon the Saxons 

P. 443. VV. 20647-20657. 20661-2.— Not in Wace. 

P. 444. V. 20670. ]>at cEuere weore <ei Jiht. — Wace makes a similar 

NOTES. 3)5 

remark, and Geoffrey estimates the number of slain on the jiart of the 
Saxons at 6000 men. La^amon subsequently increases the amount to 
40,000 and 60,000. 

P. 444. vv. 20679-20714.— Not a word respecting this castle of Clieldric 
occurs in the original, nor is any further detail given, after describing the 
battle, than that the Saxons fled to the wood of Culidon, and made it their 
place of retreat. This is placed by Nennius the seventh in order of Arthurs 
victories, and he says it was called in British Cat Coil Celidon, i. e. battle 
of the wood. Carte and other writers have supposed the locality to be in 
Cumberland (see notes of Stevenson and Gunn on Nennius), but the nar- 
rative of Geoffrey would, with more probability, fix it in Lincolnshire, into 
which county formerly extended the forest which spread over parts of the 
shires of Nottingham, Derby, Rutland and Northampton. I am able how- 
ever to quote an additional authority, Robert of Brunne, who being a na- 
tive of Lincolnshire, is intitled to consideration in traditionary matters re- 
lating to this district. In the portion of his Chronicle still inedited he 

A wod beside hight Calidoun, 

That now men calle Fiskertoun ; 

Bi the water side the wod was set ; 

Ther in had thei grete rescet.— :/". 59. e. 2. 

He probably means Fiskarton, a village in Lawress wapentake, and about 
four and a half miles from Lincoln. 

P. 446. V. 207 IS.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 20731-20918.— The whole of this long narrative is comprised 
by Wace in fourteen lines, simply stating, that the Saxons took counsel 
to hold a parley with Arthur, and offer to yield up their arms and gar- 
ments, retaining only their ships ; to give hostages to keep thenceforth the 
peace, and to pay an annual tribute, provided they might be allowed to 
depart. Arthur grants these terms, and they embark. Vol. ii. p. 48. 

P. 451. vv. 20840-20870. — These Hnes present by no means an unfa- 
vorable specimen of Lajamons poetical talent ; and the comparison of 
Childrics submissive conduct when hemmed in by his opponents to that of 
the fox when reduced to extremity by the hunters, is not inaptly introduced. 
We have here also, perhaps, one of the earliest existing descriptions of the 
fox-chase, which although at present the most prominent among English 
field-sports, does not seem to have held the same rank in the more manly 
diversions of our ancestors. It is alluded to in the curious old Enerlish 
poem of the Hule and Nightingale, p. 30, ed. Stevenson, 4to, 1838, and 
more at length in the romance of Syr Gawuyne and the Grcne Kny^t, 

376 NOTES. 

St. xxiii. xxiv. xxxi. edited by me for the Bannatyne Club in 1839. See 
notes, ibid. p. 323, In the treatise called "The Maystcr of the Game," 
compiled for the use of Henry the Fifth when prince, the subject of unearth- 
ing the fox is thus mentioned, cap. viii. : " Whanne he [the fox] seethe 
that he may not dure, than he gooth to the erthe, wher he may next eny 
fynde, the whiche he knowethe wel ; and thanne may men digge hym out, 
and take hym, so that he be in esy digging, but not amonge roches." 
MS. Cott. Vesp. B. XII. f. 42*. 

P. 456. vv. 20961-21010. — These remarkable lines are added by Laja- 
mon in amplification of his original, and contain a vivid and probably 
faithful picture of the excesses committed by the Saxon ravagers. 

P. 457. tv. 20993-20998. — This passage may bring to mind the cruel 
retaliation inflicted by the sons of Ragnar Lodbrog on Ella, king of North- 
umbria, in revenge for their fathers death. See the ChroniconP. Olai, ap. 
Langebek, Scriptt. rerum Danicarum, vol. i. p. 111. fol. Hafn. 1772. 

P. 458. vv. 21013-21020. — Geoffrey says in general terms, that the Sax- 
ons depopulated the country to the Severn sea, lib. ix. c. 3, and Wace 
names only Devonshire, Somersetshire and Dorsetshire. The ignorance 
shown by his editor in regard to the first of these counties, is really extra- 
ordinary. See the printed edition, vol. ii. p. 50. 

P. 459. vv. 21027-21030. 21047-21056.— Not in Wace. 

P. 460. vv. 21063-21110. — Wace only says, in two lines, that Arthur 
caused the hostages to be hung forthwith, vol. ii. p. 51. 

P. 462. V. 21115. Clud. — An abbreviated form oi Alclud, already ex- 
plained to be Dunbarton. 

P. 463. V. 21119. Bade. — Carte is decidedly in error. Hist. Engl. vol. i. 
15. 204, in supposing that the scene of this battle was at Mount Badon, in 
Berkshire, and not at Lansdown-hill, near Bath. Compare Gildas, p. 34. 
ed. Stevenson, Ushers Antiquitates, p. 254, and Camden, vol. i. p. 188. 
The date of this battle, on account of the obscurity of the passages in Gil- 
das and Bcde, in which it is mentioned, has given i"ise to some controversy. 
The most probable oi)inion seems iu favour of the year 520. See Steven- 
sons Preface to Gildas, p. ix. 

Ibid. V. 21125. — Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 21131-21134. — These curious lines are not in the French text, 
and were probably added by Lajamon from some tradition connected with 
Wehtnd, the magician-smith, whose traditionary fame is discussed at length 
in a treatise intitled, " Veland le Forgeron," })ublishcd by G. B. Depping and 

NOTES. 377 

Fr. Michel, 8vo. Par. 1S33. At any rate this notice is a valuable addition 
to our scanty knowledge of the mythological lore introduced into England 
from Scandinavia. 

P. 464. V. 21 157. Calibeorne. — On this famous sword of Arthur see the 
Romances of rm/flrt, edited by M.Michel, vol. i. p. Ixxxv.; Wartons i//>/o/-y 
of English Poetry, vol. i. p. 126. edit. 1840; and Notes on Syr Gaivayne, 
p. 343. In the Welsh versions of the Brut this sword is termed Caledvivlch, 
or hard cleft, in allusion, as Roberts supposes, to the fable of its having been 
fixed in a rock. " Geoifrey alone," adds Roberts, " calls the sword Caliburn, 
i. e. caled-vivrn, the hard mass, i. e. well tempered and massive." In the Ro- 
man de Merlin, vol. i. f. Ixxxii*., Escalibort is interpreted " ung nom en 
Ebrieu, qui vault au tant a dire en Francois comme trencher fer et acier ;" 
and in the same manner in the English Morte Arthur it is explained cut 
steel, vol. i. p. 48, on which see Southeys note. Another name is Broun- 
stele, which occurs in a romance in the MS. Red Book of Bath. 

Ibid. V. 21139. Avalun. — See the authorities quoted in a subsequent 
note on Arthurs fabled transportation to this fairy island, after the battle 
of Camlan. 

Ibid. vv. 21147-8. Goswhit. — Here we have, no doubt, a traditionary 
name not handed down by Geoffrey or Wace. Of course Goswhit, i. e. 
Goose-white, must be taken as the interpretation of a British epithet. In 
tlie French text is a peculiarity passed over by Lajamon, 

D'or fu tut li nassels devant.— M5. Cott.f. 81*. e. 1. 

Ibid. vv. 21151-21156. — The signification of Pridwen in Welsh is said 
to be the fair form, or that which is ivhite, in allusion probably to the 
figure of the Virgin said to be painted on it. Roberts would regard this 
passage as an interpolation, because it suited not his views, yet it is as 
ancient as any of the other traditions respecting Arthur. Nennius says, 
he bore the figure of the Virgin "super humeros suos," at the battle of 
Castle Guinnion, p. 48, but William of Malmesbury transfers the battle to 
Badon hill, where he says Arthur was assisted by the image of the Di- 
vine Mother " quam armis suis insuerat," lib. i. f. 4. edit. 1596. There is 
a later legend on the subject, preserved in MS. Bodl. 622, and MS. Cott. 
Cleop. D. VIII., and inserted in an abbreviated form in John of Glaston- 
burys Chronicle, vol. i. p. 77. 8vo. 1726. 

Ibid. V. 21158. Ron. — This word signifies spear in Welsh, and hence 
Geoffrey has been accused of not understanding its meaning, and making 
it a projjer name. The Welsh texts add an epithet to it, signifying com- 
manding or tall, Roberts, p. 142. The printed text of Wace is very cor- 

378 NOTES. 

rupt here. La^amon tells us subsequently, p. 57G, that Arthurs spear had 
(like his helm) belonged previously to Uther, and was fabricated by a 
smith of Caermarthen, named Griffin, a personage unknown to the chro- 

P. 464. V. 21159. al his iweden. — The corresponding lines describing 
Arthurs armour in the inedited portion of Robert of Brunnes Chronicle, 
are curious enough to deserve being quoted at length. 

Himself was armed fyiily wele 

W gode chambres of iren & stele ; 

& a hauberk th' non was siiilk, 

Abouen an acton mad of silk ; 

& gird w' Calahum, the gode bronde, 

A better com neuer in kynges honde. 

Ten fote long was the blade, 

In Ramseie the merk is made ; 

Fro the hilte to the pomelle 

Tuelue inche grete, th' tyme as felle ; 

The brede of the blade seuen inche & more, 

I trow th* wild smyte sore. 

Arthure luffed it wele inouh, 

Misshapped him neuer whan he it drouh. 

His helme was gode, non better on niolde, 

The naselle befor was alle of golde ; 

The beudeles of gold burnyst bright, 

A dragon aboun, seleouth in sight. 

About his nek hang liis schelde, 

Pridwen it hight, many it behelde ; 

Ther one was purtreid, next him bi, 

The image [of] our suete Lady. 

His lance grete, he cald it Ron, 

W* iren befor, suilk was non.—f. 59*. e. 2. 

Ibid. vv. 21161-21168. — Not in Wace, who has instead some lines to 
the effect, that Arthur caused his troops to advance slowly and in perfect 
order. The Saxons, on their approach, withdraw to a neighbouring hill, 
where they prepare for defence. The Britons follow them, and are then 
addressed by Arthur, vol. ii. p. 54. In Geoffrey the address of Arthur 
precedes his putting on his armour, and he is seconded by the archbishop 
Dubricius, who promises the Britons absolution of all their sins, should 
they die in the conflict. In Geoffrey also the conflict occupies two days, 
lib. ix. c. 4. 

P. 466. vv. 21206-21216.— Not in Wace. 

P. 467. vv. 21217-21235. — This passage in the French text occupies 
only two lines : 

NOTES. 379 

Ne sai quel de Saisncs ateinst, 

E jus a la terre I'cnjjeinst.— ;/". 81*. c. 1. 

P. 468. vv. 21250-21256.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 21257-21260. — Nennius says, that Arthur killed with his own 

hand in that battle 960 men, p. 49. ed. Stev. In Geoft'rey the number 

is diminished to 470, wliich Wace further reduces to 400. Robert of 

Brunne renders the lines, 

Fyue hundreth he slouh more alone 
Than his oste did ilk one.—/. 60. c. 2. 

P. 469. vv. 21261-21456. — This long and highly poetic narrative is 
due to the invention of our English poet ; for in his original, the conclu- 
sion of the battle, the death of Baldulf and Colgrim, and the flight of 
Cheldric, are described in four lines, vol. ii. p. 57. 

P. 477. vv. 21461-21484. — All that Wace says is, that Arthur sent 
Cador after the fugitives, with 10,000 of his best men. The account which 
follows in La^amon, vv. 21485-21642, of the stratagem used by the Bri- 
tons, and the defeat and death of Cheldric, is so greatly amplified and 
altered from the French text, as to present the appearance of an independ- 
ent narrative. In Wace it occupies only thirty-five lines, vol. ii. p. 57. 

P. 483. V. 21 609. Telnnewic. — The ships of Cheldric had been left at Dart- 
mouth (p. 45 6), to which port, or one near it, the fugitive Saxons would natu- 
rally direct their flight. Geoffrey, however, writes, " insulam Tanet lacero 
agmine ingrediuntur," to which place being followed by Cador, their chief 
is killed, and the rest submit, and give hostages. Wace, being apjDarently 
aware of the absurdity of bringing the Saxons from Bath to the isle of 
Thanet, where their ships were not, conducts them into Devonshire, and 
fixes the scene of the battle at Teignmouth, at that period called Teign- 
wick, not many miles from the spot at which they had landed. Lajamon 
and Robert of Brunne follow Waces authority, and it is far from impro- 
bable, that some local tradition might have existed at the period, of a 
conflict having taken place on the spot. The printed text of Wace is here, 
as in so many other passages, dejilorably inaccurate. 

P. 485. vv. 21647-21652. — Not in Wace. 

P. 486. vv. 21671-21726. — Wace only says in three lines, 

Ertur solt qu'il se resemblouent, 

Encontre lui se raliouent ; 

Jesque Mareif les siwi.— il/& Cott.f. 82. e. 2. 

They hear of his approach, and fly to the lake of Limonoi, or Lomond, in 
Dunbartonshire, the marvellous traditions respecting which seem to have 

380 NOTES. 

been borrowed by Geoffrey from the tract " De Mirabilibus Britunnice," 
which is often found appended to Nennius. See also Alfred of Beverley, 
p. 7. 

P. 489. vv. 21739-21748. — These additional particulars of the won- 
ders of the lake are added by La3amon. 

P. 491. V. 21783. an imetliche broc. — This is the Levin xvattyr of later 
writers. See Nennius, p. 56, and Macphersons Geographical Illustrations, 
in voce. 

Ibid. vv. 21797-21810.— Not in Wace. 

P. 492. V. 21813. twalf viilen. — "Wace says, "asses pres d'Artus." His 
name in the printed edition is given Diramaurus, contrary to the readings 
of the best MSS. and the text of Geoffrey. 

P. 493. vv. 21827-218o4.— In the French original it is only stated in 
general terms, that Gillomar fled back to Ireland, and that Arthur returned 
to the lake where he had left the Scots ; without any mention of Howel, 
vol. ii. p. 62. Then follows immediately the submission of the Scots by 
their bishops and women, but no number of the former is given, as in La- 
3amon. The whole is much amplified in the English paraphrase. 

P. 497. vv. 21937-21956. — In Wace this passage is represented by a 

single line, 

Lur humages prist, sis leissa. — MS. Cotl.f. 83. c. 1. 

P. 500. vv. 21994-21996. — The measure given in the original is hventy 
feet long and twenty broad, and so also in Geoffrey, and in the tract De 
Mirabilibus, from which he seems to have borrowed. In the latter this 
water is called Finnaun Guur Helic, and placed " in regione Cinlipluc." 
ap. Nenn. p. 57. Giraldus Cambrensis mentions a similar lake on the 
hill called Arthurs Chair, in Gower, Carmarthenshire. Compare Alfred 
of Beverley, p. 7. 

Ibid. V. 21998. — Not in "Wace. Here as elsewhere, the disposition of 
the English writer to refer every marvellous occurrence to the agency of 
evil spirits or elves, is worthy observation. 

P. 501. V. 22015. i ]yissen londes cende. — "Wace says, " De juste Saverne 
en Guales sit," MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi. f. 80*. c. 1, and so also Geoffrey, who 
adds, " quod pagenses Linligivan appellant," lib. ix. c. 7. This is also 
borrowed from the tract De Mirabilibus, on which the editor notes, that 
the name is probably a corruption of the Welsh Aber-linn-lUvan. In the 
latter part of the descri])tion of this lake, Lajamon has either inadvertently 
omitted a part of his original, or some lines of his text are missing. The 

NOTES. 381 

latter supposition seems most probable. Compare Wacc, vol. ii. p. GG, and 
the Latin authorities cited above. 

P. 503. vv. 22067-22074.— Not in Wace. 

P. 504. V. 22089. — In the original it is said, that Arthur remained at 
York till the feast of the Nativity. 

Ibid. vv. 22099-22114. — Wace only writes, that Arthur caused his chap- 
lain to be invested with the archbishopric, in order to maintain and re- 
store the churches and monasteries destroyed Ijy the pagans. Geoffrey 
has in addition, that archbishop Sampson and the other ministers of religion 
had been previously expelled by the heathen Saxons, lib. ix. c. 8. 

P. 505. m. 22115-22116. 22119-22126.— Not in Wace. 

P. 506. vv. 22137-22140.— Not in Wace. The severity of the law 
against treachery of the tenants to their lord, is here and elsewhere strongly 

Ibid. V. 22143. — In the French text and Geoffrey, as well as in the 
French romances of the 12th century, the second name is given, more 
correctly, Angusel or Augusel. The Welsh authors call them sons of Cyn- 
varch, a chieftain of the Northumbrian Britons, by Nevyn, daughter of 
Brychan, and name them Aron, Llew, and Urien. 

Ibid. vv. 22145-22207. — Instead of this long interlocutory passage, 
Wace merely tells us, that tlie brothers had held, by right of their ances- 
tors, the territory northward from the Humber, during the time of peace. 
Arthur restored to them their lands and heritages. To Urien, the eldest, 
he gave Moray, and commanded that he should be called king of it ; to 
Angusel he gave Scotland in fee ; and to Loth, who had married Arthurs 
sister, he gave all Leonais, and other fees. Geoffrey reads, " ad consula- 
tum LodenesicE," MS. Reg., which is explained to be the ancient province 
of Lothian. Roberts, in commenting on the division above made, says, 
that the second portion seems to have included all the south-western coun- 
ties of Scotland ; the third, the south-eastern counties to Grahams dyke ; 
and the first, the territory beyond it, p. 146. 

P. 509. v. 22203. mi suster. — According to Geoffrey and his followers 
her name was Anna. See La^amon, vol. ii. p. 385, and notes, p. 366. 
In Wace no mention is here made of Modred, but there is in Geoffrey, 
lib. ix. c. 9. The romance authorities say, that although Modred passed 
as the nephew of Arthur, yet he was in reality his bastard son by Loths 
wife. Robert of Brunne renders the passage thus : 

Sir Loth, th* wedded Anne ; 

Wawan, ther sonc, at Rome was than, 

382 NOTES. 

To norise, as the romance sais ; 

He hight ^YawaIl the curtais. — -f. 62. c. 1. 

P. 509. vv. 22213-2-2224. — Wace states briefly in five lines, that after 
Arthur had settled his kingdom and established his laws, he took Guene- 
ver to wife. He says nothing of any meeting at London, or of Arthurs 
going into Cornwall. With regard to the personal attractions of queen 
Guenever (called by the Welsh Gwenhyfar, daughter to Go}-fran the Hero), 
see my Notes to Syr Gawayne, p. 311. 4to. Lond. 1S39. 

P. 510. ri'. 22245-22248.— Not in Wace. 

P. 511. vv. 22251-2229S. — The French text merely states, that Arthur 
caused his navy to be got ready, and said he would go and conquer Ire- 
land, vol. ii. p. 70. The details in Lajamon are always valuable. 

Pp. 513. 514. vv. 22305-22316. 22321-2.— Not in Wace. 

P. 515. vv. "22355-22464. — Wace does not say that Arthur captured 
the Iiish king with his own hand, but his text has been understood too 
literally by the English paraphrast. The whole of what follows is the in- 
vention of La;amon, since in Wace we have only four lines, stating that 
Gillomar did homasre to Arthur, and gave hostages to hold his lands in 
treuage. Even Giraldus admits that the Irish princes were ti'ibutary to 
Arthur, De Top. Hibern. dist. iii. c. 8. ed. Francof. 1602. 

P. 520. vv. 22471-22524. — Here again we are indebted to La;amon for 
a very curious narrative, to be found nowhere else. Wace tells the story 
in two lines, and Geofiirey is equally brief. The names oiJElcus and Escol 
do not exist in historians. 

P. 523. If. 22525-22678. — The whole of this is comprised by Wace in 
twenty lines, vol. ii. p. 72. Geoffrey is stUl more brief, lib. ix. c. 10, and 
only mentions the first two of these island or northern kings. 

P. 524. r. 22565. Doldanim. — The name in Geoffrey is Doldanius, in 
Wace Duldainet or Doldain, and in Robert of Brunne Doldan. 

P. 526. r. 22616. Tflnet-londe. — The MSS. of Wace read Wineland, 
Venelande, Guenelande, etc., and Robert of Brunne ft'entland. In Geoflrey 
the name does not occur. M. Le Roux de Lincy conjectures it to have 
been Vinland, and refers to Wheatons History of the Northmen, p. 25 ; but 
according to that writer, the country so named was part of the continent 
of North America, and cannot be the territory here intended. With great- 
er probability we may refer Winet-lond to the tract of land on the south 
shore of the Baltic, between the rivers Oder and Vistula, inhabited by the 
Wends, which in Wulfstans account of his voyage to king Alfred is named 

NOTES. 383 

Weonod-land. It forms at present part of the territories of Prussia. See 
on the Wends (who are supposed of Sarmatian origin) an article in the 
Cambro-Briton, vol. iii. p. 478. Winet-lond is referred to again by Laja- 
mon, V. 22788. 

P. 529. vv. 22679-22718. — Lajamon continues here to borrow from his 
own stores, for in his French original we have only three lines to tell us 
of Arthurs return to England, vol. ii. p. 73. 

P. 531. V. 22721. twelf ^ere. — So also in the best MSS. of Wace and 
Geoffrey ; but Le Roux de Lincy, in the corrupt text he has given us of 
the former, prints trente et deus. 

Ibid. vv. 22735-22974. — This long narrative on the origin of the Round 
Table, is perhaps one of the most remarkable and curious instances which 
occur of the additional matter engrafted by Lajamon on the text of Wace. 
In the latter we have a few introductory lines on the fame of Arthur, which 
is stated to have caused every knight of reputation to repair to his court, 
and enter his service. He then adds. 

Fur les nobles baners [r. barons] qu'il out, 

Dun[t] chescun meldere estre quidout, 

Chescun se teneit a meillor, 

Ne nuls ne saveit le peer, 

Fist reis Ertur la Runde Table, 

Dun[t] Bretun dient meint fable.— il/S'. Cott.f. 84*. c. 2. 

He proceeds to say, that at this table all sat as equals, and none could 
sit higher than another. This tradition respecting the Round Table wholly 
rests with Wace, for Geoffrey is perfectly silent respecting it, which is the 
more extraordinary, since there is no reason to doubt the assertion of the 
former, that the Britons had many marvellous stories about its institution. 
These stories must consequently have existed in the early part of the 
twelfth century, and, of course, previous to the composition of the French 
romances in prose and verse on the subject. It is by no means improbable, 
that in the narrative of the English poet one of these popular traditions 
on the foundation of the Round Table may have been preserved, since it 
would appear hardly credible that the whole should be a mere invention of 
the writer. See on this subject a note in Syr Gawayne, p. 353, and the 
Itinerarium of William de Worcestre, p. 311. 8vo. 1778. 

P. 542. vv. 22975-22996. — The corresponding lines in Wace are well 
known from having been so often cited by writers on the origin of romance, 
but deserve to be compared with La3amons version. See the printed edi- 
tion, vol. ii. p. 76. Robert of Brunne, who again translated or paraphrased 
the French text (and whose work was finished in the year 1338), renders 

.384 NOTES. 

the above passage, in the inedited portion of his Chronicle, in the following 
remarkable manner : 

In th' tuelue 3eres tyme 

Felle auentoui's, th' men rede of ryme. 

In th* tyme wer herd and sene, 

Th' som say th' neuer had bene. 

Of Arthure is said many selcouth, 

In diners landes north and south, 

Til' man haldes now for falilc, 

Be thei neuer so trew no stable. 

Not alle is sothe, no alle lie, 

Ne alle wisdom, ne alle folie ; 

Tlier is of him no thing said, 

Th' ne it may to gode laid. 

More than other was his dedis, 

Th' men of him so mykelle redis. 

Geffrey Arthur of Menimu, 

Wrote his dedis th' wer of pru, 

& blames bo the Gildas and Bede, 

Whi of him thei wild not rede ; 

Sithen he was pris of alle kynges 

Thei wild not write his praysynges; 

& more wirschip of hym was 

Than of any th' spekes Gildas, 

Or of any th' Bede wrote. 

Sane holy men th* we wote. 

In alle londes wrote men of Arthoure, 

His noble dedis of honoure ; 

In France men wrote, 8^ ^it write : 

Here hafwe of him hot lite. 

Tille domes day men salle spelle. 

Of Arthure dedis talk & telle.—/. G2''. c. 2. 

P. 543. vv. -23001-23004.— Wace writes thus : 

N'esteit pas tenu par curteis, 

Escot, ne Bretun, ne Franceis, 

Norman, Angevin, ne Flemenc, 

Ne Burgoinnum ne Loherenc, etc. — MS. Cott.f. 84*. c. 2. 
But in the Royal MS. 13 A. xxi. the last two lines are omitted, and may 
be an interpolation. In the French text also the entire paragraph, vv. 
23001-23012, precedes the passage relative to the marvellous stories told 
of Arthur by the conteors and fableors, and instead of vv. 23013-23026 
of the English text, we have in Wace some lines to the effect, that many 
came from various lands to seek honour and wealth at Arthurs court, and 
to see his nobles. He was beloved by the poor and honored by the rich. 
Foreign kings feared him for his prowess, and envied him for his liberality. 
Vol. ii. p. 7fi. 

NOTES. 385 

p. 544. vv. 2:3027-23080.— Supplied by Lajamon ; but the latter por- 
tion is only an anticipation of what is stated by Wace after the death of 
Arthur, and repeated in the English 2>araphrase, vol. iii. p. 144. The 
part which relates to Merlins prophecy of Arthur would appear to be a 
j)oetical paraphrase of a passage in Geoffrey, lib. vii. c. 3, which had pre- 
viously been noticed by Lajamon. See a previous note, p. 370. 

P. 546. V. 23064. \er Walwain wes for-faren. — La3amon here alludes 
to the fatal battle between Arthur and Modred, which took place on the 
river Camlan, but he is wrong in assigning the death of Walwain to that 
locality. His memory must here have played the truant, for he subse- 
quently, vol. iii, p. 132, rightly fixes the event at the spot where Arthur 
first landed. See Introduction to Syr Gaivayne, 4to, 1839, p. xxii. 

Ibid. V. 23070. Arganfe. — Whence this name has been derived I am at 
a loss to conceive ; for in all the extant authorities of the twelfth century 
which mention her, she is called Morgen, Morganis, Morgana, or Morgain. 
Gervase of Tilbury adds the epithet fatata, fay, or fairy, which has been 
overlooked by Keightley, Fairy Mythology, vol. i. p. 12, and Taylor, Note 
to new edition of Warton, vol. i. p. (34). It would appear that Argant 
was an Armoric name, and boi'ne by the daughter of Constantin, (see Lo- 
bineaus Hist, de Bretagne, vol. i. fol. par. 1707,) but this will not explain 
why it is here applied to the fairy sister of Arthur. Price writes, " The 
Persian Mergian and Urganda have unquestionably furnished Italian poetry 
with its Morgana and Urgana." Pref. p. (34). This seems, however, 
rather an unguarded assertion ; for although on 13'Herbelots authority Mer- 
gian has been received as the prototype cf Morgana, (which requires 
further proof,) yet I find no trace of the name of Urganda in the Persian 
or Arabic writers. It is nevertheless very remarkable to meet with a name 
allied to the Urganda Desconecida of the cycle of Amadis in the work of an 
English writer at the beginning of the thirteenth century, and it would be 
desirable to have some better explanation of it than I am able to offer. 
Compare La^amon, vol. iii. p. 144. 

P. 547. vv. 23087-23246. — The narrative is much briefer in Wace, and 
differently arranged, vol. ii. pp. 77-79. 

P. 551. V. 23181. Riculf. — This name occurs in Walsingham, Ypod. 
Neustr. p. 418, ed. Camd., borne by a Norman. 

P. 554. vv. 23259-23270. — These lines are not in the French text. It 
must be remarked that the mention of Walwain as having come from Kome 
to join Arthur in Norway, is entirely due to Wace, apparently founded 
upon some misconception of Geoffreys text, who says only, that at that 

VOL. III. 2 c 

386 NOTES. 

time Walwiiin wns committed by his uncle, at the age of twelve years, to 
the care of pope Sulpicius, from whom he received knighthood. See 
Introduction to Syr Gawayne, pp. xii. xiii. 

P. 556. vv. 23305-23354. — In Wace this passage occupies only six 
lines, stating in general terms the submission of ^scil, vol. ii. p. 81. 

P. 558. vv. 23355-23396. — ^The French text gives us in the place of 
this curious enumeration of Arthurs forces only three or four lines, to the 
effect that he caused to be selected from Denmark a great number — " ne 
sai quanz cens ne quanz millers" — to lead with him into France ; which 
was done without delay. Vol. ii. p. 81. 

P. 562. vv. 23433-4. — Wace does not state the amount of the tribute, 
but says it was transmitted to the emperor, whose name is given by Geof- 
frey asjLeo, lib. ix. c. 11. In a recent manuscript copy of Wace here occur 
four lines, evidently and absurdly interpolated, which refer to Julius Csesar, 
the conqueror of Britain, as the emperor alluded to, and these lines are 
admitted most injudiciously by the editor into the text, vol. ii. p. 82. 

Ibid. vv. 23439-23462. — This narrative is quite opposed to that of Wace, 
•who does not say a word of any application to Rome for assistance, but 
merely that Frolle assembled all the forces in the pay of Rome that were 
in his province, and marched with them to attack Arthur. The description 
of the battle is then dismissed in four lines ; but some others are added, 
relative to the French who joined the army of Arthur, and which Lajamon 
has passed over without notice. See ibid. 

P. 568. vv. 23573-23630. — In the French text we have merely eight lines, 
stating that Frolle saw the starving condition of the people, and resolved 
to put his own life in peril rather than that all Paris should perish. Vol. ii. 
p. 86. 

P. 571. vv. 23649-23880. — This long and curious detail is almost en- 
tirely due to La3amon. Wace has only eight lines as an equivalent, say- 
ing that the challenge was accepted, and hostages given on both sides for 
its fulfilment. The two warriors enter armed into the island assigned for 
the combat, ibid. 

P. 573. V. 23703-4. — Robert of Brunne in translating Wace, writes. 

The bataile sxild be in a playne, 

Bituex two waters, Marne & Seyne.— :/". 64. c. 1. 

The readers of romance lore will not fail to recognise an imitation of this 
combat in the similar one between Roland and Oliver on an island in the 
middle of the river Rhone, near Vienna. See the Roman de Guerin de 

NOTES. 387 

Montglave, f. xxxviii*. 4to, Par. 1518, and MS. Reg. 20 B. xix. f. 28*. Le 
Roux de Lincy is mistaken in asserting that this combat of Arthur and 
Frollo is not to be found in the romances of the Round Table, since it is 
in the Lancelot du Lac, torn. ii. f. 64*. edit. 4to, 1513. Froille is also men- 
tioned in the Roman de Merlin, vol. ii. f. ix. as a duke of Germany and ally 
of king Claudas. 

P. 582. vv. 23929-23930. — Lajamon seems to have here misunderstood 
his original author, who writes, 

De sun cheval I'ad loin porte, 

Taut cum hanste Ii ad dure.— il/^. Cott.f. 86*. c. 2. 

Pp. 584. 585. vv. 23970-23972. 23991-24030.— Not in Wace. 

P. 587. V. 24046. — After this line Wace adds two others, omitted by 

A Paris lunges sojorna, 

Bailliz assist, pois ordena.— ;/■. 87. c. 1. 

P. 589. vv. 24087-24100. — Wace has only two lines, 

Les altres parties de France 

Cumquist Ertur par grant puissance.—^. 87. c. 2. 

In Geoffrey we read, " Emensis iterum novem annis, cum totius Gallice 
partes potestati suae submisisset, venit iterum Arturus Parisios, tenuitque 
ibidem curiam," e/e. lib. ix. c. 11. 

P. 590. vv. 24111-24124.— Not in Wace. 

P. 591. vv. 24135-24138. — Robert of Brunnes translation of the ori- 
ginal passage is rendered curious by his own additions : 

Many selcouth be tyme seres 

Betid Arthur tho nyen 3eres : 

Many proude man lowe he brouht, 

To many a felon wo he wrouht. 

Ther hafmen hokes alle his life, 

Ther er his meruailes kidfulle rife ; 

Th^ we of him here alle rede, 

Ther er thei ivriten, ilka dede. 

Thise grete bokes so fair e langage, 

Writen and spoken on France vsage, 

Th^ neuer was writen thorgh Inglis man ; 

Suilk stile to speke no kynde can. 

Bot France men ivrote in prose, 

Als he did him to alose. — f. 65. c. 1. 

This is, perhaps, the most direct testimony extant of the priority of the 
romances written in French to those composed in English on the exploit 
of the Round Table. 

2 c 2 

388 NOTES. 

p. 592. vv. 24155-24186. — This passage is written more briefly, and in 
the narrative form in Wace, vol. ii. p. 92. Geoffrey only notices the grants 
to Kay and Beduer, and dismisses the rest in general terms. In the Cot- 
ton MS. two additional lines occur, which are probably an interpolation, 
us they are not noticed from any other MS. in the printed edition. 

Flandres duna a Holdin, 

Le Mans a Borel, sun cusin ; 

Buloigne duna a Liger, 

E Puintif diimsL a Richer.— f. 87*. c. 1. 

P. 593. vv. 24191-24194.— Not in Wace. 

P. 594. vv. 24195-24214. — Wace only says, in four lines, that Arthur 
returned in the month of April to England, where he was joyfully received, 
vol. ii. p. 93. 

P. 595. vv. 24229-24240. — Not in Wace, but the passage immediately 
preceding is given in a more dilated form in the French text ; a circum- 
stance so unusual as to deserve notice. 

P. 597. vv. 24273-24278. — Not in Wace. It would be curious to as- 
certain what books these were to which La3amon in this passage refers. 
As to the ancient magnificence of Caerleon, see the Itinerary of Giraldus, 
translated by Sir R. C. Hoare, vol. i. p. 103. 4to. 1806. 

Ibid, V. 24283. seint Julicen. — In the place of this saint (called Juliushj 
Geoffrey), M. Le Roux de Lincy in his edition of Wace gives us another 
named Vulc (!), although his own book, vol. i. p. 164, and the collation of 
any good MS. or of the Latin text might have taught him better. 

P. 599. V. 24316.— In a late MS. of Wace, Bibl. du Roi, 1515^-^ fonds 
Colbert, are here interpolated fourteen lines, not in the earlier MSS. nor 
in Lajamon, detailing the names of the different peoples summoned by 
Arthur. See the printed edition, vol. ii. p. 96. 

Ibid. V. 24324. Angel. — See previous note, p. 381. 

Ibid. V. 24330. — Here in the MS. 75153-' are four more lines interpo- 
lated, relative to Loth and his son Walwain, vol. ii. p. 97. 

P. 600. V. 24332. Cadwa^lan. — In Geoffrey he is mentioned as " Cad- 
vallo Lauirh, rex Venedotorum, qui nunc Norgualenses dicuntur," which 
Roberts renders, " Caswallon Lawhir (the long-handed,) lord of Gwynedd." 
Waco reads Cadval. 

Ibid. V. 24335. Gloiichastre. — The printed Welsh translation ascribed 
to Tysilio reads Worcester, erroneously, instead of Gloucester, and omits 
the next name. 

NOTES. 389 

P. 600. r. 24336. Winchastre. — Geoffrey and several of the copies of Wace 
read Worcester here, but others agree with Lajaraon in reading Winchester. 

Ibid. V. 24337. Gurguint. — He is omitted in Geoffrey and in some copies 
of Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 24339-24341. — In Geoffrey and Wace Cursal is assigned to 
Chester, and Urgent (JJrhgennius, Geoffrey) to Bath. 

Ibid. V. 24343. ^rnald. — Called Anaraut in Geoffrey and Wace. In 
the Welsh version falsely named earl of Shreivsbury . 

Ibid. V. 24345. Balien of Silech(Estre. — The text of Geoffrey reads " Gal- 
luc Saresberiensis," which is evidently erroneous, since Salisbury has pre- 
viously occurred. Wace has Balluc, earl of Silchester or Chichester, for 
the MSS. vary, as is the case with the two English texts. The printed 
edition of Wace has the corrupt reading Balduf. 

Ibid. V. 24346. Wigein. — Geoffrey and Wace read Jugein. 

Ibid. vv. 24349-24358. — Several of the names here differ considerably 
from those in Geoffrey and Wace, and all are more or less corrupt : the 
MSS. also of the Latin and French texts present numerous variations, and 
it would be superfluous to note them down. It may however be remarked, 
that Madoc and Traher do not occur at all in Geoffrey or Wace, and that 
Peredur mab Elidur has been improperly considered as two persons. Ro- 
berts in his translation of the Welsh version has bestowed some pains on 
this list, p. 151, and may be referred to, together with the text of Geoffrey 
in MS. Reg. 13 D. ii. Robert of Brunne thus dismisses the dry catalogue 

of names : — 

Of ther childir it sais ther names, 

To neuen tham here it ne frames. 

Ther was Porsud sone, Donant, 

& ser Regin sone, Elant, 

& Cohel sone, hight Keneus, 

& Katelle sone, Katellus ; 

& other names, selcouth to telle, 

It is not on tham to duelle. 

Thise serued at the Round Table ; 

To rekne tham alle it is fable.—/. 65*. c. 2. 

P. 601. V. 24372. Lundene. — Geoffrey and Wace add, that he was also 
legate of Rome, and could cure by the virtue of his prayers. 

Ibid. V. 24374. Cantware-buri. — The see of London is supposed to have 
existed as an archbishopric from the period of the introduction of Christi- 

390 NOTES. 

anity, under Lucius, to the advent of Augustine. See Godwin de Prcesu- 
libus, pp. 169, 171. fol. 1743. 

P. 602. V. 24381. Maluerus. — Called Malvasius or Malveisus by Geof- 
frey and Wace. 

Ibid. V. 24383. KinkaiUn of Frislonde. — Not in Wace or Geoffrey. 
Robert of Brunne instead of this line supplies another, " Kynmare, kyng 
of Wentland," f. 66. c. 1, in reference to the passage at p. 527, but the 
name of the king is there different. 

Ibid. V. 24386. bi Nor^e. — Wace has, " ki ert reis de Noreis," which 
La^amon has not translated correctly. 

P. 603. vv. 24411-12.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 24419-20. — In Wace other causes are assigned for their arrival, 
in six additional lines, omitted by La3amon. Vol. ii. p. 101. 

P. 604. vv. 24427-24430.— Not in Wace. The passage that follows, 
extending from v. 24431 to v. 24442. is much enfeebled in the translation. 
Compare the printed edition, vol. ii. p. 102. 

P. 605. vv. 24457-24468. — Wace only saj^s, in four lines, that two 
archbishops led the king, each of whom sustained one of his arms. 

P. 606. vv. 24483-24496.— Not in Wace. 

P. 607. vv. 24513-24516. — On the contrary Wace tells us the queen 
was crowned in her chamber, and afterwards conducted to the nunnery (of 
St. Julius) to avoid the crowd. Vol. ii. p. 104. 

P. 608. vv. 24519-24522. — Wace only says that they held wliite doves 
(columbs) in their hands. The editor chooses to print cornelles in his text, 
vol. ii. p. 105. 

Ibid. V. 24536. — The French original has here several lines omitted by 
Lajamon, which were thus rendered more than a century afterwards by 
Robert of Brunne : — 

M'han the procession was gone, 
The messe bigan son on one ; 
Ther mot men se faire sumenyng 
Of tlie cleikis th* best couth syng ; 
AV trihille, mene, & burdoun, 
Of many on was suete soun ; 
Of tho th' songe hie & lowe, 
& tho th' coiithc organes blowe. 
Inouh thcr was of mynstralcic, 
& of songe faire melodie. 

NOTES. 301 

Thcr mot incii folk com & go 

To the kiikes botlie, to & fro, etc.—/. GG''. c. 1. 

P. 609. vv. 24559-24570. — In Geoffrey and Wace the king and queen 
change their crowns before they quit the monasteries, and the king then 
proceeds to his palace to dine, and the queen to hers. 

P. 610. V. 24580. — So also in Geoffrey and Wace, but the latter adds, 
in reference to this custom in his own time, 

E Bretun uncor la teneient, 

Quant ensemble feste faseient. — MS. Cotl.f. 89*. c. 1. 

In the Welsh version attributed to Tysilio (if rightly translated) Arthur 
and his queen dine together in the same hall, but in all probability there 
is some error. 

P. 611. vv. 24597-24600. — Wace only says, " vestu d'ermine," and 
does not mention the gold rings. 

P. 612. vv. 24609-10.— Not in Wace. 

Ihid. vv. 24617-24622.— In the French text we read. 

La reine i out ses servanz, 

Ne vus sal dire quels ne quanz ; 

Richement e bele fu senie, efc.—f. 89*. e. 2. 

P. 613. vv. 24635-24638.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. V. 24643. — Wace adds three lines of extravagant panegyric, omitted 
in the English paraphrase :■ — 

Plus erent curteis e vaillant 

Neis li povre paisant, 

Ke chevalers en altres regnes : 

E altre si erent les femmes.-^. 89*. c. 2. 
He also says that no knight was to be seen of any estimation who wore 
not his arms and clothes of one color, and so also the ladies. Vol. ii. p. 110. 

P. 615. VD. 24685-24694.— Not in Wace. 

P. 616. V. 24718.— After this line several MSS. of Wace have an addi- 
tion of no less than forty-four lines, descriptive of the music and games used 
at Arthurs feast. They are exceedingly curious, and have been quoted par- 
tially by myself in the Notes to Havclok, p. 200, and by M. Michel in the 
Glossary to Tristan, vol. ii. p. 219. The entire passage may be seen in 
Le Roux de Lincys edition, vol. ii. p. 111. It must, however, be observed 
that two of the oldest existing MSS. of Wace, namely, Cange 27, in the 
Bibliotheque du Roi, and MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi. in the British Museum, 
wholly omit these lines, and so did doubtless the copy from which Lajamon 
translated or paraphrased his work. It may become a question therefore. 

392 NOTES. 

whether these lines really proceeded from the pen of Wace. Robert of 
Brunnes abbreviated version of them may be seen in Ellis's Specimetis of 
the early Ernjlish Poets, vol. i. p. 421, ed. 1811, but printed so incorrectly 
as to be often unintelligible. 

P. 617. V. 24728. — The whole of this narrative, from v. 24549, is quo- 
ted by Ellis in the work above cited, vol. i. pp. 61-73, accompanied by 
the Latin and French corresponding texts, and the versions of Robert of 
Gloucester and Robert of Brunne. A portion also, from v. 24657 to v. 
24680, is given by the Rev. J. Conybeare in his Essay on Anglo-Saxon 
metre, p. Ixviii. inserted in the Illustrations of Anglo-Saxon Poetry, edited 
by his brother, Svo, 1826. In some MSS. of "Wace, but not the earliest, 
there are twenty additional lines relative to the gifts bestowed by Arthur, 
vol. ii. of the printed edition, p. 114. Robert of Brunne also has them, 
but they are not in the Royal or Cotton MSS. in the British Museum, nor 
in Cange 27 nor Cange 73, in the Bibliotheque du Roi at Paris. It must 
be further remarked, that the passage which occurs in Geoffrey here, lib. 
ix. c. 15, concerning the appointment of David as archbishop of Canter- 
bury, and of several bishops, is wholly omitted by Wace, and consequently 
by his paraphrasts. 

Ibid. vv. 24743-24749. — Wace only says they were old, hoary men, 
well attired, and bore olive branches in their hands. The latter circum- 
stance is not noticed by Lajamon. 

P. 618. tv. 24771-24830.— In the French text, as in Geoffrey, the sub- 
stance of this address is given in the form of a letter from the emperor to 
Arthur, vol. ii. p. 116. La^amon, as usual, departs greatly from a literal 
version of his original. 

P. 621. vv. 24837-24846.— In Wace thus : 
Ke cil serrunt deshonure 
Ki eel message unt aporte. 
Mult eusseut as messagiers 
Dit ledenges e repruvieis.— ^/l 91. c. 2. 

Pp. 622. 623. vv. 24861-24870. 24878.— Not in Wace. 

P. 623. vv. 24883-24886.— In Wace described thus : 
En une sue tur perriue, 
Ke Tcin clamont Tur Giyantine.—f. 91. c. 2. 

and in Geoffrey, " Giganteam turrim," which Roberts renders the " Tower 
nf the Heroes." 

P. 624. V. 24899, etc. — This speech of Cador and the reply of Walwain 
take place, in the French text, whilst they are ascending the steps of the 
tower, but in Robert of Brunne after the knights have entered, as in La- 

NOTES. 393 

P. 626. vv. 24955-24964.— Compare this reply in Wace, vol. ii. p. 121, 
where it is worded rather differently. 

P. 630. vv. 25037-25040.— Not in Wace. 

P. 634. V. 25133. — Howel prefaces his speech in Wace by advising 
Arthur to summon his forces, pass the sea, seize on France, cross the 
Great St. Bernard, and take possession of Lombardy, vol. ii. p. 127. 

Ibid. V. 25141. Sibeli. — Of these prophecies several Latin and French 
versions appear to have been in circulation in the 13th and 14th centuries, 
but I have been unable to find the precise passage referred to. In MS. 
Cott. Claud. B. VII. f. 213*. is the " Prophetia SibillcB et Merlini vatis de 
Albania et Anglia, et eorum eventibus," in forty-four lines, part of which 
is quoted by Fordun, lib. iii. c. 22, 23, and in the same MS. follow eleven 
lines intitled, " Sybillu de eventibus regnorum et eorum regum ante 
finem mundi," which are printed by the Rev. Dr. Todd in his notes to "The 
Last Age of the Church. By John Wyclyffe." Dubl. 1840. p. xc. and 
where, in the first line, for lenitas he should have read and printed levitas. 
In the same MS. also, f. 219. and in Vesp. E. iv. f. 143. is a Latin copy 
of the predictions of the Tiburtine Sibyl, daughter of Priam, who is con- 
founded here, as elsewhere, with the queen of Sheba. They are printed 
at the end of the preface of Gallseus to his edition of the Oracula Sibyl- 
Una, 4to, Amst. 1689 ; and in De la Rues Essais sur les Bardes, etc. torn, 
ii. pp. 280. 283, is a notice of an Anglo-Norman version of them. A 
Welsh translation also exists in the MS. Red Book of Hergest, in Jesus 
College, Oxford, and in the Hengwrt library. 

P. 636. V. 25191. — The speech of Angusel in the French text is much 
more diffuse, and consists chiefly of invective against the Romans, vol. ii. 
pp. 129-132. 

P. 637. V. 25209. ^reo ]nisend.- The number in Geoffrey, in the best 
MSS.of Wace, and in Robert of Brunne, is two thousand ; but in the French 
printed text it is, falsely, " dix mil," vol. ii.p. 132. 

P. 638. vv. 25227-25230. — For PeozVe Wace reads Lohereyne, and omits 
all notice of Lombardy and Britanny, France and Normandy. 

P. 639. vv. 25245-25274. — Wace only says, that Arthur caused letters 
to be written and given to the messengers, whom he treated honorably. 
"To Rome," said he, "you may say, that I am lord of Britain. I hold 
France, and will continue to do so. They shall truly know that I will 
forthwith come to Rome, not to pay tribute, but to demand it." Vol. ii. 
p. 133. 

394 NOTES. 


P. 1. vv. 25277-25282.— Not in Wace. 

P. 2. vv. 25293-25326. — The speech of the legates extends in Wace to 
eight lines only, in eulogy of Arthur and his court, but in more moderate 
terms than in Lajamon, vol. ii. p. 133. 

P. 3. V. 25327. — Here commences the tenth book of Geoifrey. In 
Robert of Brunne the advice of the senators is expressed thus : — 
Thei said to the Eniperour alle aLoute, 
W* force 36 salle do him loute ; 
& if he com, we salle him thoute, 
Reue him his renge, maugre his snoute. — f. 70. c. 2. 

P. 5. V. 25371. Mccptisas. — Wace and Geoffrey read Micipsa, and in 
the following line, instead of Meodras, have the very different name of Ali- 
phatima or Alifantina. Lower down, v. 25377, the same authorities read 

P. 6. V. 25380. ]>a bleomen. — In Wace, " Affricans menat e Mors." So 
in the early English legend of St. Margaret, MS. Reg. 17 A. xxvii. f. 45. 
" As heo biheold lokinde uppon hire riht half, ])a seh ha hwer set an 
unsehen unwiht, muchele del blacere pen ever eni blamon, so grislich, •^ ne 
mahte hit namon lihtliche areachen." 

Ibid. V. 25385. Murces Lucas and Catel. — Geoffrey gives the Roman 
names more at length, Lucius Catellus, Marius Lepidus, Caius Metellus Cotta, 
Quintus Milvius Catuhis, and Quintus Carutius. They are blundered in 
Wace nearly as in Lajamon, but are only in number five, whereas in the 
Welsh versions they are subdivided into eleven persons ! 

Ibid. V. 25395. feouwer hundred ]msende. — The precise number in Wace 
is 400,180 cavalry, besides footmen, but in Geoffrey only 40,160. 

P. 7. V. 25403. auormest heruestes dceie. — Wace says, " entrant Aust," 
and Geoffrey " incipientibus kalendis Augusti." Robert of Brunne renders 
the expression by " Lammas." 

Ibid. vv. 25419-25424. — Wace omits all mention of Scotland and Man, 
and the numbers vary in different MSS. as is, indeed, almost everywhere 
the case. 

P. 8. VV. 25434-25436.— For Brutaine the Royal and Cotton MSS. of 
Wace read Maine, the printed text Auvergne, and Robert of Brunne Pikar- 
die. The notice of Loraine and Lovaine is an addition by Lajamon. They 
altogether supply 80,000 men, in the French text. 

Ibid. V. 25447. fifti ]>usend.—ln Geoffrey and the best MSS. of Wace 

NOTES. 395 

60,000. The entire number of Arthurs cavalry is reckoned by the former 
at 183,200. 

P. 9. V. 25462. Barbe-fieote. — Barfleur, a town of the department of 
La Manche, in Bretagne. Its port is now filled up. 

Pp. 9-11. vv. 25467-8. 25485-25492. 25503-25516.— Not in Wace. 

P. 12. vv. 25529-25546. — Instead of these lines we have in the French 
original a much longer and animated description, the latter part of which 
contains many curious nautical terms, the meaning of which La3amon may 
not have understood. See the whole passage in the printed edition, vol. ii. 
pp. 139-142. A portion of this passage was quoted from the Cotton MS. 
by M. Michel in his edition of Tristan, Gloss, in v. Lof, together with the 
corresponding lines in Robert of Brunne, furnished him by myself. As the 
latter version is yet inedited, the entire passage is here subjoined. 

Ther mot men se maryners, 

Many wight man in schippes sers, 

Kopes to right, lynes to lay, 

Bi bro, bi bankis to tache & tay ; 

Kables to knyt about ther mast, 

The saile on 3erd fest thei fast ; 

Ankres, ores, redy to hande, 

Rothers, helmes, right to stande ; 

Boulyne to set, boulyne to hale, 

Bordes, keuiles, atache to wale*. 

Whan alle was redy in gode poynt, 

Vnto the lond the schippes joynt. 

Som stode in schippe & som on land, 

Brigges, plankes, kest to the sand ; 

W men, w* horses forto charge, 

Galeis, cogges, schippes large ; 

Brouht in helmes, hauberkes & schcldes, 

& alle th' men in bataile weldes ; 

Hors in to drawe, hors in to dryue ; 

Men hied in after, bilyue. 

Whan alle were in, & mad 3are, 

& thei on ther way suld fare. 

To tham on the lond thei spak to est, 

& praied tham grete ther frendes best ; 

On bothe parties was heuy chere, 

Whan frendes departed lene and dere. 

Whan alle were in, & was on flote, 

Maryners diglit tham to the note, 

Ther takille forto dight & taile, 

Vnto the wynd wele forto saile ; 

Ankers vpwond, saile drouh hie, 

The wynd blow, ther schippes gon flie ; 
* Still preserved in the term gun-wale. 

3i)6 NOTES. 

& tho maistres, th' were slie, 

Ilkone did ther maistrie. 

Som aforced the wyndas, 

Som the lofe, som the betas. 

The maister manners stode bihjTid, 

The schip to stere to the vfynd.—/. 71. c. 1. 

Wace concludes by praising the courage of the man who first made a 
ship, and trusted himself to the wind and waves, all of which Lajamon 

P. 13. vv. 25557-2.5580. — Not in Wace, who relates the dream in the 
third person, and more briefly. 

P. 16. vv. 25627-25634. — In Wace some are said to have interpreted 
the dream to have reference to a giant destined to be slain by Arthur, and 
others in other manners, but all gave it a favorable signification. Arthur 
says, he thinks it must refer to the war between himself and the emperor. 
Vol. ii. p. 144. Compare the Roman de Merlin, vol. ii. f. cxlii*, and Malorys 
Morte d' Arthur, Yih. v. c. 4. ed. 4to. 1817. 

P. 18. vv. 25675-25692. — Not in Wace, who, as usual, relates the 
transaction in a narrative form. 

P. 20. V. 25706. — In several copies of Wace two lines are here added, 
stating that the giants name was Dinabruc, and so also in Robert of Brunne, 
and a prose Latin chronicle of the 13th century, MS. Cott. Vespas. E. iv. 
f. 106. No name is given by Geoifrey. 

Pp. 20. 21. vv. 25723-4. 25729-25730.— Not in Wace. 

P. 21. vv. 25743-25762. — Not in Wace, who causes Arthur at first to 
give brief instructions to Beduer, to proceed to either liill, and when he 
had found the giant, to return, vol. ii. p. 147. This extends to v. 25802 
of the English paraphrase. 

P. 24. V. 25807. up a-stah ]>ene munt. — In Wace he is previously 
obliged to enter a boat, and cross the water, on account of its being high 
tide. ibid. 

Pp. 24. 26. vv. 25809-25824. 25855-25866.— Not in Wace. 

P. 26. vv. 25869-25880.— In the French text this doubt expressed by 
the old women, whether Beduer were angel or mortal, is not found, and 
she addresses him in diflferent terms. She afterwards relates her story, 
but in much fewer lines than in the English text. Vol. ii. pp. 148-151. 

Pp. 27. 29. 30. vv. 25881-25892. 25943-25954. 25963-25996.— Not 
in Wace. 

P. 32. V. 26005. — In Wace they leave their horses to the care of their 
esquires, at the foot of the hill. 

NOTES. 397 

P. 32. vv. 2C010-2601 1. — Lajamon has here, perhaps intentionally, de- 
parted from his original, in which it is stated, that the giant was found on 
the higher hill, aj^art from the one on which the old woman was stationed. 
Wace also relates, that the giant was not discovered asleep, but sitting by 
the fire, roasting one of the hogs, and having his beard and eyebrows 
smeared over with the fat. Vol. ii. p. 152. Robert of Brunnes version here 
is almost literal : — 

Be a mykille fire he sat, 

& roste suynes flesch fulle fat ; 

Som rosted, & som was sothen, 

His bryne, his berde ther w' was brothen, 

& alle to-soUed w' the spikke, — 

I trow th* sight was lotheUk.— /. 72*. c. 1. 

P. 33. vv. 26021-26044. — Not in Wace, who relates in three lines, that 
Arthur thought to surprise the giant, and take his club (marue) from him, 
but he is perceived, and the giant starts up at his approach. Vol. ii. p. 153. 
The generosity attributed to Arthur, of not attacking the giant when asleep, 
is due to the invention of La^amon. 

P. 34. vv. 26055-26104. — The remainder of the combat is differently 
described by Wace, vol. ii. p. 154. Compare the accounts in the Roman 
de Merlin, vol. ii. f. cxliiii, and Malorys Morte d' Arthur, lib. v. c. 5. 

P. 37. V. 26122. Rauinite.— The MSS. of Wace read Raive, Rara, Ar- 
tane, etc., which are corruptions of Geoffreys text, " in Aravio monte," 
lib. X. c. 3. The Welsh versions interpret it of Mount Snowdon. After 
this is inserted in W^ace, vol. ii. p. 156, (as also in Geoffrey and the Welsh 
translation,) an account, in twenty-four lines, of the mantle of king Riton, 
which was trimmed with the beards of vanquished monarchs, and of his 
defeat by Arthur, who kept the mantle as a trophy ; all of which, it is to 
be regretted, is omitted by La^amon. As this exploit has been celebrated 
in the ballad poetry of England (see Percys Reliques, vol. iii. p. 26. ed. 
1775.), it may not be out of place to quote here the version made by Ro- 
bert of Brunne, in the 14th century. 

He teld Beduer & syr Kay, 
Th' he had neuer so grete affray 
Of no geant bot of one, 
& th' geant hight Ritone. 
He did mykelle wonder & wo, 
& many kynges did he slo, 
& alle ther berdes he did of flo. 
A pane he maad of alle tho, 
& as a forrur he did tham tewe ; 
Se, how Riton was a schrewe I 

31)8 NOTES. 

Th' geant Riton sent his sond 

To Arthiire fro fer lond, 

& said he suld mak him aferde, 

Bot he flouh of his owen berde, 

& sent it him tille his paene, 

To mensk it ther it ^vas wane. 

& if lie sent it blithely, 

He suld do it most curteisy ; 

For he suld wle his pane w' alle 

About w* a filette smalle. 

& if Arthur wild nouht 

Do as Riton him besouht, 

Redy him sone als he niyght, 

Fo[r] Riton wild w' him fight ; 

& whilk of tham mot other slo, 

His berde suld do of flo, 

& haf the pane ilk a dele, 

Ther w' about \Tle it wele. 

Arthure vnto Riton went. 

In bataile slouh Riton & schent, 

& wan the pane & his berde ; 

On the mounte de Rame he was conquerde. 

Sithen fond Arthure non, 

Bot Diuabrok, als was Riton, 

Th* euer did tille him in dede, 

Th* he had of so mykelle drede.— y. 73. c. I. 

Those who wish to know more respecting this redoubtable giant, may 
consult the Roman de Merlin, vol. ii. fF. cxxix., cxxxiv., and Malorys Mor/e 
d' Arthur, lib. i. c. 27, who notwithstanding, in lib. v. c. 5, ascribes the 
formation of the mantle embroidered with royal beards to the giant on St. 
Michaels mount. The story is also alluded to in a manuscript fragment 
of the Anglo-Norman metrical romance of Tristan, in the possession of 
the Rev. W. Sneyd ; in the fabliau of the Chevalier aux deux epees, quoted 
by Le Roux de Lincy, vol. ii. p. 156 ; and in MS. Cott. Vespas. E. iv. f. 
lOG. According to the Welsh authorities this giant was an historical person- 
age, named Rhitta Gawr. See Owens Cambrian Biography, p. 292, and 
Camhro-Briion, vol. ii. p. 98. 

P. 38. V. 26145. jEleine Tumbel. — This legend has been printed from 
Wace at length in the " Histoire pittoresque du Monte Saint Michel etde 
Tombelene. Par Maximilian Raoul." 8vo. Par. 1833. pp. 251-270; which 
work may be consulted on the subject. The same story is alluded to by 
Guillaume de Saint Pair, the metrical chronicler of the abbey, who wrote 
in the first half of the thirteenth [the abbe De la Rue, and after him Le 
Roux de Lincy, says the ttvelfth'] century. See the unique copy of his 
poem in MS. Add. 10,289. Brit. Mus. f. 8^. 

NOTES. 399 

p. 39. vv. 26169-26184.— Not in Wace. 

P. 40. V. 26185. Albe. — ^The river Aube, which rises on the border of 
Burgundy, and flows through the province of Champagne, where it joins 
the Seine. The name is translated Gwen (white) in the Welsh version 
ascribed to Tysilio, on which Roberts's note is entirely wrong, p. 163. 

Ibid. vv. 26187-26216. — Wace only states, briefly, that Arthur was in- 
formed by the peasants and by his spies, that the emperor was encamped 
near the place, and had with him such a marvellous army, that the earth 
could scarcely find them subsistence. Vol. ii. p. 160. 

P. 43. vv. 26245-6. — The copies of Wace I have consulted, as well as 
the printed text, do not mention these acquirements of Walwain ; but it is 
remarkable that Robert of Brunne, in his version of Wace, should have a 
similar line, which would induce a suspicion that the passage originally 
stood in the French text. 

P. 45. vv. 26301-26306, — Added by La3amon. A recent MS. of Wace 
interpolates two lines, to the eff'ect that the earls promised to do as re- 

P. 47. vv. 26347-26360.— Instead of these lines Wace tells us, that 
each spoke what he pleased, and the emperor heard them, and replied ac- 
cordingly. Vol. ii. p. 164. 

P. 49. vv. 26401-26438.— Not in Wace. 

P. 51. V. 26441. Quencelin. — In Wace called Quintilian, nephew of the 
emperor, and in Geoffrey, Cains Quintilianus. 

P. 52. vv. 26461-26470. 26474-26476.— Not in Wace. 

P. 54. V. 26517. etc. — In Wace the first Roman knight is killed by 
Gerin of Chartres ; the second by Beos of Oxford ; and the third by Wal- 
wain. Vol. ii, p. 167. 

P. 56. vv. 26551-26556. — The speech assigned by Wace to Gerin is 
given by La3araon to Walwain, vv. 26527-8. 

Ibid. V. 26567. theeorl. — It is Walwain who thus speaks, in the French 

P. 58. vv. 26595-6. — Not in Wace, who has instead a passage of twenty 
lines (engrafted on Geoffrey) respecting a cousin of Marcel, who rides up 
to attack Walwain, and receives a blow which cuts off his arm. Vol. ii. 
p. 170. This addition is unnecessary, and only weakens the narrative; it 
is therefore very judiciously omitted by La3amon. 

400 NOTES. 

P. 58. V. 26G03. ni^e ]msenile. — The number in Wace and Geoffrey is 
six thousand. 

Ibid. vv. 26617-26624. — On the contrary Wace says they sat armed 
on their horses, to protect the messengers. 

P. 59. vv. 26629-26642.— In the French text the flight of the earls is 
mentioned in very general terms. 

P. 60. vv. 26649-26660.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. V. 26665. six \usend. — Ten thousand in Wace and Geoffrey. 

P. 61. vv. 26673-26676.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 266S1-26690. — Instead of these lines it is narrated in the 
French original, that Arthur being aware his messengers to the emperor had 
not returned, nor the force sent to meet them, summoned Ider, son of Nuz 
(Ederyn ap Nudd in the Welsh version), and despatched him with 5000 
men in search of their comrades. When they arrived, they found Walwain 
and Beos of Oxford fighting desperately. Vol. ii. p. 173. The combat then 
commences afresh, and is described at length, as in La^amon. 

Pp. 64, 65. vv. 26743-26748. 26753-26756. 26762-3.— Not in Wace. 

P. &Q. vv. 26789-26796. — Here again La^amon departs from liis ori- 
ginal ; apparently with the intention of doing greater honor to Walwain. 
In Wace this hero is described as making an attack, assisted by Ider and 
Gerin of Chartres, and by their united efforts they succeed in reseating 
Beos of Oxford on his horse (from which he had fallen in struggling with 
Petreius,) and in taking Petreius prisoner. Vol. ii. p. 178. 

P. 67. vv. 26821-26826.— Not in Wace. 

P. 68. vv. 26831-26859. — In the French text the narrative is differently 
told. Arthur thanks his knights for the prisoners, and promises rewards. 
He then commits the prisoners to safe custody, and takes counsel to send 
them to Paris. He selects the force which is to conduct them thither, 
etc. Vol. ii. p. 180. 

P. 70. vv. 26884-26891.— Not in Wace. 

P. 71. vv. 26900-26905. — Yor Sextorius vfe should read Sertorius, as 
in Wace and Geoffrey, and the words "of Turkic" in the first text, are 
clearly an error of the transcriber. Instead of Babiloine Wace and Geof- 
frey have Syria, and in several MSS. of the former the names of the Ro- 
man senators are given thus, Caricius, Cutellus, and Wlteius ; whereas in 
Geoffrey there are only two persons, Wlteius Cutellus and Quintus Caru' 

NOTES. 401 

tins. Lajamon has here evidently been misled by a faulty copy of the 
French text. 

P. 71. vv. 26917-26921.— Not in Wace. 

P. 72. vv. 26928-26931.— Not in Wace, who adds briefly, that the Ro- 
mans chose a fit place to make an embankment, and remained there till 

Ibid. vv. 26946-7. — Not in Wace, who only says, " Chevalchent alkes 
asseur." The number of men assigned by Lajamon to Cador and Borel is, 
in the French text, given to Richer and Beduer. 

P. 74. V. 26980. — Wace merely says, they delivered the prisoners to 
their esquires to guard. 

Ibid. V. 26987. — In the French text are some lines added here, omitted 
by La3amon. Wace says, the Britons divided themselves into four com- 
panies ; namely, Cador, with the Cornish men ; Beduer, with the Herupeis 
(stated by Fauchet to be the inhabitants of the He de France) ; Borel, with 
the men of the province of Le Mans ; and Richer, with his own people. 
Vol. ii. p. 183. 

P. 75. V. 27008. ]>reo Bruttes. — Wace names four, besides Borel, and 
so also Geoffrey. According to the Welsh version, they were, Hirlas of 
Eliawn, Meyrik ap Cador, Halyduc of Tindagol, and Cei ap Ithel. 

P. 76. vv. 27023-27028. — Gascony is not mentioned in the original, 
which states also the number of Guitards forces at 3000 knights, besides 
foragers and archers. The meaning of the term foriers (so clearly ex- 
plained in vv. 27029-27032.) is quite unknown to the editor of Wace. 
See his note, vol. ii. p. 185. 

P. 77. V. 27054. fiftene hundred. — "Plus de cent," says Wace; but in 
regard to numbers great license is always taken. Waces narrative of the 
encounter is more diffuse than in the English text. 

P. 78. V. 27086. bureden fa deden. — Wace is a little more explanatory 
here. They sought, he says, for Borel, the earl of Mans, and found him 
lying in his blood, about to expire. Vol. ii. p. 187. (compared with MSS. 
Reg. and Cott.). 

P. 79. vv. 27094-5. — Not in Wace, who tells us instead, that the newly 
captured prisoners were taken and presented to Arthur. His chieftains 
promise him future victory. Vol. ii. p. 187. 

Ibid. VV. 27098-27 1 23. — Not in Wace. The prophecy referred to would 
seem to be the same that is expressed in Geoffrey, lib. vii. c. 3, by the 
single line, " Timebit Romulen domus ipsius saevitiam." 

VOL. III. 2 D 

40-2 NOTES. 

P. 81. V. 27144. ^iist.' — Geoffrey tells us, Lucius Tiberius doubted 
whether he should risk a battle with Arthur, or retreat to Autun (part of 
ancient Burgundy, in the department of the Saone and Loire), and there 
await succours from the emperor Leo. The latter part is omitted by Wace, 
who throughout regards Lucius as the emperor, and in this he is followed 
by nearly the whole stream of writers on this fabulous portion, of British 
history. See Wyntowns remarks on this subject, vol. i. p. 121. 

Ibid. V. 27146'. Lengres. — The town of Langres is in the department of 
Upper Marne, part of the ancient province of Champagne. Two lines are 
added by Wace, descriptive of its situation, which are passed over by La- 

P. 82. V. 27167. Sosie.—T\\e MS. of Wace in the Bibliotheque du 
Roi, marked 73, Cange, reads Suison. The spot is still indicated by a vil- 
lage bearing the name of Val de Sit son, not far from Dijon, in the dei)art- 
ment of the Cote d'Or. 

P. 83. vv. 27188-27197. — These lines are not in Wace, and only serve 
to confuse the account of the division of the troops which follows. 

Ibid. V. 27200. seouentene ]nisend. — Wace states the number at 6666, 
which he borrows from Geoffrey, as constituting the force of a Roman le- 
gion. Vol. ii. p. 190. 

P. 84. vv. 27222-27235.— Not in Wace. 

P. 85. vv. 27244-27247.— Wace tells us (after Geoffrey), that Arthur 
had selected a legion of his best knights, among whom were those he had 
himself brought up, i. e. of the Round Table, and caused his Standard of 
the Dragon to be carried in the middle of them. The rest he divided into 
eight comi)anies, part of horse and part of foot, to each of which companies 
two chieftains were assigned, whose names then follow, as in La^amon, but 
the latter has confused his narrative. With regard to the Dragon-Stand- 
ard of Arthur, see the Roman de Merlin, vol. i. f. Ixxxi*., and Wartons Hist. 
Engl. Poetry, vol. i. Diss. i. p. xv. note, edit. 1840. 

P. 88. vv. 27308-9.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. V. 27312. \reo 8f ]>ritti kinelond. — In the Royal and Cotton MSS. 

we find, 

Ke Bretaigne est en nostra tens 
Dame de trente regions.—/. 101*. c. 2. 

The printed text reads tantes. 

Ibid. vv. 27316-27326. — Instead of this passage are some lines in the 
original, speaking in contempt of the emperors forces, and comparing them 
to women. "\'ol. ii. j). 194, 

NOTES. 403 

P. 89. V. 27338. — Wace here takes occasion to insert eight lines in 
praise of Lucius, who, he says, was born in Spain, of a good Roman fa- 
mily ; he was between thirty and forty years of age, and of great valor, 
on which account he had been made emperor. Vol. ii. p. 195. compared 
with MS. Cott. Robert of Brunne has also this addition, which is not to 
be found in the Latin of Geoffrey, and must have been borrowed from an- 
other source. 

P. 90. vv. 27352-27365. — Not in Wace, who says, that when the em- 
peror had learnt the proceedings of Arthur, he became aware that he must 
retreat or fight. Retreat he would not, so he summoned the kings, princes 
and dukes of his host, and addresses them. Vol. ii. p. 196. Lajamon di- 
vides the speech into two portions, and places the first part last. 

P. 91. V. 27389. fif 8^ twenti kingen. — Wace reckons the number of the 
kings and other chieftains at two hundred, which in M. Le Roux de Lincys 
edition is absurdly extended to cent mil, vol. ii. p. 196. 

P. 92. vv. 27414-27423.— Not in Wace. 

P. 93. vv. 27426— 27439.— The narrative differs here from the French 
original, in which we are told, that the pagans who held their fiefs of Rome 
were intermixed with the Christians, i. e. the Romans. They were divided 
by thirties, by forties, by fifties, etc. up to thousands, consisting both of 
foot and horse. They march into the valley to attack the Britons. Vol. 
ii. p. 198. In Geoffrey, the account differs more from Wace than from 
La3amon. He distributes the emperors army into twelve legions, of 6666 
men each, and all on foot. To each of these leaders are assigned, whose 
names are given, lib. x. c. 8. The description of the battle is very spirited 
in Wace, and is, as usual, much paraphrased by the English poet. 


Pp. 94-96. vv. 27446. 27448-27451. 27461-2. 27472-3. 27480-27483. 
27498-27513.— Not in Wace. 

P. 98. vv. 27546-7. — Here and in the next page, the numbers are sup- 
plied by Lajamon. 

P. 100. V. 27593. Ridwa^elan. — It is difficult to account for the change 
of name here. In Geoffrey and Wace it is Hirelgas, which, in the Welsh 
texts, is rendered Hirlas. Lajamon must intentionally, I conceive, have 
departed from his usual guide. 

Ibid. V. 27606. ff hundred. — Three hundred in Wace and Geoffrey. 

P. 102. vv. 27633-27661.— In Geoffrey and Wace (who are followed by 
Robert of Brunne and Robert of Gloucester) the narrative is different, for 
Hirelgas is said to have prevented the corpse of Boccus from falling, by 

2 D 2 

^04 NOTES. 

seizing and placing it on his own horse ; and then taking it to the place 
where his uncle lay dead, he cuts it into pieces. Perhaps La^amon may have 
jiurposely omitted this savage piece of revenge. After this Hirelgas addresses 
his companions a second time, and renews the attack. Vol. ii. p. 206. 

P. 103. V. 27662. — Previous to this line is an insertion in the French 
text of eight lines, relating the comhat of Holdin, duke of the Flemings, 
with Alifantin, king of Spain, both of whom are slain. In some copies 
also (and among them the Cotton MS.), eight other lines are interpolated, 
in which Wichart or Guichart, duke of Poitiers, encounters and slays the 
king of Africa. Vol. ii. p. 207. The latter passage is not in Brunne, nor 
is it at all countenanced by Geoffrey. 

Ibid. vv. 27665-27695. — This combat is dismissed by Wace in a very 
summary manner, as he tells us in four lines only, that the two oppo- 
nents slew each other. The addition about Gecron, in the English text, 
seems to be due wholly to the invention of La^amon. Geoffrey merely 
says, that Micipsa, king of Babylon, was killed, but does not say by whom. 
He adds also to the number of the slain, on the side of the emperor, 
the senators Quintus Milvius and Marius Lepidus, who are omitted by 

P. 104. V. 27696. Walivain ]>at bihedde. — The immediate cause of the 
advance of Walwain and Howel, with their forces, is passed over in the 
English paraphrase, whereas Geoffrey and Wace both state, that it arose 
from the flight of a body of troops commanded by the three earls, Urgent 
of Bath, Balluc or Galluc of Wiltshire (Salisbury, in Geoffrey), and Cur- 
sal of Chester ; all of whom had been slain by the Romans. Wace then 
proceeds to eulogise the Breton soldiers who fought with Howel, and says 
they forced their way through the enemy to the empei'ors standard, which 
bore an eagle of gold on the top. Vol. ii. p. 208. All this is omitted by 
La^amon, who appears in his account of this battle to have deviated in 
an unusual manner from the French text. 

P. 105. vv. 27724-27727. — The names here, as elsewhere, presen*^ 
many variations. The MS. of Geoffrey, Bibl. Reg. 13 D. ii. reads " Chin- 
marcocus, consul Trig er ice ;" and by Trigeria, Roberts understands Tri- 
guier, in Bretagne, p. 108. The French text has Kinmarc de Triguel, from 
which it is easy to perceive how Lajamon obtained his Strugul, which was 
an ancient castle seated near the river Ystrigul (whence its name), in Mon- 
mouthshire, and which gave a title to the earls of Pembroke, and to the 
adjacent district. See Ellis's Introduction to Domesday, vol. i. p. 30, and 
Camden, vol. ii. p. 9. 

NOTES. 10.) 

P. 106. V. 27749. — Wace adds, that the three companions of Kinard 
(Kinmarc) were also slain, with 2000 of their followers. 

P. 108. V. 27776. — In the French text some lines in praise of Wal- 
wains prowess are here inserted, which are thus rendered hy Robert of 


Wawayn was euer fresch & preste, 
Whan other ne myght, than was he beste ; 
Was no hehn w' stete so rank, 
Th' his siierd ne thorgh it sank.—;/. 80. c. 1. 

P. 109. vv. 27808-27825.— Arthurs address in Wace is fuller, and has 
more spirit and animation. His personal valor also, and the issue of the 
battle, are related in a long passage not translated by Lajamon. He is 
described as a lion among a herd of cattle, and at each stroke of his sword 
Caliburn, a death ensues. He kills Sercor, king of Libya, and Politetes, 
king of Bithynia. The battle, however, continues for a long time doubt- 
ful, until the scale is turned by the appearance of Morvid, earl of Glou- 
cester, and his reserve of 6666 knights, who descend from the heights and 
attack the Romans in their rear. A general flight and slaughter of the 
emperors army then ensue. See the French text, vol. ii. pp. 213-216. 

P. 110. vv. 27834-27843.— So also in Wace and GeofFrey, but Peter 
Langtoft, and from him Robert of Brunne, add, that the general report 
assigned the emj^erors death to Walwain. This tradition has crept into 
some copies of the French prose romance of Merlin. See Introduction to 
Syr Gawayne, p. xv. 

P.m. vv. 27844-27863. 27874-27901.— Wace states in eight lines, 
that Arthur caused the corpse of the emperor to be placed honorably in a 
bier, and sent to Rome, with a message, that the Romans were to expect 
no other sort of tribute. 

P. 113. vv. 27902-27907.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 27910-27925. Kinun.—The MSS. of GeofFrey read Cumum, 
Chanum, Kainum, etc. which in the edition of Badius Ascencius, 1517, is 
falsely printed Cadomum. An ancient opinion (probably arising from the 
doubtful reading in the Latin Brut) appears to have fixed the locality at 
Caen, and is adopted by Guilielmus Brito, a writer of the 13th century. 
Wace, however (who as a native of Caen must have been intimately ac- 
quainted with the local traditions of the place), names the spot Chinon, u 
town in Touraine, distinguished for having been the place where Henry 
the Second died ; and that this is the correct reading is proved by the 
abbe De la Rue, in his Essais historiques sur la ville de Caen, torn. i. p. 13. 
12mo. 1820. La3amon follows Wace, but appears at the close of the pas- 

406 NOTES. 

sage to confound Chinon with Caen. The Welsh version states that Kay 
was conveyed to Poitou, and Robert of Gloucester says to Anjou ; mistakes 
that might easily arise from the geographical position of Chinon, which 
stands at an angle formed by the three provinces of Touraine, Anjou, and 

P. 114. «. 27929. Bceios. — Bayeux, in Normandy. Robert of Brunne 
adds more explicitly, 

Thei beried him at a kii-k nam[ed] Couht, 
W*out the gate, toward the souht.— /. 81. c. 2. 

P. 115. vv. 27936-27945. — Wace only mentions i/oWm or Howeldin 
as being buried at Terouane, and says nothing of his knights. The notice 
of Leir (Ligier) and his interment, is an addition by Wace to the original 
Latin text, founded probably on some local story. 

P. 116. vv. 27957-27987.— Not in Wace. 

P. 117. vv. 27992-28225. — This long passage affords us one of the 
most striking instances of amplification that occurs throughout the poem. 
The narrative of the dream, and the dramatic character given to the sub- 
sequent conversation between Arthur and the messenger, as well as the 
address of Arthur to his nobles, and the indignant speech of Walwain, are 
all due to the imagination of the English paraphrast, and fairly support his 
claim, in this and other instances, to the rank of an original writer. Wace 
has only thirty-four lines, vol. ii. p. 219, in which, after relating briefly the 
treason of Modred, he adds, that Arthur on receiving the news divided his 
army, and assigning one division to Hoel for the protection of France and 
Burgundy, resolved to return with the remainder to Britain. The lines 
extending from v. 28000 to v. 28095, were quoted by Sharon Turner, in 
his History of England during the Middle Ages, vol. v. p. 213. ed. 1830, 
who added an English version, in many respects faulty. Some remarks 
on it were sent by the editor of the present work to the Gentlemans Maga- 
zine for Noyemher, 1834. p. 485. It remains to be noticed, that Geof- 
frey commences his eleventh book immediately after the news of Mo- 
dreds treason has reached Arthur, and prefixes to the first chapter a few 
lines, in which he states, that he is about to relate the contest of Arthur 
with his nephew, as he found it " in Britannico sermone," and as he had 
been informed (audivit) by Walter [archdeacon] of Oxford, " in multis 
historiis peritissimo." In the Welsh versions these lines are omitted, as 
they are also by Wace, in conformity with the spirit by which translations 
made at an early period were usually composed, that is to say, the trans- 
lator invariably uses his own pleasure, in omitting all the prefatory and 
ex])lanatory matter which he may find in his original. 

NOTES. 407 

P. 128. V. 28233. Whit-sond. — The editor of Wace gives us here the 
name of Whitsand in so corrupt a shape, as to make it difficult to recog- 
nise ; and then, instead of correcting the error by the other MSS., renders 
it Winchester, although Wace is describing the place as a sea-port ! This 
lamentable ignorance of English topography is shewn, I regret to say, 
throughout the work. 

Ibid. vv. 28236-28257. — In the French text this is expressed in two 
lines, vol. ii. p. 221. 

P. 129. V. 28274. bi^eonde ])ere Htimbre. — Geoffrey and Wace state, 
that Modred not only bestowed on Cheldric the country from the Humber 
to Scotland, but also the territory which Hengist held in Kent. 

P. 130. vv. 28280-28295.— Wace says, that Cheldric brought over with 
him 700 (800 Geoffrey) ships filled with men, and estimates the entire 
number of Modreds forces, pagan and Christian, at 60,000 (80,000, Geof- 
frey). La3amon seems to have appropriated the latter number to the pa- 
gans, and then, of his own accord, states 100,000 as the aggregate amount 
of the united host. 

Ibid. vv. 28296-28305.— Not in Wace. 

P. 131. V. 28309. Romerel. — We should here xedARomenel, as in Wace, 
i. e. Romney. In Geoffrey the place of Arthurs landing is said to be, " in 
Rutupi portum," but the spot has been variously represented by later 
writers, as having been at Dover, Sandivich, Southampton, etc. See Syr 
Gaivayne, Introduction, p. xxii. 

Ibid. vv. 28322-28327. — Not in Wace, nor do I find any trace else- 
where of this exploit. But consult the work last cited, Introd. p. xxv. 

P. 132. vv. 28332-3.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 28336-28353. — The French text notices briefly the death of 
Angusel (king of Scotland), and then proceeds to relate, that as soon as 
Arthurs forces (without specifying the number) secured a landing, the 
army of Modred was put to flight. Some lines then follow, suppressed by 
Lajamon, stating that Modreds followers were unaccustomed to warfare, 
whereas Arthurs were veterans. Vol. ii. p. 223. The English poet perhaps 
thought this explanation might detract from the merit of the victory. 

P. 134. V. 28376. — In several MSS, of Wace some lines are here in- 
troduced, touching the burial of Walwain. See MS. Reg. f. 100''. c. 2, 
MS. Cott. f. 106*. c. 2, and Introduction to Syr Gawayne, p. xxiv. 

Ibid. vv. 28392-28407.— Not in Wace. 

P. 137. vv. 28440-28455. — The French text states merely in two lines. 

408 NOTES. 

that Arthur besieged and took Winchester. Then follow ten lines, omit- 
ted by La^amon, relative to the bestowal of the kingdom of Scotland on 
I vain, son of Urien, nephew of Angusel. The Cotton MS. of Wace leaves 
out this passage, as it does also all mention of Southampton and the cap- 
ture of Winchester ; and in this respect, approaches more closely to the 
Latin text of Geoffrey than the other copies. The passage of Merlins pro- 
phecies alluded to by La^amon, occurs in Geoffrey, lib. vii. c. 4. p. 5 1 . 1. 11 . 

P. 138. vv. 28478-28485.— This passage is omitted in most of the 
MSS. of the French text, but is partly preserved in the MS. du Roi, 73, 

P. 139. V. 28492. Scotlonde. — Wace does not mention Scotland, but 
says that Modred sent for aid to the Saracens and pagans, to the Irish, 
Norwegians, Saxons and Danes. Vol. ii. p. 228. 

P. 140. vv. 28514-28525.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 28532-^28540. — Geoffrey says the battle took place " ad flu- 
men Cambula," which in various MSS. of Wace is read Camblan, Cambre, 
Tanbre, and Tumble ; in Robert of Brunne Tambre ; and in Robert of Glou- 
cester Camble. The ancient British name was Camlan, as appears from a 
passage in the poem of Merlin, intitled Afullenau, quoted by Turner, Hist. 
Anglo-Sax. vol. iii. p. 554, and in the Vita Merlini of Geoffrey, p. 36. ed. 
1837. It appears subsequently to have been called by the abbreviated 
forms oi Alan and Camel, the latter of which it still retains. It rises about 
two miles to the north of Camelford, and flows into the sea below Pad- 
stow. See Lelands Assert io Arthuri, in the Collectanea, vol. v. p. 37. ed. 
1774, and Itinerary, vol. vii. p. 114. ed. 1769, Camdens Britannia, vol. i. 
p. 154. ed. 1772, and Draytons Poly-olbion, p. 5. ed. 1622. liajamons 
testimony to the precise spot where the struggle took place is valuable, 
from its being probably the earliest now existing, and is confirmed, accord- 
ing to Leland and Camden, not only by the local traditions of Camelford 
(which stands at the head of the river, in the parish of Lanteglos), but by 
the discovery of bones and armour there. It is singular that Wace should 
be silent respecting the numlier of Modreds forces, yet the amount given 
by Lajaraon agrees with the text of Geoffrey, lib. xi. c. 2. It is further 
remarkable, that the Latin narrative of this last and most eventful of Ar- 
thurs battles should be abridged in an unusual manner by the French trans- 
lator, who omits also all mention of the chiefs who fell on either side, as 
enumerated by Geoffrey. They occur, however, in Peter Langtoft, from 
whom Robert of Brunne copies the passage, fol. 83*. c. 2. 

p. 142. IV'. 28556-7. — Some Latin verses are quoted by Camden, vol. i. 

NOTKS. 409 

p. 154 [from the anonymous metrical Brut, MS. Cott. Jul. D. xi. f. 58*.], 
which speak in the same manner of the bloody conflict, and at the present 
time a point is locally called Slaughter-bridge, where the road crosses the 

P. 142. vv. 28576-28587. — These lines are added by Lajamon, and 
disjjlay more of the marvellous than perhaps any other instance of his in- 
terpolations. Are we to ascribe them to his own imagination, or do they 
re])i-esent the popular and exaggerated stories of the deified Arthurs death ? 
The tradition that only two of Arthurs knights survived at the last with 
him, seems to have been known to Walter Map, the author of the prose 
Mort Artus, who writes thus : " Et ains heure de vespres s' atornerent tel, 
gu'il ne remeist d'une part ne d'autre home nul, que txdt ne furent ochis ou 
navrd a mort, f or s seulement iij, dont li unsfu li rois Artus, et li autres Lu- 
cans li boutelliers, et li tiers Gyfles. Et li rois estoit navres H mort, si 
comme vus aves oi." MS. Add. 10,294. f. 93. col. 3. The same statement 
occurs in Malorys compilation, lib. xxi. cap. 4, except that the names of 
the surviving knights are given as Sir Lucan and Sir Bedwere. In the 
Welsh Triads three are said to have escaped from the battle of Camlan, 
namely, Morvran ab Tegid, in consequence of being so ugly, that every- 
body took him to be a demon out of hell ; Sandde Bryd Angel, on account 
of his beauty, which caused him to be taken for an angel ; and Glewlwyd 
Gavaelvawr, by reason of his great size and strength. Cambro-Briton, 
vol. ii. p. 385. 

P. 143. vv. 28590-28651. — Waces statement is as follows: "Arthur 
caused himself to be carried to Avalon, to have his wounds cured. He is 
still there, and the Britons expect his return, as they say. Master Wace 
can say no more of his end than Merlin the projihet said of him, viz. that 
his end should be doubtful [alluding to the words Et exitus ejus dubius erit, in 
the Prophecies, lib. vii. c. 3. of Geoffrey, p. 49. 1. 4. ed. 1587.]. The pro- 
phet spoke the truth, for people have doubted ever since, and will always 
continue to do so, whether he is dead or alive. He was carried into Ava- 
lon in the year from the incarnation 542 [falsely 642 in the printed French 
text], and it is to be regretted, he left no children. He delivered his king- 
dom to Cador, son of Constantine, his relation, and bade him be king until 
his return." MSS. Cott.f. 107*. c. 1., Reg.f. 101*. c. 1. Robert of Brunne 
closely translates the above passage, but inserts, relative to the British 
tradition of Arthurs being alive, the following lines : 

Bot I say, thei trowe wrong, 

If he life, his hf is long ; 

Bot the Bretons loiide lie, 

He was so wonded, th* him burd die.—/. 83*. c. 1. 

410 NOTES. 

It will be seen by a comparison of Wace with Lajamons text, how greatly 
the latter here differs from his original, and it is impossible not to recog- 
nise in this and in the parallel passage, vol. ii. p. 546, the influence of 
British traditionary tales, derived from other and more ancient sources than 
Geoffrey of Monmouth. The narrative given by La^amon of Arthurs being 
carried away by two beautiful women in a boat, is certainly a remain of a 
very early but varied popular fiction. Thus, in the metrical Vita Merl'mi, 
(which embodies no inventions of the writer, but genuine Welsh legendary 
lore) we find the bard Taliesin relating to Merlin, that after the battle of 
Camlan Arthur was carried by them in a boat, steered by the skilful pilot 
Barinthus, to the Isle of Apples (Avalon), where he was received by Morgen 
and her eight sisters, and committed to the care of the eldest, who placed 
him in her chamber, and promised to cure the kings wounds, if he would 
remain with her and follow her directions, p. 37. ed. Michel, 8vo. Paris, 
1837. The same tradition is alluded to in a more sober style by Giraldus 
Cambrensis, in his work intitled Speculum Ecclesice, dist. ii. cap. 9, and again, 
in his treatise De Institutione Principis, dist. i., both of which curious works, 
it is to be regretted, still remain, for the greater part, in manuscript. In 
these he states, that after the battle of Kemelen, Arthur, having been mor- 
tally wounded, was conveyed to Avalon, subsequently called Glastonbury, 
by a noble lady named Morganis, proprietress and patron of the district, 
who was related to Arthur, and by whose good offices his body was in- 
terred there. The archbishop then adds this remarkable sentence, " Prop- 
ter hoc enim fabulosi Britones et eorum cantores fingere solebant, quod 
Dea quadam phantastica, scilicet 3Iorganis dicta [^called Morgana fatata by 
Gervase of Tilbury] , corpus Arthur! in insulam detulit Avaloniam [Dama- 
lim, Gervase], ad ejus vulnera sanandum ; quoe cum sanata fuerint, redibit 
rex fortis et potens ad Britones regendum, ut dicunt, sicut solet ; propter 
quod ipsum expectant adhuc venturum, sicut Judtei Messiam suam," etc. 
MS. Cott. Tib. B. xiii. f. 21*. Compai'e Usher, Brita7in. Eccles. Antiq. 
p. 273. ed. Lond. 1687, and Leland, Collectanea, vol. iii. p. 12, and Asser- 
tio Arthuri, ibid. p. 44, with Turners matter of fact narrative, Hist. Anglo- 
Sax, vol. i. p. 291. ed. 1836. If we now turn to the French prose romances 
of the 12th century, Ave shall find the same tradition, but, as might be ex- 
pected, with the addition of more marvellous circumstances. Walter Map, 
in his Mort Artus, thus relates the appearance of Morgain and her asso- 
ciates to the wounded monarch : " Si vit venir parmi la mer une neif, qui 
toiite estoit plaine de dames. Et quant eles vindrent a la rive de la mer, la 
dame d'eles, qui tenoit Morgain, la seror le roi Artu, par la main, commencha 
cl apeler le roi Artu, qu'il entrast en la neif. Et sitost comme Ii rois vit 
Morgain, sa seror, il se leva isnelement de la terre, ou il se scoit, et cntra en 

NOTES. 411 

la neif, et i traist son cheval apres lui, et prinst ses armes." MS. Add. 
10, "294. f. 94. col. 2. The romance goes on to narrate, that the knight 
Gyfles, who alone remained with Arthur, sees him depart with great grief, 
and the next morning pursues his way to a hermitage, where he remains 
two days. On the third he goes to the Noire Chapele, on entering which 
he perceives two tombs, one of which was erected to the memory of Lucan, 
the kings butler, and on the other, which was marvellously rich, he reads 
the following inscription : " Chi gist li rois Artus, qui par sa valor 
MIST EN SA SUBJECTION XII. RoiALMEs." In the evening, the person whose 
duty it was to perform the service at the chapel, arrives, and informs Gyfles, 
that the corpse of Arthur had been buried there by a company of ladies, 
the third day previous ; whom Gyfles at once concludes to be the same 
who carried away the king in a boat. It is singular, that neither here any 
more than in Geoffreys history, is a syllable added of Arthurs expected re- 
turn. In Sir Thomas Malorys compilation, made in 1469, from the French 
romances of Rusticien de Pise and others (which are themselves compila- 
tions from the earlier texts), the story of Arthurs being carried away in "a 
lytyl barge wyth many fayr ladies in hit," occurs, lib. xxi. c. 5, with some 
variations, and in the next chapter he says, " Thus of Arthur I fynde neuer 
more wryton in bookes that ben auctorysed, nor more of the veray certente 
of his deth herde I neuer redde ; but thus was he ledde aweye in a shyppe, 
wherin were thre queues ; that one was kyng Arthurs syster, Quene Mor- 
gan la Fay ; the other was the Quene of North Gales ; the thyrd was the 
Quene of the Waste Londes. Also there was Nynyue [Vyvianne], the 
chyef Lady of the Lake," etc. Vol. ii. p. 443. 

This note having already extended to so great a length, I shall refer 
those who wish to pursue the subject further, in regard to the fairy Mor- 
gain, the isle of Avalon, Arthurs return to the world, and the discovery of 
his tomb at Glastonbury , in the reign of Henry the Second, to the follow- 
ing works : Prophecies de Merlin, f. v. col. 2. 4to. 1498; Morte d' Arthur, 
vol. ii. pp. 468. 492; Syr Gawayne, p. 325. 4to. 1839; Ushers Antiquitates, 
pp. 61. 272. fol. 1687 ; Notices des Ma?iuscrits de la Bibl. du Roi, vol. viii. 
pt. 2. p. 306. 4to. 1810; Le Roux de Lincy, Livre des Legendes, Introd. 
p. 248. 8vo. 1836; Prices Preface to Warton, p. (65). ed. 1840; Keight- 
leys Fairy Mythology, vol. i. p. 74. 12mo. 1828; Lydgates Boccace, book 
viii. c. 24 ; Lelands Assertio Arthuri, ap. Collectan. vol. v. pp. 42. 44. 8vo. 
1774; Hoherts's Cambrian Popular Traditions, p. 109. 8vo, 1815; Ways 
Fabliaux, vol. ii. p. 230. 8vo. 1815 ; Ritsons Life of Arthur, Pref. p. xxvii. 
and pp. 85. 98. 8vo. 1825 ; De la Rues Fssais sur les Bardes, etc. vol. i. 
p. 73. 8vo. 1834; Turners Hist. Anglo-Sax. vol. iii. p. 599. 8vo. 1836; 
Britannia after the Romans, p. 100. 4to. 1836 ; Michels Vita Merlini, In- 

412 NOTES. 

trod. i^. 1. note, 8vo. 1837; Stevensons Notes on the Chronicon de Lunercost, 
jip. 23. 373. 4to. 1839; and Professor Wards Letter to Dean Lyttleton, 
MS. Add. 6271. f. 37. With respect to the name oi Argante, v. 28G12, 
see a previous note, p. 385. 

P. 146. vv. 28650-1. — The prophecy referred to here occurs in the 
Afallenau of Merlin, which is printed in the Myrvyrian Arcliccology, and 
is quoted by Turner, in his Vindication of the Welsh Bards, appended to 
his Hist. Anglo-Sax. vol. iii. p. 615. 

Pj9. 146-148. uu.28652-5. 28672-28691. 28698-28703.— Not inWace. 

Ibid. vv. 28704-28753. — In Wace this is all comprised in twelve lines, 
in which the king is said to go first to Winchester, and afterwards to Lon- 
don, The name of one of Modreds sons is not given in the French text, 
nor by GeoiFrey ; nor does it occur in any of the works I have consulted. 

P. 150. vv. 28756-28765.— Wace only says, 

Treis anz regna, puis fu oscis ; 

Co fu damage a ses amis. — MS. Reg. 13 A. xxi.f. 101*. c. 2. 

Geoffrey however states, that he was slain by Conan (^Cynan Wladlg in the 
Welsh version), and so say Peter Langtoft, Robert of Brunne, and Robert 
of Gloucester. 

P. 151. vv. 28775-28779. — Wace and Geoffrey do not mention in what 
manner the "uncles sons" were put to death, and the latter merely says, 
" avunculum suum, qui post Constantinum regnare debuit, inquietavit, at- 
que in carcerem posuit ," lib. xi. c. 5. 

Ibid. vv. 28782-3. — Not in Wace nor Geoffrey, and must have been 
derived fi'om some other source. 

P. 152. vv. 28788-28793. — Geoffrey says he died " sec undo regni sui 
anno," and Wace writes, " Quatre anz fu reis, epoi plus," MS. Reg. f. 102. 
c. 1. Neither mentions the occasion of his death. 

Ibid. v. 28799.— Not in Wace. 

P. 153. vv. 28812-28813.- Not iu Wace. Geoftiey states he reigned 
fou?' years. 

Ibid. vv. 28820-28827.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 28828-9. — In the French text we read, " Les illes environ 
conquist," vol. ii. p. 235, and these are named by Robert of Gloucester, 
out of Geoffrey : 

As Godlonde, and Orcadas, and al so Yrlonde, 

Northweye, and Denemarch, and al so Yslonde. — vol. ii. p. 225. 

NOTES. 413 

P. 153. vv. 28830-28833.— Not in Wace. 

P. 154. vv. 28840-28851. — Here again we have a notice derived from 
other sources than Geoffrey and Wace ; the former of whom only WTites, 
*' Sodomitica peste volutatus," and the latter, 

Mes line sole teche aveit male, 

Dunt li Sodomite sunt pale. — MS. Reg. f. 102. c. 1. 

In the Welsh version attributed to Tysilio, we have an interpolation not 
in Geoffrey, informing us, that Maelgwns death was occasioned by the 
sight of ^.yellow spectre through a hole over the door of a church at Rhos, 
in Creuddyn. Roberts explains the spectre to have been nothing more 
than the yellow fever, p. 173. Peter Langtoft fixes his decease at Win- 
chester, as rendered by Robert of Brunne : 

At Winchestre, at his bathyng, 
Sodanly mad liis endyng.— /. 84. c. 2. 

P. 155. vv. 288G4-28S83.— Not in Wace or Geoffrey, nor have I been 
able to trace on what authority Lajamon has made this singular statement. 
In the Latin the name is always Careticiis, in the French Caris or Certiz, 
and in the Welsh Caredig. 

P. 156. vv. 28884-28907. — Wace does not mention either the name of 
Gurmunds father or of his brother, and Geoffrey has nothing whatever of 
this prelude to Gurmunds history. The former adds (which is omitted by 
La3amon), that Merlin prophesied of this African chieftain, as the " lus 
marins." He alludes to the passage, lib. vii. p. 49. 1. 7, in Geoffrey, and 
in the Vita Merlini, p. 24. ed. Michel. 

P. 157. vv. 28912-28935. — Instead of this amplification (which would 
have been much to Wartons taste in his theory of the influence of Eastern 
literature in Europe), Wace briefly relates, that Gurmund collected mari- 
ners and steersmen, with ships and barges, and an army of 150,000 war- 
riors, without inferior followers. Vol. ii. p. 237. 

P. 159. vv. 28952-28959.— Not in Wace. 

P. 160. vv. 28976-28979. — Not in Wace, who on the contrary (as in 
Geoffrey) says, that the Saxons sent into Ireland, to invite Gurmund over. 
He accedes to their request, and sails to the coast oi Northumberland. Vol. 
ii. p. 239. Compare v. 29075. 

Ibid. V. 28983. sume sixe. — Wace speaks of the Saxons in general terms 
only, and does not specify any number. The passage which follows, vv. 
28992-29023, is very paraphrastic of Waces single line, " As Bretons pes 
e triues pristrent," MS. Reg. ; but he had previously stated, that the Sax- 
ons were accustomed to make war on the Britons, and claimed as their 

414 NOTES. 

right Thivaingcastre, in Lindesey, and Kent, as descendants from Hengist. 
Afterwards follow some lines on the bad faith of the Saxons, but not ap- 
plied particularly to any dealings with Carrie, vol. ii. p. 238. 

P. 163. vv. 29053-29057. — Not in Wace, who has merely a naiTative 
of a dozen lines, in the place of this letter. 

Pp. 1G4. 166. vv. 29086-29109. 29114-29119.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 29124-29160. — This account of the devastations committed 
by Gurmunds forces precedes, in Wace, the retreat of Carrie to Cirences- 
ter. La^amon has here abridged rather than amplified the narrative of his 
original, which states, that the clergy deserted their abbeys and religious 
houses, and carried away with them the holy reliques of Saints. Robert 
of Brunne has some supplementary lines (derived from Peter Langtoft, and 
Geoffrey, lib. xi. c. 10.), which Wace has omitted : 

Bisshoppes, abbote[s], that relikes had, 

Whan thei fled, away tham lad ; 

& many in the erthe dalf, 

Th' men fynd now on many half, etc. 

Theon, archhisshop of London, 

To the wod fled, & was not fondon ; 

Ser Thadoke, the archbisshop of ^ork, 

Lyued in keites, as dos a stork. 

Thei lyued w' herbes of ryuere, 

In w* bastes at stedes sere.—;/'. 84. e. 1. 

Wace does not mention either Normandy or Ireland as places of refuge, 
nor does Geoffrey, who closes his chapter with a promise to say more on 
the subject when he should translate his book, " De Exulatione eorum," 

Pp. 168. 169. vv. 29167-29170. 29 183-4. —Not in Wace. 

P. 169. vv. 29195-29202.— In Wace there are some lines not trans- 
lated by Lajamon, relative to the construction of military engines to assault 
the city, and the defence made by those within, vol. ii. p. 243. In some 
lines of Alexander Necham, quoted by Camden, Britannia, vol. i. p. 287, 
the siege is said to have lasted seven years. 

P. 170. vv. 29211-29216. — The corresponding passage in the French 
text seems to have been misunderstood. Wace writes, that Gormund 
made three castles, one of which he committed to the charge of Isembart, 
another to his barons, and the third to the chiefs of the Saxons. Vol. ii. 
p. 243. Geoffrey is silent on the subject. 

Ibid. vv. 29217-29222. — Wace only says of this tow'er, 

Hoc estait, iloc giscit, 

Hoc juout, iloc dormeit.— /. 103. e. 2. 

NOTKS. 415 

Geoffrey does not mention it. In later times a mount of earth served to 
mark the traditionaiy site of this tower, which was called Gi'ismunds Toiver 
or Grosmonds Toiver, a corruption, as supposed, of Gurmunds Tower. See 
William of Worcesters Itinerarium, p. 299. ed. Nasmith, and Lelands Itine- 
rary, vol. V. p. 65. 

P. 170. vv. 29223-29292.— This curious story is told much more briefly 
by Wace, who says nothing about the conference between Gurmund and a 
heathen knight, but writes only in general terms, " The city would have 
held out much longer, had it not been taken by stratagem. The besiegers 
set the city on fire by an unheard of piece of treachery, and you shall hear 
how it hap])ened." Then follows the story of the sparrows. In Robert 
of Brunnes Chronicle the passage is thus rendered : 

The paiens w'out laid many lymes ; 

Sparowes thei toke alle day bi tyme ; 

After, nottes thei toke, 

Holed tliam, kirnels out sclioke ; 

Did in the skellis fire & tunder, 

Bronston, flax ; th' was a wunder ! 

The spai-owes fleih at euen to rest, 

Tille houses ther the[i] wont to nest. 

In cues thei crepte, & in thak, 

In hay & in korn stak. 

Tlie tunchr, bronston, & fire bote, 

Kindled oii lowe & vp smote, etc. 

& for it was w* sparowes brent, 

Tho men th' thorgh the cuntre went, 

On Inglis kald it Sparoives toun, 

Oil Frankis, Cite de Moshon ; 

For to mene the quantise. 

How sparowes brent it, on what wise.— ^. 84*. c. 2. 

Wace must have obtained this story from British traditions, since it is 
wholly omitted in Geoffreys History, as also by his abbreviators, Alfred of 
Beverley and Gervase of Tilbury, as well as by his later followers, Robert 
of Gloucester, Peter Langtoft, Higden, and others. Camden, in his no- 
tice of the place, vol. i. p. 287, expressly refers to the "British Annals" 
for it. It is found in the Vita Merlini, p. 24. 1. 593 : 

Idem Kaerkeii [read Kaerkerii] circumdabit obsidione, 
Passeriliusque domos et moenia trudet ad imum. 

In case, however, any person should be disposed, with Mr. Wright, to take 
the authorship of this curious poem from Geoffrey, and assign it to a later 
period (see Michels edition, p. xcix.), the authority of Giraldus Cambren- 
sis may be adduced, who in his Tojmgraphia Hibernice, composed in the 
year 1175, writes, "In Britannica legitur historia Gurmundum ab Africa 

416 NOTES. 

in Hibernia advecturn, et inde in Britanniara a Sasonibu? ascitum, Cire- 
cestriam obsidione cinxisse. Qua tandem capta, et passeriim, ut fertur, 
malejicio, igne succensa, ignoblli quoque tunc Britonum rege Kereditio [read 
Karetico] in Cambriam expulso, totius regni dominium in brevi obtinuisse." 
dist. iii. c. 39. ap. Anglica, Hibernica, etc. fol. Franc. 1602. p. 749. Com- i 
pare Lelands Collectanea, vol. iv. p. 37, Mho seems to refer to the above | 
passage. The same story is told also in the French and English prose 
compilations of the Brut, MS. Harl. 200. f. 36., MS. Harl. 24. f. 53. (but 
the city falsely called Chichester), as well as in the Scala Cronica, composed I 
by Thomas de Gray, about 1362, ap. Leland, Collectan. vol. ii. p. 511 ; in 
an Epitome of Welsh History; by a member of the church of Llandaif, 
brought down to the year 1429, MS. Cott. Tit. D. xxii. f. 26* ; in the in- 
terpolated copy of the Welsh Brut written by Guttyn Owain, ap. Roberts, 
p. 174. 1; and in the Itinerarium of William de Worcestre, pp. 279. 299. j 
It would appear from a letter in the Cambro-Briton, vol. iii, p. 461, that a j 
similar tradition had been ascribed to the town of Wroxeter. \ 

P. 173. vv. 29293-29310. — In Wace we have only two lines, stating j 
that the Britons attempted resistance, but were speedily overcome. ' 

P. 174. vv. 29311-29334.— Geoffrey and Wace merely say, that Car- 
rie fled into Wales ; indeed the latter confesses, " Ne sai dire que puis de- 
vint," vol. ii. p. 245. 

P. 176. vv. 29352-29390.— Instead of these lines Wace has a passage 
intimating that Gurmund destroyed many ancient cities, castles, and reli- 
gious houses, the ruins of which were still to be seen. Vol. ii. p. 246. 

P. 178. vv. 29391-29421. — This passage corresponds pretty well with 
the French original, as it appears in the best MSS. ; but the editor of the 
printed edition, by admitting several interpolated lines from MSS. of later 
date, has completely confused the sense, and constructed a miserable text, 
vol. ii. p. 247. Geoffrey says nothing on the subject. Robert of Brunne 
in this part of his Chronicle seems to have been perplexed by the various ' 
accounts given of the settlement of the Angles, and the origin of the name ' 
of England, which Britain then received. His narrative is very curious, ' 
and portions of it may not inaptly find a place here. He commences thus : i 

A lynage out of the ildes did alie, I 

Th' longed vnto Saxonie. : 

Men thei wer of giete lionourc, 
& douhty for to stond in stoure. 

Anglis cald thei th* kynde, i 

To know where men mot it fynde. 1 

Cmmund the lond to tham it gaf, ' 

The tother Scssons he tham ouer-haf, 

NOTES. 4 1 7 

& mad tham souereyiis to be, 
& thei sulci hold of him in fe. 
In Northfolk was first ther wonyng, 
Estangle it hight for ther comyng; 
Anglis th* cuntre first thei auht, 
& of Anglis Estangle it lauht. 
I fond in maistre If'ace boke ; 
Of Pers of Langtoft also I toke ; 
& of Gildas ther to I laid, 
Right as Pers therof said. 

Then follows an account of the division of the kingdom by Gurmund into 
seven provinces, viz. Kent, Sussex, Middlesex, Wessex, Estangle, Merce, 
and the country beyond the Humber. 

In Gildas boke thus I fond, 
Th' Gurmund departed the lond. 

All this is in Langtoft, MS. Cott. Jul. A. v. f. 41*, who quotes Gildas as 
his authority ; but what work is meant I know not, as there is nothing on 
the subject in the treatise of Nennius, which generally passes under the 
name of the former. After this Robert of Brunne proceeds to insert a 
passage relative to the state of the island under the Saxons, for which 
Bede is referred to, and then gives us a third statement founded on a cu- 
rious legend, which I can find nowhere else. 

Long after th^ writen I fond. 
How a Breton chalanged th' lond. 
Enyle the story sais he hight ; 
He brought a champion to fight, 
Skardyng hight th* champion, 
Th* com \v' Engle, the Breton. 
On alle the lond he set chalange. 
His ancessours wild he venge, 
& tak vengeance of the Englis, 
Th* chaced the Bretons out of this. 
Alle the Englis Engle dred, 
For the grete powere he led. 
Engle sent vnto the barons, 
& alle the kynges he mad somons. 
To hold of him alle ther right, 
Or he suld wjti it of tham thorgh fight, 
Oither thorgh bataile playn in felde. 
Or w' champion staf & schelde. 
Th* Scardyng was ferly strong, 
Als a geant gi-ete & long ; 
Th* non for dredc durst anenture on him. 
So was he strong, mykille, & grim. 
For drede of Engle & Skardyng 
Thei made Engle chefe kyng. 
VOL. III. 2 E 

418 NOTES, 

For th^ Engle the lond tlius wan, 

England cakl it ilk a man. 

Whan Engle had the lond thorgh. 

He gaf Skardyng Skarbiirgh ; 

To ward the north, bi the se side, 

A hauen it is, schippes in to ride. 

Flayn was his brother ; so sais a tale, 

Tht Thomas mad of Kendale. 

Maistre Edmunde sais, as me mones, 

Th* Engle had nieu[ten] sonnes. 

Th'' niented {sic) sone, after ther fader deuys. 

Departed th' loud in nieuten partys. 

Of tho parties fond I non writen, 

Bot a partie th* I kan witen ; 

The nientend paitie was th' thing 

Th* longed to Saynt Edmund the Kyng. 

Th' is th' other skille I fond 

Whi it is cald Inglond. 

Bot of Inge sanh I neuer nouht. 

In bake write)i ne ivrouht ; 

Bot lewed men ther of crie, 

1^" maynten th' ilk lie.^ff. 85. c. 1. — 85*. c. 1. 

Robert of Brunne then returns to the text of Wace, and gives a translation 
of his narrative as it occurs in the printed edition, vol. ii. p. 248. It is to 
be regretted that so much obscurity should exist in those passages where 
Robert of Brunne notices writers and legends now almost or quite un- 
known. Who Maister Edmund is, whose story about Engle is above re- 
lated, must perhaps ever remain in obscurity ; but the name of Kendale will 
be recognised by all as one of the candidates for the autliorsliip of Sir 
Tristrem, and who would seem to have written other romance tales, now 
lost. The concluding lines in the passage above quoted are worthy notice, 
as they prove that popular historic legends existed, and Avere recited, 
although they had never been committed to writing. 

P. 179. V. 29422. and him seolf a^ein wende. — -This is all that is said of 
Gurmunds subsequent history ; and in Waces genuine text even this brief 
notice of his departure from England is omitted. But in the printed edi- 
tion of his poem we are presented with near thirty interpolated lines, taken 
from a recent MS., respecting the proceedings of Gurmund in France, and 
his death there. See vol. ii. p. 248. This tradition, however, is at least 
as early as the time of Giraldus. Compare Top. Hib. dist. 3. c. 40. 

Ibid. V. 29431. ff hinges. — Wace says, " jilusvrs reis," f. 103*. c. 2, 
and Geoffrey, " tribus regibus subditi." 

P. ISO. vv. 29449-29512. — In the French text, as in Geoffrey, the story 

NOTES. 419 

of Pope Gregory and the English children does not occur. Lajamon, no 
doubt, borrowed it from Bede, lib. ii. cap. i. p. 96. ed. Stevenson. Com- 
pare Turner, Hist. Anglo-Sax., vol. i. p. 335. The story is also in Ro- 
bert of Brunne, and in the old English prose Brut. Wace merely says 
of Austins mission, in four lines, that he was a good clerk, and came 
to England accompanied by forty clerks. Vol. ii. p. 250. 

P. 183. — The mutilated Latin notice in the margin is taken from Bede, 
lib. i. c. 23, and is meant to express the date of Austins mission, a.d. 596. 

P. 184. V. 29533. a seinte trinet^es nome. — This is a mistake. The 
church was originally dedicated to the Saviour, but on its third restoration 
by archbishop Lanfranc was named the church of the Holy Trinity, and is so 
called in Domesday book. In the year 11 30 it is stated to have been again 
consecrated by archbishop Corboil, and the name of Christ church resumed. 
See Somners and Batteleys Antiquities of Canterbury , pt. i. p. 87, pt. ii. 
pp. 13-21, fol. 1703. 

Ibid. V. 29544. — I find Dorchester also in the Royal MS. of Wace, and 
in the MSS. at Paris, on which the printed edition is founded ; and the 
accuracy of this reading is confirmed by the subsequent story relating to 
Cernel, the spot where Cerne Abbas now stands, and where, as Hutchins, 
the modern historian of the county, assures us, " this legend is still re- 
tained by the people, who imagine the posterity of those who abused Au- 
gustin still remain, and are distinguished by a remarkable elongation of 
the OS sterni." Hist, of Dorsetshire, vol. iii. p. 308. ed. fol. 1813. But, on 
the other hand, the Cotton MS. of Wace reads Rochester, as in the later 
text of La3amon ; and with this agree Robert of Brunne, the English prose 
Brut, the Welsh version of Geoff'rey (which is misunderstood by Roberts), 
and the local traditions of Kent. In either case, however, La^amon has 
committed an error in writing south-ward instead of west-ward, or north 
west-ivard. As to the legendary story which follows, Wace either derived 
it from a popular source, or from William of Malmesburys work, De Gestis 
Pontificinn, in which the legend occurs very nearly in the same terms as 
in the French writer. See the Scriptores post Bedam, ed. Savile, 1596, fol. 
142*. In quoting Malmesburys words, Hutchins has adopted the error of 
Du Cange ; for not understanding the term " caudas racharum " (tails of 
rays), he corrects the reading into vaccarum, and translates it " tails of 
cows{\)" and this erroneous version has also found a place in the new 
Monasticon, vol. ii. p. 621. Geoffrey was either ignorant of the story, or 
omits it, as do his followers, Peter Langtoft and Robert of Gloucester. 
The Welsh version, however, has it, but the English translator has evidently 

2 E 2 

420 NOTKS. 

misinterpreted the text, in rendering it "tails of beasts," p. 176. He 
adds the following note : " This seems to be the real origin of the fabu- 
lous tradition, that Kentish men were born with tails ; and which in later 
times was revived, and said by the Papists to have happened to them at 
the time of the Reformation." — The lines 29587-29600 in La^amon are 
an addition of his own, and are worthy notice, from their affording proof, 
that at the commencement of the 1 3th century the origin of this legend 
was well known and recognised both at home and abroad. So also a cen- 
tury afterwards, Robert of Brunne, after relating the story, adds : 

Th* holy man Gofl hisonht. 

For thei him th' vilaiiic wiouht, 

Th' on tham & allc ther kynd 

Tailed alle men snlrt tham fjnde. 

& God granted alle th* he had [rrad l)ad], 

Alle th' kynde tailes had. 

For thei w taiies th' gode man schamed. 

For tailes the Englis kynd is hlamed ; 

In many sere lond is said, 

Oftho tailes we haf vphraid.~~f. 87*. c. 1. 

We meet with the same legend in the inedited Chronicle of Walter of 
Coventry, preserved in Corpus Christi College, Cambridge, compiled in the 
first half of the 13th century, and again in Fordun, the author of the Sco- 
iichronicon, soon after the middle of the 14th, lib. iii. cap. 33. His remarks 
on it are valuable, as illustrative of Lajamon. After stating that St. Austins 
curse was carried into effect, he continues thus : " Vocatur autem hujus- 
modi Cauda ab indigenis, patria lingua, Mitghel, unde et villa in qua beato 
Augustino hujusmodi irrogata est injuria nomen sortita est Muglingtoti, id 
est, villa Muglingorum, usque in praesentem diem." Vol. i. p. 138, edit. 
Goodall, fol. 1759. He says also, that a similar example was made by the 
saint of the people of Tamworth, in Mercia, who had insulted him, and 
concludes by relating a third instance, which befell, at a later period, the 
inhabitants of Rochester, who having cut off the tail of Thomas a Beckets 
horse, received his malediction, " unde et posteri eorum ilhc nati inventi 
sunt caudati." This latter legend would partly seem to explain why the 
tradition fixed itself in Kent as well as in Dorsetshire ; but a better mode 
of accounting for it is the historic evidence of Augustines labours in the 
former county, and the very doubtful authority on which the saints travels 
into Dorsetshire rest. See Hutchins, loc. cit., and the ]\Ionasticon, vol. ii. 
p. 621. In the English prose Brut the tradition is told with some addi- 
tional particulars of a local nature, as follows : " Seynt Austine come to 
Rouchester, and there prechid Goddis worde. The paynims therfore hym 
scornede, and caste vppon hym reyghe tayles ; and for more dispite they 

NOTKS. 421 

keste vppon hym guttis of reyghes and of other fysslie ; -where fore the good 
man seynt Austyne was sore anoyede and greuede, and prayed to God 
that alle the chiklren that shulde be borne afterward in that citee of Ro- 
chester muste haue tayles. Andwhenne the kyng herde and wiste of this 
vengaunce that was falle thurghe seynt Austines powere, he lette make 
one howse in honour of God, where in wommen shulde haue hire children, 
at the brugges ende ; in whiche hous women yette of the citee be delyuer- 
ede of childe." cap. xcviii. MS. Harl. 24. f. 54^. It is unnecessary to 
point out additional instances in writers who have copied this story, 
although many exist. The reproachful term of Kentish Long-tails seems 
certainly to have arisen from the legend, and Fullers attempt to explain it 
otherwise is perfectly nugatory. See his Worthies, vol. i, p. 4S6, ed. 1811. 
Ray and Grose have only followed in his steps. Another foolish attempt 
to explain the proverb is in Fynes Morysons Itinerary, part 3. p. 53. fol. 
1617, and an allusion to it may be found in the Musurum Delitia, by Sir 
J. Meunis, 12mo. 1655, p. 7. As early as the 12th century the epithet 
caudatus was applied to the English generally as a term of reproach, and 
continued to be so used by the French and Scotch down to the 16th cen- 
tury. Instances are very frequent in our old historians, and it will be 
sufficient to refer to Matthew Paris, sub a". 1250 ; the Chronicon de Laner- 
cost, a°. 1273 (the editor of which seems unacquainted with the story) ; 
the Chronicle of Rishanger, a". 1 292, MS. Cott. Claud. D. vi. f. 131* ; the 
romance of king Richard, ap. Weber, 11. 724. 2112 ; Robert of Brunnes 
printed Chronicle, p. 158; Forduns Scotichronicon, lib. ix. cap. 32; the 
Vaux-de-Vire of Olivier Basselin, a poet of the 14th century, pp. 173, 178, 
266, 8vo, Caen, 1821 ; and Haenels Catalogus Manuscriptorura, p. 183. 
To these may be added Ducange, in voce Caudatus, and Grimms Introduc- 
tion to Reinhart Fuchs, p. xcvi. 8vo, Berlin, 1834, who is mistaken, how- 
ever, in supposing the term to bear reference to the zopf-tracht of the 

P. 185. V. 29569. fif milen. — So also Robert of Brunne, Waces ge- 
nuine text has " cine levi'es," but in the printed edition it is " deus loes." 
Malmesbury says, " quasi milliariis tribus." Cerne stands about seven and 
a half miles north-west from Dorchester. 

P. 187. vv. 29605-29619. — Wace only says, Austin began to think of 
returning, on account of the disgrace he had suffered, but a iant God ap- 
peared to him, etc. Vol. ii. p. 253. 

P. 190. vv. 29674-29682. — The same absurd etymology is found in 
William of Malmesbury and Walter of Coventry ; the fountain also con- 

422 NOTES. 

tinned in after times to bear the name of St. Austin. See the Monasticon, 
vol. ii., and Hutchinson, loc. cit. 

P. 191. vv. 29703-29706.— Wace only says, in the lands held by the 
Britons, who defended themselves from the Enyleis, he found monks, clerks 
and abbats. Vol. ii. p. 256. 

P. 192. V. 29722. sixtene hundred. — Wace has "pres de deus mil moines." 
Peter Langtoft reads 2100, and so also the Welsh translation of Geoffrey, 
exclusive of the priors and servants. Compare Geoffrey, lib. xi. c. 12, 

Ibid. vv. 29741-29784. — The reply of the Welsh bishops is much am- 
plified from the French text. Those who are curious on the subject may 
see it in the old Welsh language, with a translation, in Roberts, p. 177. 

P. 195. vv. 29803-29S06.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. V. 29810. A^elbert. — Geoffrey names him Edelfridus, and the 
manuscript copies of Wace Elfrid and Elfriz. In Robert of Brunne he 
is called Elfrid and Elfrik. He is the jEdil/rid of Bede, lib. i. cap. 34. 

P. 196. vv. 29812-29818.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. V. 29827. Leir-chcestre. — So also in Wace and Geoffrey, as in 
the Saxon Chronicle, a°. 607, Leguceustre, but the spot intended is C^es^er, 
about eight miles from Bangor. See Higden, p. 200, and Turner, Hist. 
Anglo-Sax., vol. i. p. 330. The name of the Welsh chieftain (who was 
king of Powis) is s^jelt Brocmuil in the Saxon Chronicle, and Broclncel 
in the Welsh version of Geoffrey. The variations of such names, from 
the similarity of m, in, ni, ui, and iu, in early MSS. are innumerable. 

P. 197. vv. 29839-29848.— Not in Wace. The Saxon Chronicle states, 
that Brocmail escaped with fifty of his men, p. 30, ed. Ingram. 

Ibid. vv. 29853—4. — Not in Wace, nor is it consistent with the narra- 
tive, to bring bishops from the monastery of Bangor. 

P. 198. vv. 29861-29900. — Wace only says, in twelve lines, that the 
king and his people were cruel and fierce, and had no more pity than a 
lion among a flock of sheep. Of the suppliants they slew 2200. Vol. ii. 
p. 259. The number of the killed in Geoflfrey and our historians is fixed 
at 1200. 

P. 200. vv. 29921-2. — Not in Wace. See, as to Athelstans conquests, 
Turners Hist. Anglo-Sax., vol. ii. p. 189. 

Ibid. vv. 29927-29934.— The French text only states. 

Tut est( it litr desk'en Savenic, 

Ki lie/ ]<• iiinnt cult dc AFalvcnu'.— .1/^\ Jiri/.f. 105''. c: 1. 

NOTES. 423 

P. 201. V. 29940. lit ouer We:^en. — So also Wace, " ultre Waye," MS. 
Reg. ; but the editor of the French text, with his usual felicity, chooses to 
print "outre Gales"\ The lines thcit follow, 29941-29944, are an addition 
by La^amon. 

P. 202. vv. 29959-29970.— Not in Wace. With regard to the num- 
bers slain, Geoffrey gives a total of 10,0G6 on the side of the Saxons, but 
says nothing of the loss on the part of the Britons, lib. xi. c. 13. 

Ibid. V. 29971. — Here begins the twelfth and last book of Geoffrey. 

P. 203. V. 29986. Cadwan. — The Welsh version calls him Cadvan ap 
Jago. The editor of Wace confounds him W'ith his son Cadwalan. 

Ibid. vv. 29989-29994.— Not in Wace. 

P. 204. vv. 30011-30020.— This is entirely an amplification of what 
Wace leaves to be inferred. 

P. 205. vv. 30039-30046.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 30047-30050. — Roberts translates the Welsh text here, " on 
condition that Edelfrid should retain the country beyond the Humber, and 
that Cadvan should have the crown of London' (i. e. the title of paramount 
sovereign of Britain), p. 180. There is no doubt some gross error. Com- 
pare Geoffrey, lib. xii. c. 1. 

P. 206. tiv. 30061-30073. etc. — Wace here departs in a singular man- 
ner from the text of Geoffrey, who tells us, that Edelfrid having driven 
his first wife out of Northumberland, took another : the former lady was 
pregnant at the time, and took refuge at the court of Cadvan. He en- 
deavoured to reconcile Edelfrid to her, but without success ; she therefore 
remained with Cadvan, and was delivered of a son, named Edwin, at the 
same time that the wife of Cadvan was brought to bed of Cadwalan. 
The youths were therefore brought up together, and when of age sent to 
Salomon, king of Armorica, to receive instruction in knightly exercises, 
lib. xii. c. 1. So also the Welsh translation, Robert of Gloucester, and 
Peter Langtoft ; but the prose French and English Bruts foUow Wace, as 
does Robert of Brunne. To contrast this account with the more genuine 
records of Saxon history, see Turner, vol. i. p. 346, whence it appears, that 
Edwin was not the son of Edelfrid, but of Ella, and legitimate heir to the 
kingdom of Deira. 

P. 208. vv. 30113-30122. — Not in Wace, nor do I know whence Laja- 
mon obtained it. 

424 NO'iES, 

p. 209. vv. 30127-30134.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. V. 30138. — Wace and Geoffrey say, that peace was only maintained 
for two years. 

Ibid. vv. 30143-30212. — Instead of this long paraphrase, Wace tells us 
merely, that Cadwalan, 

Coruner se fist, quant il vout ; 

Grant feste e grant curt teneit, 

E noblement se contineit. — MS. Reg.f. 106. c. 1. 

Edwin therefore prayed him to be permitted the liberty of being crowned 
for his own share of territory beyond the Humber. Vol. ii. p. 265. So 
also in Geoffrey, lib. xii. c. 2. 

P. 213. r. 30233. Duglas. — In Lancashire. The editor of Wace places it 
erroneously in Scotland in his Glossaire-Index. See a previous note, p. 373. 

Ibid. vv. 30237-30242.— Not in Wace. 

P. 214. V. 30257. \es hinges suster siine. — Wace calls him the kings 
nephew, and Robert of Brunne cousin. In Peter Langtoft he is named 
Bryan fiz Amas, and in the Welsh version, Braint ap Nefyn [Nevydd] . 
See Owens Cambrian Biography, p. 26. 

P. 215. vv. 30281-30284. — Not in Wace. 

P. 216. vv. 30305-30316.— The French text gives us the substance of 
the message ; that Cadwalan refused Edvvins prayer, that his barons ob- 
jected to it, and that it was against law and right that two kings should 
wear a crown. Vol. ii. p. 268. 

P. 217. vv. 20321-20323.— Not in Wace. The substance of Edwins 
speech, which follows, is very brief in Wace, and merely to the effect, 
that he would be crowned without leave. In return Cadwalan threatens 
to cut off his head. Vol. ii. p. 268. 

P. 218. vv. 30348-9. — Not in Wace, Robert of Brunne writes, out of 


Edwyn theron was fulle biyni ; 

To '^ork he ;ede, & crouned him.—/. 90. c. 1. 

Ibid. vv. 30358-30419. — The French text gives no such details, but 
only states that Cadwalan collected a great army, and passed the Humber 
into Northumberland. Edwin was too courageous to fly, aftd marched 
against and defeated his adversary. The whole is comprised in ten lines, 
vol. ii. p. 268. 

P. 221. vv. 30425-6.— Not in Wace. 


NOTKS. 425 

p. 221. t;y. 30430-30454. — In Wace we have only four lines, saying, 
that Cadwalan was obliged to fly into Ireland, where he was honorably 
received by the king, vol. ii. p. 269. The kings name is not given else- 
where, and La^araon seems to have borrowed it from the Irish chief of the 
same name, said, in Geoffrey, to have been slain at the battle of Camelford, 
lib. xi. c. 2. 

P. 223. vv. 30465-30488. — In Wace this passage is given very briefly 

and obscurely, and in the printed text is unintelligible. The Royal MS. 


Serur Brien li fu endite, 

A Wirecestre I'ad trove, 

E a Everwic la list inener, 

E en sa chambre la fist guarder : 

Ne sai ki li out amene.— /. 106*. c. 2. 

So also in Robert of Brunne. The passage is founded on a sentence in 
Geoffrey, lib. xii. c. 7. 

P. 224. vv. 30497-30500. — In the French text rather differently, 

Al curs des esteiles luisanz, 

E as vols des oisels volanz. — Ibid. 

P. 226. vv. 30536-7.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 30543-30547. — La^amon seems to have committed here a geo- 
graphical blunder, since in sailing from Ireland to Britanny there would be 
no possibility of passing by Ycu-mouth. Wace writes, 

Unt tant coru e tant sigle, 

En Chernerin sunt arive, 

En un isle vers solail cuchant ; 

Co quid ke d'iloc en avant, 

N'ad nul altre terre u gent remaigne, 

Entre Cornwaille e Bretaigne. — MS. Reg.f. 107. c. 1. 

Other copies read Gernerou or Gerneui ; in Peter Langtoft it is Guarnet, 
in Robert of Brunne Gernet, and in Robert of Gloucester, more correctly, 
Gernesey, from Geoffreys Garnareia. 

Ibid. V. 30552. ]>a ni^en dce^es, etc. — Not in Wace. Geoffrey says the 
king was so grieved at the loss of his companions, that for three days and 
nights he refused food, and lay ill in bed. On the fourth day he desired 
some venison, etc., lib. xii. c. 4. 

P. 227. vv. 30570-1.— Not in Wace. 

P. 228. vv. 30586-30596. — Not in Wace, who modestly writes, 

Ne sai si li rets en gasta.— :/". 107. c. 1. 

426 NOTES. 

Geoffrey, however, declares, that he not only eat the flesh, but was asto- 
nished to find more sweetness in it than in other meat ! 

P. 229. vv. 30598-30603.— Not in Wace. Geoffrey states, that the 
king recovered in three days. 

Ibid. vv. 30609-30615. — Not in Wace. The allusions made here and 
elsewhere by La3amon to the minstrels or mariners songs, are worthy 

Ibid. V. 306 IG. Rideleet. — The correct reading would ajDpear to be Ki- 
delet, which, as Wace here tells us, was an ancient town of Britanny, situ- 
ated between Dinan and the sea, and its ruins were still to be seen when 
he wrote. Vol. ii. p. 273. The same place is mentioned by Guillaume 
de Saint-Pair; but in the unique copy of his poem in MS., Add. 10,289, 
it is written Ridalet, f. 1^', as in La3amon. 

P. 230. V. 30621. — Geoffrey has here two chapters filled with the long 
speeches of Cadwalan and Salomon, which are judiciously omitted by 
Wace. It is worth while however to notice from the former the descent 
given to show the relationship of the two kings. 


Euiuauuus. Riiiio. 

I I 

Belin. A daughters ""f''^°"°^ 

° Hoel the Great. 

I I 

Jago. Alan. 

I I 

Cadvau. Hoel. 

I I 

Cadwalan. Salomon. 

Ibid. vv. 30632-30653.— Not in Wace. 

P. 231. vv. 30667-30789.— The whole narrative is told by La3amon 
so differently from that in the French text, that we must suppose he had 
recourse to other materials, or drew largely on his imagination. Wace 
merely states, that Brian embarked at Barbefieot, and arrived at South- 
ampton. Not a word is said of his companions. He assumes the dress 
of a mendicant, and causes a pilgrims staff', with a long and sharp iron 
point, to be made for him. He then goes about seeking the court, and at 
length finds the king at York. There he mingles with the crowd of beg- 
gars and pilgrims, and is taken himself for one of the same class. The 
passage in Wace only occupies twenty lines. Vol. ii. p. 273. 

P. 237. V. 30792. Galarne — The name of Brians sister occurs nowhere 

NOTE.S. 427 

p. 237. V. 30795. Jw mide lieo bar to drinken. — In the original, 
A la roine ewe queroit. — -f. 107*. c. 1. 

Ibid. vv. 30802-30821. — This is again an addition of a new character. 
Wace writes, that Brian made a sign to his sister not to recognise him. 
They withdraw from the crowd, embrace each other, and shed tears. She 
then tells about Pelluz, etc. Vol. ii. \). 275. 

P. 238. vv. 30834-30845. — Not in Wace, who says that the magician 
was busy in passing to and fro among the beggars. Ibid. 

P. 240. V. 30860. loende him a-neoste. — Wace writes, that he did not 
go away till night. 

Ibid. vv. 30880-30883.— Not in Wace. 

P. 241. vv. 30889-30903. — Not in Wace, who instead has four lines, 

Brian ad as Bretons parle, 

Des plusurs seit la volunte ; 

Essecestre prist e saisi, 

Tenir la volt, si la guarni.— M5. Reg./. 107*. c. 2. 

Peter Langtoft and Robert of Brunne read Oxenford, instead of Exeter, 
occasioned by errors in the Latin text, from the similarity of Exonia and 

P. 242. vv. 30908-30931. — Wace only says, that king Salomon gave 
him 2000 knights, besides mariners and steersmen ; but in Geoffrey and 
his imitators the force su^^plied by Salomon is stated at 10,000 men, lib. 
xii. c. 8. Not a word is said, either in the French or Latin texts, that 
Salomon accompanied Cadwalan to England, and La^amon must have been 
deceived by the general expression used by Wace, 

A Toteneis en vindrent siglant.— /. 107*. c. 2. 

P. 243. vv. 30932-30951. — Wace writes, that Edwin was grieved at the 
loss of his " bon devin," and sent Peanda, king of Mercia, with a great 
force, to assiege Exeter. Vol. ii. p. 277. 

Ibid. v. 30953. — Not in Wace. 

P. 244. V. 30964. a ]n'eo ulockes. — Geoffrey and Wace separate Cad- 
walans army into ybwr divisions. 

Ibid. vv. 30966-30979.— Not in Wace. 

P. 245. vv. 30980-31007.— In the French text the account of the battle 
is comprised in three lines, nor is it stated there or elsewhere, that Pcnda 
was captured by Cadwalan himself. 

428 NOTES. 

p. 246. ft'. 31008-9. — Not in Wace. Mserwal was the third son of 
Penda, and reigned jointly with Wulfere, his second brother, in Mercia. 
He married Domneva, according to Gocelin, but, according to William of 
Malmesbury, Ermenberga, daughter of Ermenred, brother of Erconbert, 
king of Kent, and by her had three daughters, Mildritha, Milburga, and 
Milgitha, and a son, Merfin, who died in infancy. Of these, Milburga 
became the foundress and first abbess of the monastery of Wenlock in 
Shropshire, and died there about a.d. 680. Compare Lelands extracts from 
the Vita Milburgce, in Collectanea, vol. iii. p. 169, Malmesbury, De Gestis 
Reg. Angl. fF. 14*. 50. 164. edit. 1596, and the Monasticon, vol. v. pp. 72, 75. 

Ibid. V. 31012.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 31018-31147. — This long passage is an addition by La^amon, 
and it would be difficult to learn on what historical foundation it may rest. 
No mention, I believe, occurs elsewhere of a sister of Penda named Helen. 
As to the introduction of king Louis of France, a strange anachronism has 
been committed, unless we may suppose that Clovis 11. was intended, who 
succeeded to the throne of Neustria and Burgundy, a.d. 638, and died 
in 656. He is said to have married a lady named Batilda, who was sold 
by English pirates to the mayor of his palace. See L'Art de verifier les 
dates, tom. i. p. 546, ed. fol. 1783. All that Geoffrey tells us here is, 
that after Pendas capture he submitted himself to the victor, gave hostages, 
and promised to join Cadwalan against the Saxons, lib. xii. c. 8. Wace 
adds to this, that to ensure a firmer alliance, Cadwalan married a sister of 
Penda (see Geoffrey, lib. xii. c. 14.), and then, instead of the detailed nar- 
rative of Lajamon, briefly subjoins, that Cadwalan gave thanks to the Bri- 
tons for the labors and fatigues they had endured on his account. Vol. ii. 
p. 279. Compare Turner, Hist. Anglo-Sax., vol. i. p. 361. 

P. 252. vv. 31151-31157.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 31166-31209. — This passage is an amplification of six lines in 
the French text, which tell us, that Edwin assembled all the Saxon and 
English kings, but who Avere kings only in name, as they ruled over coun- 
ties. Vol. ii. p. 280. Geoffreys words are " omnes regulos Anglorum." 
He states however subsequently, that assistance had arrived from the 

P. 254. vv. 31214-31217. Hadf eld. —Hatfield, in the West Riding of 
Yorkshire. See Stevensons Bede, p. 151, and Turner, Hist. Anglo-Sax., 
vol. i. p. 361. The name has been much corrupted by later writers. 
Geoffrey has it Hevefeld, Wace, Elfelde, Peter Langtoft, Hontinfeld and 

NOTKS. 429 

Edenfeld, and Robert of Gloucester, Hadvcle, but Robert of Brunne, more 
correctly, Hatfelde. The battle is fixed to the 12 Oct. a.d. 633, by Bede, 
lib. ii. c. 20. §. 146. 

P. 254. vv. 31218-31255. — Wace gives no detailed description of this 
battle, but merely mentions that Edwin was slain, together with his son 
Osfrid and the king of Orcany [Godbold], who had come to his aid. He 
then speaks of the indiscriminate slaughter ordered by Cadwalan, which 
occurs in Geoffrey, lib. xii. c. 9, and Bede, lib. ii. c. 20. §. 147. It will 
be observed how greatly La^amon here deviates from his original. It need 
only be added, that both Bede and the Saxon Chronicle mention the death 
of Osfrid. 

P. 256. t'. 31257. — Lajamon here again commits an error, being de- 
ceived by the ambiguous term heir in his original. In reality Osric was 
not the son of Edwin, but his cousin, and son of ^ifric, Edwins uncle. 
See the Saxon Chronicle, a°. 634, and Bede, lib. iii. c. 1. His name is 
falsely printed Offris in the edition of Wace, vol. ii. p. 281, and in Ro- 
berts's version of the Welsh Brut, p. 185. It is nowhere else stated, I 
believe, that he was present in the conflict at Hatfield. 

Ibid. vv. 31260-31277. — Wace only says, that Cadwalan made war 
against Osric, and slew him, with two of his nephews. Geoffrey has in 
addition, tliat his ally Aidan, king of the Scots, was also killed. It would 
appear from Bede, that Osrics death took place near York, p. 156. 

P. 257. vv. 31278-31293.— Not in Wace. Neither the French writer 
nor Geoffrey notice the relationship between Oswald and Edwin ; but Ro- 
bert of Brunne writes, 

Oswald was sib Edwyn before ; 

Of Acha, his sister, born. — -f. 92. c. 1. 

which is taken from Bede, lib. iii. c. 6. 

P. 258. vv. 31296-31353.— All this is amplified from eight lines of 
Wace, vol. ii. p. 281, who merely follows Geoffrey in saying, that Cad- 
walan drove Oswald towards Scotland, and then finding he could not over- 
take him, delivered a part of his forces to Penda, with orders to pursue the 
flying prince. It will readily be perceived how Geoffreys history here dis- 
agrees from, and falsifies the Saxon Annalists. 

P. 260. vv. 31363-31380. — Not in Wace, nor elsewhere. 

P. 261. V. 31383. Houen-feld. — In Bede, Geoffrey and Wace written 
Hevefehl, and interpreted " celestis campus." In all probability the site 
is marked by the modern village of Bingfield, in Tindale Ward, Northum- 

-130 NOTES. 

beiland, which is divided from Hallington (anciently Haledon) by a rivulet 
named Erringburn. This is the same with the Denisesburna of Bede, lib. 
iii. c. 1, on which he states Caedwalla or Cadwalan to have perished. See 
the Appendix to Smiths edition of Bede, p. 720. 

P. 262. vv. 31393-31448. — This narrative is wholly due to La^amon, 
who seems to have mingled together the accounts of the battle at Heven- 
field in a.d. 635, and the subsequent conflict at Maserfield, a.d. 642. 
At all events he has completely deserted his French guide, who, following 
Geoffrey, states a battle to have taken place in which Penda was defeated. 
He returns to Cadwalan and demands vengeance. They collect new forces, 
march into Northumberland, and after a hard-fought battle Oswald is 
killed by Penda. Vol. ii. pp. 282-3. Geoffrey names the place of Oswalds 
martyrdom Burne, which appears a misappropriation of the name of the 
rivulet on which Cadwalan was slain. 

P. 264. vv. 31451-2. — Wace says, " un des freres Osewald." There 
were other brothers, but the eldest had been killed i:»reviously, and the 
rest were of no note. See the Saxon Chronicle, a°. 617. 

Ibid. V. 31460. — Wace has here a passage omitted by La3amon, to the 
effect that Oswy, perceiving the enfeebled state of his kingdom and the 
power of Cadwalan, thought it better to submit than to declare war, and 
accordingly made gifts to Cadwalan, and did him homage for his territories. 
Thus was peace established and a long time preserved. Vol. ii. p. 284. 
Compare Geoffrey, lib. xii. c. 11. 

Ibid. V. 31461. emes sunen. — In the French text we read " Osewy out 
parenz e nevuz," but Geoffrey expressly names Alfrid or Edelfrid the 
brother of Oswy, and Oidilvald, his nephew, son of Oswald. The latter, 
as we learn from Bede, lib. iii. c. 24, was actually in the hostile army of 
Penda ; but the former is evidently the same as the eldest but illegitimate 
son of Oswy, who subsequently became king of Northumbria. In the 
Welsh version two nepheivs are mentioned, but their names are not given, 
p. 185. 

P. 266. vv. 31495-31516. — In Wace we read only, that Penda replied 
he dared not break the peace without the consent of Cadwalan. "\^ol. ii. 
p. 285. 

P. 267. vv. 31517-31522.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 31527-31544. — Amplified from two lines of the French original, 
A Londres se fist coruner, 
E tuz ses barons fist mander. — MS. Reg.f. 109. c. 1. 

NOTKS. 4;]1 

P. 268. vv. 31556-31558. — Added by La?amon, who omits, however, 
in his paraphrase of Pendas speech, an important part of it, in which he 
tells Cadwalan, that Oswy has sent to Saxony for forces of horse and foot, 
and was collecting an army in order to make war. Wace, vol. ii. p. 286. 

P. 270. vv. 31590-31630. — This is very briefly narrated in the French 
text. Ibid. 

P. 272. vv. 31634-31636.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. vv. 31639-31672. — In the French text the commencement of 
Margaduds speech dwells wholly, in general terms, on the hatred and trea- 
chery shown by the Saxons towards the Britons, and he therefore advises 
that they should be allowed to destroy one another. Ibid. 

P. 274. vv. 31683-31710. This portion of the speech is not in Wace, 
who simply adds, that all the Britons approved what Margadud had said. 

P. 276. V. 31726. — Wace states that, previous to the battle, Oswy in 
vain endeavoured to obtain peace by pecuniary offers, vol. ii. p. 288. So 
also in Geoffrey and Bede. 

Ibid. vv. 31733-31762. — It is difficult to account for the erroneous nar- 
rative here given by La^araon, who not only departs from the text of 
Wace, but is totally at variance with Bede (whom he professes to have 
consulted), nor is his statement supported by any other authority. Wace 
relates in six lines that Penda was slain in the battle, with the greater part 
of his friends, and that subsequently his eldest son Off r is, who had been 
brought up at the court of Cadwalan, obtained, and did homage for, his 
fathers territories. Vol. ii. p. 289. Geoffrey says the same, but fixes the 
scene of the conflict near the river Winwed (the Are, which flows past 
Leeds, in Yorkshire), and names the son of Penda WIfredus, lib. xii. c. 
13. His account is borrowed from Bede, lib. iii. c. 24, but not without 
the usual alterations. For the corruptions Offriz and WIfredus we should 
read Wulfere, who succeeded to the Mercian throne after his fathers death. 
Lajamon has not only changed the name to Osric, but has falsely repre- 
sented him as the son of Oswy ; whereas the latter monarch survived to 
the year 670, and was then succeeded by his son Ecgfrid. It only remains 
to be noted, that the battle in which Penda was slain took place a.d. 655. 

See Bede, loc. cit. and the Saxon Chronicle. 

• «■- 

P. 211 . V. 31766. seouen and feouwerti ^et-e. — Wace and Geoffrey say 
forty-eight. It must be recollected that, according to Bede, Cadwalan was 
killed many years before, namely, in a.d. 634. See Turner, vol. i. p. 363. 

4:32 NOTES. 

p. 277. vv. 31767-31780. — Not in Wace, nor do I know that this strange 
tradition of the cause of Cadwalans death exists anywhere else. But 
Geoffrey and Wace, vol. ii. p. 289, give us in its place a curious account 
of the deposition of the kings embalmed corpse within a brazen figure of 
a knight on horseback, which was placed over the west gate of London, 
where it long remained. A church was also founded near the spot in 
honor of St. Martin. This tale is copied by Peter Langtoft, Robert of 
Brunne, and Robert of Gloucester, and is found also in the Welsh version 
ascribed to Tysilio, in which reference is made to the prophecy of Merlin 
concerning the equestrian in brass, ap. Geoffrey, lib. vii. c. 3. 

P. 278. vv. 31782-31784. — Geoffrey writes, " Mater ejus fuerat soror 
Peandse ; patre tantum eodem, matre vero diversa, ex nobili genere Gewis- 
seorum edita fuerat." He adds, that this Cadwalader is called by Bede 
^dihald juvenis, lib. xii. c. 14. The whole of this is founded on the 
error of confounding Cadwalader with Ceadwalla, king of Wessex, the latter 
of whom was in reality the son of Cenwalch, king of Wessex, by Sexburga, 
sister of Penda. See Bede, lib. iii. c. 7, and lib. iv. c. 15. From the latter 
passage Geoffrey takes the phrases "juvenis" and "ex nobili genere Ge- 
wisseorum," and then crowns his error by confounding ^dilvalch, king of 
Sussex, with Ceadwalla, his destroyer ! 

/6/rf. ui;. 31787-31790.— Not in Wace. 

P. 279. V. 31798. fulle seouen nihte. — Wace says three days. 

Ibid. vv. 31807-31818. — Not in Wace, who has instead a few lines, 
stating that the people was compelled to subsist on fish, wild animals, 
roots, herbs, and leaves of trees, vol. ii. p. 290. Lajamon transposes this 
passage further on, p. 282. 

P. 280. V. 31824. ?HorS. — The historical fact of this pestilence having 
ravaged the whole of Britain, and extended even to Ireland, is attested by 
Bede, lib. iii. c. 27, Avho assigns it to the year 664. See also the Saxon 
Chronicle, a'\ 664. 

P. 281. vv. 31853-31858.— Not in Wace. 

Ibid. V. 31863. sune Salemomies. — Alan was not the son but nephew of 
Salomon, according to Geoflfrey and his followers. 

P. 282. vv. 31887-31916. — Much amplified and altered from thirteen 
lines of Wace, vol. ii. p. 292, 

P. 284. vv. 31919-31932.— Wace only writes. 


Cil vindrciit mult espessement, 

Od grant conipaines etsovent. — MS. Reg./. 110. c. 2. 

Then follow twenty-six lines, which are omitted hy La;amon, chiefly rela- 
ting to the change of the language from British to Saxon, and the intro- 
duction of Saxon customs. Geoflfrey says the Saxons landed " in partes 
Northumbriae," and took possession of the desolated provinces from Albany 
to Cornwall. The Welsh version absurdly reads Norway for Albany, 
which Roberts more absurdly defends, and is of opinion there were places 
in the highlands called Norway and Denmark! p. 188. 

P. 284, vv. 31933-4. — Wace only says, " A eel tens ert Adelstan reis," 
when speaking in general terms of the Saxon occupation of Britain. La- 
3amon here, as elsewhere, has been deceived by the looseness of the ex- 
pression (which is borrowed from the conclusion of Geoffrey, lib, xii, c, 
19), and certainly displays a remarkable ignorance of the Saxon annals, by 
bringing Athelstan into Britain in the seventh century, when he might have 
easily informed himself, that he did not ascend the throne till the year 924. 
The notice of his illegitimate birth is accurate, and the ladys name was 
Egwina, the daughter of a shepherd. See Turner, vol, ii, p. 176, It 
must be observed that this notice, as well as the passage respecting Ed- 
ward and Ina, is engrafted by Wace on the text of Geoffrey. 

P. 285. vv. 31943-4, — Not in Wace, Athelstan reigned till the year 

Ibid. V. 31946, feor her bi-aften. — The expression bi-eeften seems to 
have been an error of the scribe for biforan, unless hereafter bears refer- 
ence to the return of the Britons, which is not improbable. 

Ibid. vv. 31947-31980. — La^amonhas altered considerably the narrative 
of Wace, who only says, that Edward (the Elder) went to Rome, and re- 
newed the grant of Peters pence, originally made by his ancestor Ina ; on 
which he briefly remarks, without any mention of Athelstan, 

Le air apres Tout rendu, 

Le don al pere unt Men tenu. — MS. Reg.f. 110. c. 2. 

Wace here evidently confounds Edward (who never was at Rome) with 
Ethelwulph, and La^amon commits the same error in sending Athelstan 
there. The faulty chronology of the latter in allowing only 65 years 
from the death of Ina (A.D. 727-8) to the reign of Athelstan, will not 
escape remark. His concluding lines in speaking of the Romescot are 
worthy attention, as they appear to allude to a threatened discontinuance 
of the payment, and this will suit extremely well the period of Johns 
reign, at which it is probable La^amons work was composed. We read 

V^OL. HI. 2 F 

434 NOTES. 

in Robert of Gloucester, under thje year 1205, when speaking of tlie elec- 
tion of Peres de la Roche to the bishopric of Winchester : 

)70 J)is Peris was ichose. he wende uor J)is cas 

To Rome, & of J^e pope, jiere isacred was. 

Fram Rome lie brozte an heste. ]?' me here nome, 

Petres pent of ech hous. J'at smoke out of come. 

Ac ]>e king and heyemen wif-sede it Home, 

War ]>orii Tpe king add J^e worse grace at Rome. — MS. Coti. Calig. A. xi.f. 139. 

With regard to the origin of the Rome-scot see Turner, vol. i. p. 399, and 
Lingards Antiq. of the Anglo-Saxon Church, vol. i. p. 140. 

P. 28^. vv. 31981-32045. — A strange amplification of six lines in the 
French text, stating, that when Cadwalader heard the pestilence had ceased, 
he wished to return to Britain, and made preparations for his voyage. Vol. 
ii. p. 295. 

P. 289. vv. 3205G-32067. — Wace merely says, he heard a voice from 

P. 291. vv. 32092-3. — Allusion seems here to be made to the prophecy 
recorded in the seventh book of Geoffrey, c. 3. p. 50. 1. 12. So also we 
read in the abbreviated chronicle of Welsh affairs in MS. Cott. Titus D. 
XXII. f. 28*. "Bardi enim Kambrenses istam opinionem, quam in libris 
suis autenticis habeant scriptam, firmiter tenent, quod cumossa beati Kad- 
waladri a terra suscitarentur, Britones pristinse potestati, quam habuerunt 
per proraissionem angeli, restaurarentur." 

Ibid. vv. 32102-32109.— Not in Wace. 

P. 292. V. 32121 . nexte mcBi. — Wace only says, " son bon ami." 

Ibid. vv. 32128-32131. — In the French text and Geoffrey we are told, 
that Alan and his wise men consulted various estoi-ies to see if the vision 
seen by Cadwalader accorded with the prophecies of Merlin, those of Aquila 
" le bon devin " (see previous Note, p. 317), and of Sibilla. Langtoft makes 
a curious blunder here, by converting the Latin name of the place where 
" Aquila " prophesied (Seftonia), into " Sophon les prophez." which Robert 
of Brunne renders " the sawes of Sophonie." Thus the eagle is first con- 
verted into a prophet of that name, and Shaftesbury afterwards, by the 
same process, is turned into a second prophet ! To the former notice re- 
specting the prophecies of Aquila I may here add, that in the Welsh ver- 
sion of Geoffrey, MS. Cott. Cleop. B. v. (of the close of the thirteenth 
century) these prophecies are inserted, and are the same as the Latin text 
in the Royal MS. 15. c. xvi. They are printed in the Cambrian Register 

NOTES. 435 

for 1796, vol, ii. p. 33, where the MS. is falsely ascribed to the reign of 
Richard the First. 

P. 293. V. 32138. slep-sune. — Geoffrey and the Welsh authorities call 
Ivor the son, and Ini the nephew of Alan, but Wace omits the relationship) 
of the latter, and of the former says, "/iz de sa iixur," which expression 
seems to have misled Lajamon. 

Ibid. vv. 32146-32187. — Wace gives the kings speech in four lines, in 
which he merely tells them to pass over to Britain, and be sovereigns of the 
people. Vol. ii. p. 296. 

P. 294. V. 32182. SiblUie.—See a previous note, p. 393. 

P. 295. V. 32195. ui/te half ^ere.—U the "fifth half year" be taken 
according to the Saxon mode of numeration, it will mean four years and a 
half. In Wace the period is expressed in general terms, 

Wareit gueres a Rome este.— Af^". Reg.f. 110*. c. 2. 
Geoffrey passes it over thus : " inopino languore correptus," which he 
borrows from Bede, who writes, " Etenim illo perveniens [Ceadwalla], 
pontificatum agente Sergio, baptizatus est die sancto sabbati paschalis [the 
Saturday before Easter], anno ab incarnatione Domini sexcentesimo oc- 
tuagesimo nono ; et in albis adhuc positus \i. e. until the first Sunday 
after Easter], languore correptus, duodecimo kalendarum Maiarum [20 
April] die solutus a came." lib. v. c. 7. Guttyn Owains interpolated 
copy of the Welsh version of Geoffrey states, that Cadwalader lived at 
Rome five years. Roberts, p. 189. 

Ibid. V. 32198. elleoue da^es biforen mai^e. — So also in Wace, but by 
error, for Geoffrey literally copies the date given by Bede. In the printed 
text of the French writer, vol. ii. p. 297, some lines follow, which assign 
the date to 17 April, A.D. 600, and in the Royal MS. Brit. Mus. it is 
fixed to 19 April, A.D. 699 (as in Robert of Brunne), both of which dates 
require correction. The author of the Cambrian Biography extends the 
life of Cadwalader to A.D. 703. Compare Turner, vol. i. p. 381. It 
will be perceived, that Geoffrey continues to confound him with the king 
of Wessex up to the period of his death, and the Welsh versions implicitly 
follow in his path, with the usual blunders of transcription. 

Ibid. vv. 32202-32207.— An addition by La3amon. 

P. 296. Dy. 32213. 32223-32225.— Wace only says, with a great fleet 
and army. 

Ibid. vv. 32216-32241.— Instead of these lines Wace concludes his hi- 
story in the following manner ; " The remains of the Britons, whom wC 

436 NOTES. 


now call Welsh, who are seated towards the north, were under their sub-i 
jection [«'. e. of Ivor and Ini], but never afterwards had they sufficient 
power to gain possession of Logres [Britain]. They are all changed andj 
degenerated from the nobility, the honor, the manners, and the life of their 
ancestors !" Vol. ii. p. 298. He then adds the derivation of the name ofj 
Wales from Duke Gualon, or queen Galaes (see a previous note, p. 31 1, andi 
Giraldus Cambrensis, Cambr. Descriptio, c. 7. p. 887, fol. 1602), and ter-i 
minates his work by adding the date of its comjoletion, A.D. 1155. 
Geoffreys narrative is nearly to the same purpose, but he introduces the | 
passage about the Saxons and Athelstan, which Wace has previously no- 
ticed. See note, p. 433. Turner admits the expedition of Ivor and Ini into 
the page of genuine history, on the authority of the Welsh chronicles, and 
even goes so far as to specify the battles in which they were engaged, but, 
I confess, I entertain considerable doubts as to this statement, and am much 
inclined to believe that in the Ini of Geoffrey and the Welsh annalists we 
see a distorted image of the Saxon king Ina, the son of Ceadwalla. The \ 
last four lines of La^amon are similar to the couplet of Robert of Glouces- I 
ter, in allusion to the same event, 

& that me ssal jut ysey, 

At vpe Godes wylle yt ys, wanne yt ssal be ! — p. 256, 


VOL. I. 

V. 1. The phrases on leoden and in londe are used in the same indefinite man- 
ner as on dit^eSe, 07ifolke, on eor^e, on worle \on worulde. Sax. Chron. a". 655], etc. 
In the present instance the more general signification would seem preferable, as 
in vv. 2218. 3718. 15819, etc. Compare also vv. 4071. 11093. 

V. 4. {second text) driste. — This might be supposed a mere error of the scribe, 
but other examjiles of such an unorganic change of letters would induce me to 
refer it to that law of pronunciation by which h, ch, 3 and s were affected and in- 
terchanged. The instances which occur are chiefly in the later text of the poem, 
in which we have ristnesse, v. 14, mistie, v. 57, nost, vv. 538. 1327, nowist, v. 1446, 
foste, V. 8821, and /as/, v. 22/25, for rih/nesse, mihtie, etc. ; and in the first text 
we meet with the similar forms of doster, v. 2982, )>uste, v. 5268, miste, v. I869O, 
and diste, v. 25907. That this interchange of letters existed before the Conquest, 
we have evidence in Domesday-book, where we find the names Brictuoldus and 
Bristuoldus, Brictuuard and Bristuuard, etc. In the same record the town of 
Brihthelmestone is written Bristelmestune, and for the isle of Wihf (Vecta) we find 
TVist in Alfred of Beverley, p. 5. erf. Hearne. Similar forms often occur in a very 
curious volume of English poetry, about the time of Henry III., preserved in Trinity 
College, Cambridge, marked B. 14. 39, and at a rather later period, in the Cam- 
bridge copy of the Romance of Kyng Horn (Gg. 4. 27. Publ. Lihr.) we have miste 
and doster for mihte and dohter ; and in all the copies /wrs/e rhymes to huerte, v. 
885. Thus Robert of Brunne rhymes together /?-s/ and girt, and numerous other 
examples might be produced. Even in the sixteenth century I find thowst for 
thought, in a letter from John Wallop to Wolsey (dated 12 March, 1526), in MS. 
Cott. Vesp. F. I. f. 69. In Ohd. [Old High German] this interchange likewise 
occurs, as trust for truht, while st occasionally takes the place of t>. See Grimms 
Deutsche Grammatik, vol. ii. pp. 208, 211. The converse of such a change is some- 
times found, as cerht for cerst in the first text of Lajaraon, v. 5537, and similar 
forms inMhd. [Middle High German] are pointed out by Grimm, vol. i. p. 416, 
vol. ii. p. 212. Hence, perhaps, may be explained the forms of most and mohf, 


both used for the past tense of the verb may, as also the Humeroue class of words 
in Old French which elide the s before t. 

V. 1 . Seuarne sta)>e. — So in the Saxon Chronicle, a°. 894, " >aof-foron hie J>one 
here hindan set Butdigingtune, on Scefcrn sta^e." 

V. 10. (sec. t.) heo. — No doubt an error for he, yet the same fault occurs else- 
where in this text, and very frequently in the earlier text, which has, however, in 
some instances been corrected by a second hand. See vol. i. pp. 40. 149- 264. 
299. and vol. iii. p. 169- Analogous forms are met with of \>eo for \>e, etc. In 
the Laud MS. of the Saxon Chronicle, written between 1122 and 1154, the same 
errors are found. 

V. 14. (sec. t.) risincsse. — I regard this word as the representative of A. -S. gere- 
cednys, which is closely connected with gerihtnes, in the same manner as recun is 
y;ith.rihtan. Literally translated, it would mean " correction," " righting." 

V. 17. Englene. — Although rendered as an adjective, it is in reality the gev. pi. 
of the noun, as in the similar cases of Francene, Scottene, Denemarkene, Bruttene, 
Denene, etc. The adjectival forms in La^amon, like the A. -Saxon, end in isc, as En- 
ylisce, Welsce, Frenchisce or Freinsce, Densce, etc. Ingram remarks on the Sax. 
Chron. a°. IO66, that the term English began about this time to be substituted 
for Angles, and French to assume the form of Frencyscan ; but this is only correct 
thus far, that the adjective, with folk expressed or understood, was occasionally 
used instead of the noun. 

V. 38. (sec. ^.)— These are the only instances throughout the poem of the in- 
terchange between /and h, yet the converse occurs several times, asfihfie,fihtene, 
first text, vv. 5877- 25914, ior fif tie, fiftene, and swihte, sohtere, sohte, second text, 
vv. 5902. I6IO9. 18775, for swiffe, softere, softe. So in Kyng Horn, 5o//p rhymes 
to douter, in MS. Laud. 108, and in Arthour and Merlin, gift rhymes to vnright, 
p. 87. ed. 1838. The same rule obtains in Ohd. between / and h or ch. See 
Grimm, vol. ii. p. 211. Hence also the common interchange between gh, f and w, 
still retained in our provincial dialects, and even in conversation. 

V. 42. hoe.- — For heo, ace. s. fem., since Aoe is of the same gender as in A.- 

V. 44. \>(s he^es. — We have here, probably by error, the indefinite form of the 
adjective, instead of the definite, according to the usual rules of A.-S. grammar. 

V. 50. hoc-fellc. — So in the Early English Legend of St. Margaret, in MS. Reg. 
17 A. xxvii. f. 55^ " hire bone wes \>es, -p ich hit write on hoc-felle." 

vv. 58, 59. The punctuation here is imperfect, and would seem to indicate the 
omission of a line. The second text, however, omits the corresponding verse. 

V. 59- leornia. — The use of a final for e will often be remarked, and occurs also 
in the later copies of the Saxon Chronicle. 


V. 68. (sec. t.) louesange. — This word, which means song of praise, or hymn, 
would appear to be a mistake of the compiler of the later text, or else an error of 
the scribe. In MS. Reg. 17 A. xxvii., written in the early part of the thirteenth 
century, hymn is expressed by loft-sony, tf. Q"'. 52''. 

V. Go. {sec. t.) \>aH. — May be incorrectly written for \xi, as in v, 9G70, or for in 
Van, as in v. 1 2004 . 

V. 87- ermden. — d for '5, as often elsewhere. 

V. 91. bern may be either sing, or pi. as in A. -Sax. Wace has it, " ne fil ne 

fille plus." 

V. 101. The final d is often dropt after n, particularly when preceding |>, as 
also after the consonants I and r. 

V. 109. hi-wonnen. — This has been translated as if connected with the German 
be-ivohnen, to inhabit, but it would be probably better to take the word in its usual 
sense of " got possession of," or " conquered," as referring to Arthurs occupatioo 
of the city at a subsequent period. Cf. v. 24434. 

V. 111. driht-folcke. — The word driht was considered here and elsewhere as an 

abbreviation of drihtliche, from the comparison of vv. 854. 1388. 2551. 8273. 

14715 ; but on reconsideration it appears to be the same as the compound driht- 

folc in Caedmon, p. 179, and druht-folc in Old Saxon, Heliand, p. 29, and signifies 

" people," generally. In the translation therefore "good" should be omitted, 

V. 112. iwalken. — The primary meaning is tossed, from the A.-S. wealca7i, to roll ; 
but the modern verb to walk is thence derived, as pointed out by Somner and 
Skinner. The participle is here in the strong form, and so is the preterite weolken, 
V. 12040, where the later text assumes the weak form walkede, as in Mhd. walgte, 
from welgen. See Ziemann, Mittelhochdeutsches WUrterbuch, 8vo, 1838. 

V. 119. monscipe. — This word does not occur in Bosworths A.-S. Dictionary, 
although it is difficult to suppose that it did not exist among the A.-Saxons. It is 
used very frequently in both texts of La3amon, and its usual meaning undoubtedly 
is honor, worship, dignity. The synonyms are mensca, v. 2535, and mah]>e, v. 6234, 
and in the French text of Wace, los, dignite. In the later text we have the adverb 
mansipliche, honorably, v. 20743. 

V. 120. gersume. — Better, perhaps, if translated "treasure," but see v. 352, where 
the later text reads ^eftes. 

V. 128. In the French original, "rices et manans." The term ric, riche in 
A. -Saxon and Early English not only means wealthy, but very frequently ;)ower/«Z, 
mighty, noble. This is the case also in the Scandinavian and Teutonic languages, 
as well as in Old French. 

V. 131. godd. — The first hand wrote godde, but the e has subsequently been 


V. 139. See for this A. -S. phrase, Csedmon, pp. 8. 99. 308, and Sax. Chron. a°. 
959- It is not unusual in Middle English, and we find it even as late as the close 
of the seventeenth century. See Jamiesons Popular Ballads, vol. ii. p. 2S6. 

V. 146. The word daye means, as in A.-S., the period of a mans life, and in v. 
5997, Hue of the first text is replaced by dawes in the second. The phrase con- 
tinued to a late period. 

V. 1.51. leodena. — There is some difficulty in determining whether this la gen. 
sing, or pliir., but most probably the latter, and of the fem. gender, as in A.-S. and 
Isl. Compare w. 892. 2463. 2493. 3691. 14829. 19277. In A.-S, the usual 
forms are s. leod, g. e, pi. leode, g. a, d. urn, but Bosworth in his Supplement 
gives us also the weaTc form of leoda, g. an. In Lajamon two declensions seem 
confounded, as well as genders, for we meet with, sing. n. leoden (?), g. leodes, 
d. leode -n, a. leode -n ; plur. n. leode -n -ne, leodes, g. leodene, d. leodene, 
a. leoden -e, leodes. In Ohd. and Mhd. we find n. s. liut, g. liutes, ace. liut, 
liuten, n. pi. liuti, liute, d. liuten, but in modern German and Dutch the word is 
only declined in the plural (as, generally, in La^amon), G. leide, D. lieden. Tlie 
Middle English forms are lede and ledes. In compound words leod is often found 
in La3amon undeclined, as in A.-S., but sometimes takes a final e, or en. 

vv. 154, 155. Insert the half-pause r* after ihoten, and substitute a point for 
^'in the following line. The faultj' punctuation exists in the MS. It may here 
be as well to state, that in commencing the work, the editor proposed to follow the 
punctuation of the MS. in every case, but on proceeding further the errors of the 
scribe became so frequent and so obvious in this respect, that it was resolved to 
adopt an uniform punctuation throughout, of half-pause and full-pause. In every 
instance therefore in which this rule has not been observed, the reader is requested 
to attribute it, either to the non-correction of the transcript for the press, or to a 
typographical oversight. 

r. 159. hei^en. — Here and in other places the adjective is used in the masc. or 
neuter instead of the fem. termination. Cf. vr. 1211. 1821. 3210. 3610. etc. 

V. 171. The meaning of feone appears to be, — first, injury or mischief, and se- 
condly, anger or grief. In the former sense many instances occur in Bosworths 
Dictionai-y, but of the latter not one, although we find the verb teonan, to anger. 
In later writers the first of these significations appears to have become obsolete. 

V. 175. he^e men. — Would be more literally rendered " noble men," or "mighty 

V. 197. Correct the translation thus, "it displeased to his friends," since hit 
is the nom. case, and of.\>uhten, 3 p. s. pa. t. with the pleonastic n. With regard 
to the meaning of this verb, in A.-S., see Beowulf, 1. 4059, Ca;dm. p. 279, and 
Sax. Chron. a°. 1127. In Middle English it has the sense of repent, as often in 

I'. 229- hir. — Incorrectly, for hire. 


V. 230. Mahum is borrowed from the A. -Norman, and is used constantly in 
their romance-poems of the twelfth century. 

w. 239. 240. In the MSS. of both texts these two lines are joined as one. 
Perhaps a line is missing. 

V. 255. fpir. — There is some inaccuracy here, since /ezr can scarcely be consi- 
dered a past participle. I would prefer omitting it (as sanctioned by the second 
text), or reading, )>a i>is child wasfeir and muchel, as in v. 4072. 

V. 257. The nouns mawe, ma^e, mo^e, mowe are used only in reference to a. fe- 
male relation, and represent the A.-S. 7nage -an, or nieey -e, fern., whereas in speak- 
ing of a male relative, (sometimes in a limited sense, as " cousin," or " nephew,") 
the nouns mcBi, mey, may, mai, pi. messes, meies, meyes, are constantly made use of, 
and represent the A.-S. mceg -es, masc. This distinction, although liable to be 
confounded, is clearly marked in many passages of Early and Middle English 
writers, of which three instances are cited below. 

•p tu he ane hauest ouergan i>i feder & ti moder, meies ba & mehen, & al J-e ende 
J» tu & heo of beotS ierdet. — Leg. of St. Margaret, MS. Reg. 17 A. xxvii. f. 50. 
Nou nis offered of }>e. >i mei ne \>i mouwe, 
Heo weriet ^e weden hat heir were hin owene. 

MS. Trin. Call. Cambr., B. 14. 39. f. 44^. 

He lith and roteth lowe, 

He ne haueth that be his owe. 

Of aytle ne of londe ; 

Ne nowther meg ne mowe, 

That ther doren a throwe, 

Bi hem sitten ne stonde. 

Sawe ofSeint Bede, MS. Digb. 86. f. 129. 

V. 2(36. (sec. t.) Dele the conjecture on wid, since in the manuscript of the later 
text 'S is never used as a final letter, but always \>. The same correction is neces- 
sary in several other places. 

V. 279. l>eo. — Is the feminine article, corresponding to the Frisic t/iin, and is 
used for the A.-S. sec in a copy of ^Ifrics translation of Genesis, in the Public 
Librarj', Cambridge, li. 1 . 33, the date of which is supposed to be midway between 
the later Anglo-Saxon and La3amon. It occurs also in the " Grave-song" of the 
twelfth century, in Thorpes Anahcta, p. 142, and in the Fragment of the Address 
of the Soul to the Body, recently re-edited, with an English version, by Mr. Singer, 
Svo, 1845. At a later period we find the same article in Kyng Alisaunder. Cf. 
Rasks Grammar, p. 56, who seems too hastily to pronounce it an error. 

V. 288. The meaning would be rendered more obvious, if this line had been 
rendered, "arrive at (attain to) honor." In the original French text it is, "puis 
a grant honor venra." The principal use of the auxiliary verbs comen and gon, 
before infinitives of verbs of motion, appears to be to give a past sense to the second 
verb. In the later text of La^amon, the simple verb is sometimes substituted, as 


in V. 5825. The same forms are found in Old Saxon and in A. -Saxon. See 
Kembles note on Beowulf, 1. 646, who remarks, that in modern German similar 
phrases are expressed by the infinitive and part, past ; and this is the case also in 
Mhd., as appears from Beneckes Glossary to Hartmanns Iwein, v. Kume. In 
English this use oi gon was retained as late as the sixteenth century. 

V. 2S9. \>o is an error of the MS. for \>a. 

V. 298. feie. — Is employed by La^amon in a double signification, first that of 
dead or slain, and secondly, /a^ed to die. Of the former meaning the present is an 
example, as also vv. C55. 1711. 1715. etc. Of the latter sense there are numerous 
instances, as vv. 517. 629- 1290. etc. In A.-S.fceg is generally found to express 
the second meaning. Hence is formed the adjectives uiifcege, Beow. v. 1 140, and 
unfcBcjlic, Boeth. xxxvi. 4. The word is common to all the Northern dialects, and 
is preserved in the Scottish /ey. 

V. 304. Compare v. 3731. In Wace it is expressed, " qui a male hore li mena." 
FceisitS is compounded from/^i and si'S, and is synonymous with deai>-si\>, vv. 
6348. 65G6. 

V. 307. This error of heo for heom occurs no less than nineteen times in the 
first volume, and frequently afterwards. 

V. 310. An instance of the double dative, which often occurs (as in A.-S.) either 
with a pronoun and noun, or with two nouns. 

V. 312. {sec. t.) strey\>e. — The omission of the n in many words, particularly be- 
fore the letters y and d, seems to indicate an Anglo-Norman pronunciation ; at all 
events we find many similar instances in poems written in that language. 

i;. 315. In Lajamon )>urh and \>urh ut govern both the ace. and dat. ; in A.-S. 
only the ace. 

V. 317. Literally, " woe was to him alive." In this and many similar phrases, 
the pronoun has been rendered in the nominative case. It may here also be re- 
marked, with regard to on Hue, an Hue, a-liue, etc. (Germ, am leben), alive, that 
it is always an adverb, compounded, like many others, of a noun in the dative case 
and a preposition. Hence will appear the great error of all our lexicographers, 
who invariably consider alive as an adjective, Lat. vivus, whereas the real adjective 
in A. -Saxon and Early and Middle English answering to vivus, is civic, quick, as 
still retained in the Creed. 

V. 336. (sec. t.) he];>. — It is a peculiarity of the later text of La^amon, (and some- 
times of the earlier,) to substitute \> for li, both at the end and in the middle of 
words. Thus we find such forms as he\>, \>or\>,fie\>, slo\>, ise\>, neY, hofy, etc., and 
cni)f>t, mi\>tie, so\>te, he\>te, he]>liche, no\>t, fo\>ten, etc. The converse change of h for 
I> or ht is sometimes found in both texts. 

I'. 366. (sec. t.) ...kete. — On a closer inspection of the MS. it appears to read 
...kere, but it is not easy to supply the words w'anting. 


V. 383. Troien is a noun in the dat. sing., and the version mtist be corrected, 
" was born of Troy." 

V. 389. du^e'Se. — In A.-S. this word often, but, I think, not always, [See Sax. 
Chron. a°. 627] mea.r)s people of rank or consideration. See Kembles Gloss to Beo- 
wulf, V. dugan. In La3araon, however, its sense is by no means so limited, and 
it signifies people in general. Its equivalents in the second text are, leode, men, 
cnihtes, folk, vv. 3005. 3401. 3664. 4281. etc. In v. 4945 it has, like leod, the 
meaning of country, kingdom, and in v. 19/54 on du^e^e is equivalent to in the world. 
Sometimes it is joined to cnihtes, as du^e'&e-cnihtes, w. 10166. 20832, but in these 
instances, as in leod-cnihtes, v. 7459, the words du^e'Se and leod seem scarcely to 
have any force, except to generalise. Two passages remain to be noticed, in which 
this word has a different acceptation, v. 10428, where it means good, benefit, and 
V. 20851, where it signifies power. The adverbial form also, diqelSlice, occurs, 
V. 16844. In writers of the fourteenth century, douthe has the same general sense 
of folk or people. See Glossary to Syr Gawayne, in voce, and the Romance of Alex- 
ander, MS. Ashmole, 44. ff. 28i'. 36. 

V. 396. tidende. — In the French original, " solum lur lai," Other instances of 
the use of this word in the same sense occur in vv. 2052. 5139. 13854. etc. Else- 
where it expresses the French term nouvelles. Thus, in the Chronicle of the Dukes 
of Normandj', by Benoit de Sainte More, speaking of the defeat of Costentlns 
forces by the French, he says, 

Francois lor funt oir noveles, 
Qu'il lor espandeut les cerveles. 

MS. Harl. 1111. f. 202. col. 1. 
Compare La3amon, v. 18425. 

V. 404. wale in the first text is an error of the press for wale, as in vv. 2542. 
6225, and should be translated "conflict." Thus in the Sax. Chron. a". 1100, 
" togeanes J'an he manega gepealc and ge^pinn hsefde." The later text reads wale, 
slaughter (?), both here and in v. 2542. The error of writing wind for win is re- 
peated in both texts, vv. 2542. 6225 ; and from the same cause — a vicious pro- 
nunciation — we have wind-rcesen, v. 9244, runden for rimnen, v. 1349, and for an, 
vv. 7110. 16789, etc., iwand for iwan, v. 7706, wundliche for wunliche, v. 10000, 
and gond for gon, v. 28058, which may find a parallel in the vulgarism of gownd 
for gown. 

V. 405. Instead of " calamity," the compound wi^er-hap would seem to con- 
vey the idea of "contest" or "strife." Compare vv. 573. 9269. 26590. It is 
not found in A.-S., but must be referred to the Suio-G. happ, casus, Swed. hap. 

V. 418. nomen and makcden are governed by )>CEt, as well as on-feng, and the 
translation ought to read thus, "should take the knight Brutus, and make him Duke, 
and 'he' their homage should receive." In the original text of Wace the act is 

represented as really done, and not merely contemplated, " Par son conseil 

firent," etc. 


V. 421. (sec, t.) The word deficient is onderfange. Cf. v. 14915. 

V. 436. smale mon-kun. — In the original, chaitifs. 

V. 437. i>ea for t>a, as again vv, 581. 2020. 3019, and so wea for wa, v. 2083. 

V. 448. weorldes scome. — This phrase was retained in Middle English. See an 
extract from the Vernon MS. in Warton, Hist. Engl. Poetr. vol. iii. p. 15. ed. 

V. 457. ku);>ies is an error for ku]>ie (see v. 5098), andTO<E3ea would be more cor- 
rectly rendered " brethren," as vv. 860. {sec. t.) 1064. 

V. 470. i>eowedomes seems to be in the gen. sing, and governed of i];>olien, as in 
A.-S. But in Caedraon, p. 135, we have )peowdom )>olian. Cf. v. 3439. 

V. 480. gri6e and/ri^e. — See the Sax. Chron. a°. 1009, and Ihre, Gloss. Suio- 
Goth. in V. Grid. The Norman pais, substituted in the later text, is also found in 
the Sax. Chron. a°. 1135. 

V. 490. ivro\>er hele. — This expression has not been found in any A. -Saxon writer, 
but seems to have been formed in the same manner as godere hele (see La3amon, 
V. 3597, Ihre, V. Hel, Beneckes Gloss, to Iwein, v. Heil, and Robert of Gloucester, 
p. 368), and signifies the opposite of that phrase, namely misfortune, injury, or 
destruction. It was evidently not originally a compound word, as appears by the 
position of the pronoun, but afterwards became so. It occurs again in both texts 
of La3araon, v. 29556, and is found in the Legend of St. Juliane, composed pro- 
bably about or soon after the year 1200, MS. Reg. 17 A. xxvii, f. 58'' (where, by 
error of the scribe, it is written wra^el heale). At the end of the thirteenth cen- 
tury the phrase came into general use, as appears by the instances in Robert of 
Gloucester, pp. 143. 164, and Robert of Brunne, pp. 104. 201. 221. Chaucer 
does not use this expression, yet it survived till the sixteenth centurj', as may be 
seen in the Squyr of Lowe Degre, ap. Ritson, vol. iii. p. 157. 

V. 495. leoden king should be joined by a hyphen, and be translated "sove- 

V. 503. ifusten is an irregular form for ifusden, as )>retete is for Yretede in the 
next line of the second text. 

V. 507. [sec. t.) freondes is probably an error i'or feondes. 

V. 509. Literally, "with stratagem of any kind." Cf. vv. 1710. 1717. 2621. 
3949. etc. The same freedom of translation has been taken elsewhere. In phrases 
of this description we often find the gcnitival termination s dropt. 

V. 516. biliggen. — In Wace, assegera ; and it might be better rendered by " be- 

V. 531. ])ruppe. — In the original, trfpas, which is explained by Roquefort, "pas- 
sage d'un lieu a un autre ; gorge de montagne." In A.-S. Wop is said by Som- 
ner to signify "a place where many ways meet," but he docs not cite his au- 


V. 532. Correct the translation, "The king came riding, with," etc. I/im is 
here reflective or paragogic, as is often the case after verbs of motion, and some 
few others. The same practice obtained in Old Saxon and A.- Saxon, and is 
found extensively used in Early and Middle English. See Kembles Note on Beo- 
wulf, 1. 51. Rasks Grammar, p. 95. Schmellers Notes on the I/eliand, p. 170, 
and Macphersons General rules on the construction of Wyntouns Chronicle, 8°. 

w. 534, 563. (sec. t.) him is probably an error for ham, the more usual form, 
but it occurs elsewhere. 

V. 552. {sec. t.) Dele the conjecture on^eh, and see remark on v. 336. 

V. 566. iwenden. — Another instance of the pleonastic verbal n, on which some 
remarks will elsewhere be made. Throughout the first volume the instances of 
this anomaly are pointed out at the foot of the pages where they occur. 

V. 575. fallen is the infinitive, and governed by mihte, which will render it ne- 
cessary to read " to fall" in the translation, instead of " fell." 

V. 579. I refer heora to the Greeks, and feon-'^ouxES (more correctly/eo«(?-{>eM'ps) 
to their evil or hostile conduct towards Brutus and his party. In Cscdmon we find 
freo'^o-\>eawas, loving manners ; and Lajamon uses the compounds /eowrf-s^ff/i/es, 
V. 16456, sxiAfeond-rcRse, v. 23960, the latter of which is also in Csedmon, p. 55. 

V. 596. There is a peculiarity in heihte being originally written heih, which de- 
serves notice, since the same error occurs in v. 837, and so in regard to hehte, 
hahte, vv. 1700. 6092. 10752. 13905, and imeehte, v. 30979. The cause appears to 
be the undefined sound of ht, ih and h, which caused the t to be frequently sup- 
pressed, as in \'oh, wroh, noh, i-broh, cnih, rih,fih, nih,feh, etc., for ]>oht, wroht, 
etc. See remark on v. 336. 

ibid, eulne would seem to be a provincial form of the A.-S. hwilcne, gehwilcne, 
which elsewhere in Lajamon is written wi7, vv, 18956. 25664. 25880. 29682. In 
Ohd. we have eohnelih, and in the nom. c. eogalih, eo hwelih, gihuuelih, giuuelih, 
etc. See Graff's AUhochdeutscher Sprachschatz, i. 519. iv. 1214. 1215, and Grimms 
Deutsche Grammatik, iii. 52. 

V. 611. heth for let, as in vv. 744. 971. 1361, and so je-S for ^et, v. 1959, heSfor 
\>et, V. 3786, etc. In three of these instances ih is used for «, as it is in a few 
other cases in the early text ; namely, mith, i. 126, sothscipe, i. 128, and hithachen, 
ii. 59, and also in the later text, ii. I96. 240. 596. 6O9. iii. 17- Both texts almost 
invariably have the proper name Uther written with th, so that it may not alto- 
gether be ascribed to the carelessness of the scribe. In the Saxon Chronicle (if 
we may trust Ingrams text) th first appears in the year 1137. P- 368, and in the 
Promptorium we find th clearly distinguished from )>. 

V. 612, hende perhaps may refer to castle, and not to cnihten. Elsewhere this 
epithet is applied to burgh, hill, wood, water, etc., as well as to man, woman. 


lion, clothes, body, etc., and seems to express both fairness in appearance, and 
mental qualities. In some instances it is written hendi, vv. 4833. 4899- 5523. etc., 
whence it would appear to l>e connected with the A.-S. gehend, whence also the 
modern adjective handy is derived. 

V. 6 17. The verb is understood, and the translation should be corrected, 
" marched to the castle, together with his army." This is not an unusual con- 
struction. See the Sax. Chron. a°. 1114. p. 335, and the Legend of St. Juliane, 
in MS. Reg. 17 A. xxvii. f. 64''. The same ellipsis of a verb of motion takes place 
after the verbs would and should. Compare vv. 1526. 1703. 1771. etc., and Sax, 
Chron. p. 334. 

V. 623. raemden. — Is here and elsewhere, vv. 682. 1678. 4128. 9338. etc., in the 
sense of " rushed" or "assaulted," of which signification no example is found in 
A.-S, Dictionaries. It seems however connected with the A.-S. araman, erigere, 
Teut. ramen, coUimare, and Proven9al aramir, attaquer. See Wachter and Ray- 

V. 630. hlod-gute. — Is considered a compound, as hlod-gyte in A.-S., yet in the 
later text I find it written blod i^ote, as if a distinct noun and past participle. See 
vol. ii. pp. 379. 419. iii. Q6. 

V. 633. (sec. t.) Dele the conjectural reading. See remark on v. 266. 

V. 635.fael. — Compare v. 5190. It appears the same with A.-S. fyll. See 
Kembles Beowulf, v. feallan, and Thorpes Analeda. 

V. 641. \>reate^ seems an error for \>reatede. 

V. 649. feiede. — This is the only instance of the use of this verb. It seems to be 
the same as A.-S. fegan, to join, pa.rt. fegde. See Cod. Exon, p. 4/9. 

V. 710. l^eon is for \>on, as in some few other cases. 

V. 727. quale-huse. — Synonymous with cwalm-hus, in MS. Reg, 17 A, xxvii. 
f. 39''. 

V. 731. derne is here probably an adverb, and should be rendered "secretly." 

V. 734, on sele. — A.-S. on salum. Csedm. p. 184. Ele/ie, v. 194. ed. Grimm. 
In some few passages, v. 15228. etc., it appears to signify " in amity." 

vv. 735-6. Transpose the marks of punctuation, which are faulty in the MS, 
A line perhaps is wanting here. 

V. 751. lease is an adjective. Read, " but they all were 'false [leasings], 
for," etc. 

V. 757. hache.— In Geoffrey, " convallem," and in Wacc, "vale'e." The same 
word recurs at vv. 2596. 5644. (where the later text reads slade) and in the pL 
hccchen, v. 21776. It is not inserted in A.-S. Dictionaries, yet it ought to be 


there, as is evident from the legend of king Kenclm, slain a". 819 in the Cow-dale 
at Clcnt, on the borders of Staffordshire; the A.-Saxon verses on which run 
thus ; — 

At Clent in Cu-bache, 

Kenelm kine-bearn, 

Lih uiulcr borne, 

Ileafode bireavod : 

of which the Latin interpretation is. 

In Clent, sub spina, jacet in Convalle Bovina, 
Vertice privatus, Kenelmus fraude necatus. 

Conapare Wallingford's Chronicle, MS. Cott. Jul. D. vii.f. 14''. Higden, p. 253, 
Eromton, col. 777. and Lelands Collectanea, vol. i. p. 213. Hence may be cor- 
rected Stevensons addition to Boucher, in v. Barn. 

V. 769. bi-wiste. — Means properly, " kept watch over," or " took charge of." 

V. 790. hiue. — In the original, " Haltement mon cor sonerai." In the MS. it 
is doubtful whether the third letter be u or n, and the word does not occur again 
throughout the poem. I have considered it as connected with the old French /tit, 
hid, hnye, which is found also in the Chronicle of Robert of Brunne : — 

The Scote, the Walsh, w' alle ther here, 
Com w' grete noys & hu.—f. 36''. c. 2. 

See Roqueforts Glossary, in v. Ihi, and Michels Gloss to Tristan, in v. Hui. 
Hence the English " hue and cry." 

V. 793. blonken. — See Kembles Glossary to Beowulf, vol. i. in v. hlonca. 

V. 807. Literally, "from his horse he threw himself." 

V. 814. faei^e. — We should probably read \>ef(ei, as elsewhere. 

V. 816. hap. — The translation here and in vv. 5911. 18335. may be erroneous ; 
since by a comparison with v. 16308 and the text of Wace, vol. i. p. 369, hcep 
would seem to signify multitude, host, as in A.-S. So, in the legend of Elene, 
"heap was gescyrted, agmen erat imminutum," 1. 141. ed. Grimm. See also Ki- 
lian, v. Hoop. Yet in vv. 3857- 4894, in a similar form of expression, hap or 
heppe certainly means fortune, from the Isl. hajjp. 

V. 839. htcr or veer appear errors for wal, the slaughtered bodies, met with fre- 
quently in other passages. 

V. 846. (sec. t.) adealde. — The pronoun he is often represented by a in the later 
text, vv. 1383. 2869. 2954. 3948. etc., and is so found in Robert of Gloucester, and 
in the modern provincial dialects, arising from an imperfect pronunciation. 

V. 865. runun. — Incorrectly, for runen or runan. In the translation, read "say 
to 'me [myself]." 


V. 8G7. leod king should be united by a hyphen, and the version be, " this mo- 
narch," instead of " the king of this land." 

V. 889. The construction of this line is the same in both texts, and in the trans- 
lation the words " Some were agreeable to it," with the brackets following, should 
be omitted. '^The final a is written improperly for e, as frequently elsewhere ; an 
error that A. -Saxon MSS. are not wholly free from. 

«. 909. \>e. — Contracted from A.-S. oJ'J'p, as )>at is, in the sense of until, from 

V. 910. wel idon. — In the French text of Wace, " saives horn." This phrase is 
very frequently used, and is applied to inanimate as well as animate objects. Its 
general signification is excellent either for qualities of the mind, or for strength 
and appearance. In the early German and Dutch writers the same phrase is 
found, written wol getan, wel gedan. See the Tristan of Godfr. v. Strasburg, 1. 45. 
Hartmanns Iwein, 1. 6271. Wigalois, 1. 1014, and Clignetts Notes to Bydragen 
tot de Oude Nederlandsche Letterkunde, 8°. 1819- p. 215. Compare also " gedon 
man," in Sax. Chron. a", 1087. p. 293, 

V. 912. The translation should be, "well he shewed it," or "made it known." 
Compare vv. 1625. 4992. 8925. etc. Cudde is often used in the pa. t. for ciC^dc, 
as also in A.- Saxon. 

V. 919. je is superfluous, and should be omitted. 

V. 941. The compiler of the later text seems to have misunderstood the pass- 
age, unless it be a mere error of the scribe. 

V. 954. fondia is an error of the scribe for fondien. Cf. v. 6614. etc. The 
French text reads. 

Puis aliens guerre mansions, 
Par alicnes re'gions. — vol. i. p. 26. 

V. 964. ifead. — Compare vv. 9837 and 14459, for the latter of which the French 
text has hais. The same participle occurs at a later period in Sir Perceval, 
v. 1440, as/ade. It is connected with the Low h?iX. faidum, and A. -Norman 
faidu, hostility. 

V. 969. biwi^elien. — See Diversions of Pnrley, p. 548. ed. 1840. Junius and 
Skinner are certainly in error as to the etymology of beguile. 

V. 977- mafSe. — In the French original, manaie, which is explained by Roque- 
fort, puissance, protection, pouvoir. The word occurs again in the later text, 
V. 6234, as synonymous to mon-scip. 

V. 978. hicheorre]). — Tliis verb signifies not only to deceive, but to injure or 

V. 982. Konien is for wanien, to cut off, diminish. Both forms occur in A.-S. 


V. 989. Literally, " if it is approved by you" : eow is dat. pi. 

V. 996. bursteii is dat. sing, as in v. 1347 and elsewhere, and should be so ren- 
dered. In the same line hora is an incorrect form of heora, but hore is found in 
other compositions of the same age, as also horn for heom. 

V. 1002. weelde. — This word was supposed to have some connection with A.-S. 
waled, Matth. xv. 22, but it would rather appear to be an error of the scribe for 
wcedle, and should be translated " poverty. " 

V. 1026. viian is here for the more regular form witen, A.-S. witum. ITie adj. 
droflic does not occur again, nor is it to be found in A.-S. dictionaries. 

V. 1027. heo is for he, as elsewhere. 

V. 1051. {sec. t.) A verb appears wanting here. 

V. 1058. Brutan is an error for Brufun, 

V. 1084. lo^en. — This word signifies harm or mischief, and would be better, 
perhaps, so translated. The same remark may apply to Zo'S^eand Ice'&e, vv. 2328. 

V. 1088. Read with a hyphen grund-fulled, thoroughly filled ; Fr. " bien char- 
giees." So also grund-ladene, v. IIO6. 

V. 1107. \>at teste. — Probably a mistake for )>a beste. 

V. 1112. — There is some obscurity in this line, and the compiler of the second 
text seems to have departed from the original. From a comparison with v. 1781, 
the meaning of the latter would seem to be, " that tearaeth, or produceth the wild 
fish" ; in poetical language, " the monsters of the deep." In support of this in- 
terpretation, it may be remarked, that wilde is used in A.-S. to signify wild ani- 
mals in a general sense. 

V. 1124. wnnen. — The letter w here, as in other instances, has the power of wm. 
This is not unusual in MSS. of the thirteenth century. 

V. 1132. A Hne is wanting in the earlier text. 

V. 1140. \>e Wrse. — So in Ulphilas the Devil is called Unhultha, and in Moeso- 
Gothic Skamm ; in Old French he was named Malfe, or Ennimi (see Michels 
note on Eustache le Moine, p. 88) ; and in the Early English Legends in MS. Reg. 
17 A. xxvii. fF. 41''. 45'', he has the epithets of Gra and \>urs. 

V. 1150. weoxen, — Dele the query on this word. 

V. 1153. weoren iwoned. — In the French original, " venoient." 

V. 1195. lates. — See Bosworths A.-S. Dictionary, \v. wlitaji and wlife, the Glos- 
saries to Syr Gawayne, vv. Lait, Lote, and to the Hide and Ni^iengale, w. Leie, 
Ilete, ed. Stevenson, 1838. Compare also the Legend of St. Margaret, MS. Reg. 

VOL. III. 2 G 


17 A. xxvii. f. 48, and Lajamon, w. 12278. 14330. 15971. 18543. 30777- W 
meet with the same word in Middle English. 

Sir Cador of Cornewayle to the Kyng carppes, " 

Lughe one hym luffly, w' lykande lates. [ 

Morte Arthure, MS. Line. A. i. 17. f. 56. ' 

With a dragone engOAvschede, dredfulle to schewe, 
Deuorande a dolphyne with dolefuUe lates. — lb. f. 75. 

A cognate form is leches or lechen, which is often met with. ! 

V. 1207. \>urh-gengen. — This word should be rendered "to get possession of, 
as it is synonymous with tjiij'/t-^eow in A. -S., and thorh-reche, Kyng Horn, v. 1291 
The pa. t. \>urh-eoden occurs at v. 5217. 

V. 1210. Imren. — Instead of "honor" in the version, read "serve." The moi 
regular form is hceren, or hcerien. i 

V. 1212. The regular punctuation is here interrupted, yet nothing appears t 
be wanting. t 

V. 1223. (sec. t.) sulfe. — The reading is very doubtful, from the injured state c 
the manuscript, but on looking at it again, the word seems to he false. Two lins 
in this passage are deficient in the text, as shown by the punctuation. , 

V. 1245. teman. — The sense of this verb here is established by the reading c 
the second text, as also in v. 7174 compared with w. 9135. 24816. In A.-S. an 
the cognate dialects it seems to have no such meaning. 

V. 1250. The translation was made on the supposition that weeldan governs th 
gen. c. as in A.-S., but this does not appear, from numerous other passages, to b 
the case. The same phrase occurs v. 32233, where londes is certainly ace. pi. 

V. 1253. \>CB for )>a, as in many other instances. See remark on v. I860. 

V. 1265. teman. — This word was supposed to be connected with the A.-S. tea 
man, advocare, appellare, but a subsequent passage, v. I68OO, satisfies me that thi 
is wrong, and that in both instances teman to signifies to worship, and in a primar 
sense to approach to. 1 

V. 1267. Perhaps we should read an onlicnesse, as in vv. 1141. 21155, yet ii 
A.-S. we have ^reZicne*. i 

V. 1273. water appears an error of the scribe, which is corrected by the late 
text. I 

V. 1295. tvreche. — Instead of "poor," the meaning would be better express^ 
by "low" or "mean." Paraphrased we should read, " the lowest man in th 
train of Brutus was clothed with gold and precious stuffs." Cf. v. 19156. ' 

V. 1301. In reality \>at like means "the same," and is constantly used, as ii 


A.-S., to express what modern grammarians call the demonstrative pronoun, that ; 
whilst ];>at in the second text is the neuter article, the. Indeed, throughout the 
poem I have found no instance of this demonstrative pronoun ; and although I am 
aware some of our best scholars in A. -Saxon and Early English have sanctioned 
its use in their versions, yet I am at a loss for any examples which ought not pro- 
perly to be translated by the definite article. 

V. 1313. bunnen. — In Old French, bones, bondes. See Michels Notes to his Pre- 
face to Tristan, p. Ixxxv, and Du Cange, v. Bonna. 

V. 1321. stond is an error for stod. 

V. 1322. merminnen. — Instead of "mermen" here and further on, the transla- 
tion should be " mermaids." See Graff, Jlthd. Sprachsch. ii. col. 774, and the 
Legend of St. Katherine, MS. Reg. 17 A. xxvii. f. 26''. A curious description of 
the mermaid, contemporary with the poem of La3amon, is printed in the Reli- 
quicB Antiques, vol. i. p. 221. In modern German there is a distinction made be- 
tween meer-mann and meer-weib. We find in Beowulf the term mere-wif, 1. 3037, 
but it there means a marine female monster. 

V. 1331. This line has been mistranslated, and should stand thus, "it hath the 
form of the Worse, full surely," which corresponds closely to the text of Wace, 
" Figure porte de diable." The author of the later version seems to have wholly 
misunderstood the meaning of the words. 

V. 1341. (sec. t.) bieres. — This word occurs again, v. 4596, but has not been 
met with in A.-S. It is no doubt the same with the Isl. bara. Old Germ, bare, 
Dut. baar, wave or billow. Perhaps the bar of a harbour is hence derived. 

V. 1350. wil-spel. — Cf. vv. 17641. 30871. This compound is not in the A.-S. 
dictionaries, but I find it in the Old Saxon Heliand, pp. 15. 16. etc., " uuil-spel, 
nunciatum quid ex optato." 

V. 1373. The first text reads literally, " large bones." 

V. 1388. driht-folke. — See remark on v. 111. 

V. 1414. at. — Preserved as a Scottish idiom in the present day. So also in the 
Sax. Chron. a". 1096. p. 314. 

V. 1427. i>ot eard. — A mistake, doubtless, for \>an eard. 

V. 1447- hit bileuen. — Literally, " leave it." 

V. 1459- (.sec. t.) Corineus his. — This is the general mode in the later text of ex- 
pressing the genitive case by the aid of a pronoun, and it is the more worthy of 
notice, because, according to many writers, such a form is stated to be a cor- 
ruption of the A.-S. genitival termination, which only began at the close of the 
sixteenth century. See on this subject an article in the Critical Review for 1777, 
vol. xliii. p. 10, and the acute observations of Lodge and Hare, in the Cambridge 

2 G 2 



Philological Museum, vol. ii. The former says truly, " It does not follow that be 
cause one form of expression has been incorrectly derived from another, that there] 
fore that form is absurd. The connexion between two forms may be a fiction 
though the existence of both may be real," p. 245. The correctness of this viev 
is confirmed beyond all doubt by the later text of La^amon. 

V. 1490. farcost. — It may also be rendered />roceec?««^, and elsewhere, business 
Cf. vv. 25562. 30173. 30735. 31914. It does not occur in A.-S., but seems con 
nected with the Swedish /ar-A;os^, the instrument by which a journey is made 
See Ihre, in voce. , 

V. 1497. sum. — The meaning is not clear, and I suspect some error. It is pos 
sible there may be a connection with the Ohd. alsam. See Wigalois, v. 4942. 

V. 1534. a dai. — Cf. v. 2G693. So in the Legend of St. Margaret, "ah as h 
wende adei his wei, he seh Jjcos sell meiden," etc., MS. Reg. 17 A. xxvii. f. 38''. ^ 

V. 1538. a-w(ei. — Perhaps an error of the scribe for a-wcec, as in the later text 

V. 1545. rimie. — I have taken this to be the same as the A.-S. hremig. Oh 
Sax. hruomig. It occurs again v. 20123. (where the MS. reads rMme), and in boti 
instances the later text explains it by "wild," "mad." 

V. 1562. wa wr^e. — Literally, " woe be ever to the smith!" In regard to thii 
phrase see Schmellers Glossary to the Heliand, p. 131. It continued to be usee 
extensively in Middle English, and existed to the end of the sixteenth centurj 
or later. In the same line, i>e«e ace. appears to be an error for the dat. \>on 
J?one. I 

V. 15C5. hearn. — For "knight" substitute "warrior" in the translation. ' 

V. 1570. tofieonne. — This is the future infinitive, which after to becomes s 
sort of noun, and in Middle English is very commonly changed into a verbal sub- 
stantive in ing ; a corruption which exists even in the poem before us, in boti 

texts, as in v. 5561. etc. 

V. 1589. ridearen. — More correctly, rideren. This is the proper term foi 
knights ov horsemen, as distinguished from those on foot. Compare the Sax. Chron 
ann. 1086. 1089- 

V. 1591. ohtliche. — See remarks on this word in the Gents. Mag. for Dec. 1834, 
p. 591. 

V. 1595. gwii. — In A.-S. is only found in the sense of war, but in Gothic wc 
have goth, goodly. Hence also the adj. gu'i^fiill, v. 2956. 

V. 1604. heo«(7. — Other instances occur in both texts of the improper inter- 
change between 3 and h as 3a, v. 77ii, (ZhSc'Sp, v. 6075, jree, v. 3444, u'orj^j 
V. 2965. etc. 

V. 1629. "/ is probably an error for ffS Cf. v. 2300. | 


V. 1653. See remarks on vv. 288. 532. 

V. 1665. to. — If both texts did not unite in this reading, one might suspect the 
omission of a verb after (o. It may perhaps be an error for tii^oi, io^eii, pa. t. pi. 

V. 1671. stal. — In A.-Norman, es<a^ See Roquefort. 

V. 1672. beard. — Instead of " nithings gesture," read "nithings taunt" or"up- 
braiding, " and the same correction is required at p. 21. vol. ii. The translation 
was made on the supposition that beard was connected with the Germ. gebuhrJe, 
Old Sax. andbdri, gestus, habitus ; but on reconsideration, the word appears to 
be derived from the same source as the Suio-Goth. brigda, exprobrare, briyd, con- 
tumelia, Dan. breider, bebreider, Swed. br'dda, A. -Sax. vp-gebreJan, to upbraid. 
See Ihre, v. brigda. 

V. 1705. cofliche, — A.-S. cajiiche. It is preserved in Middle English. Thus in 
a fragment of an alliterative Life of Alexander, " The king was full curtais, and 
coflich hym grannts." MS. Greaves, 60. f. 5. 

V. 1707. For ^anfengen we should probably read an-fengen or ganfengen. 

V. 1711. Translate, "many 'a knight [knights] slain!" 

V. 1713. haihte. — We probably should read i>e haihte, and both texts will then 

V. 1736. So in the Sax. Chron., "gewrecan hire tionan," a". 921. 

V. 1740. bil ibeat. — The translation is conjectural, as the phrase does not again 
occur. Compare bil-geslehtes. Sax. Chron. a". 938. p. 144. 

V. 1746. michelene. — This may be an error for the usual form muchelen, which 
is elsewhere (vv. 3981. 5256.) joined to forde, although the latter is a feminine 
substantive, and is often found with the same adjective in dat. fem., vv. 1527. 
2637. etc. 

V. 1793. iceoren at-stouden. — Correct the translation thus, "where they had 

V. 1798. wil-daies. — Cf. Cod. Exon. p. 29. 1. 7. ed. Thorpe, 

V. 1799- For wmlden we should read wceldende: see remark on v. 101. 

V. 1805. — The words aire lauerd have been translated, as if a/re were the repre- 
sentative of the A.-S. ealdor, as in ealdor-)>egn, ealdor-man, etc., instead of being 
the gen. pi. of a/, A.-S. ealra. The correct version is, " lord of them all." 

V. 1820. hudlese. — Lye and Bosworth have liydels, latibulum, from the Rush- 
worth Gloss, but their references arc inaccurate. In the Wycliffite version of 
Matth. vi. 4. we find in Indies, where the A.-S. reads on diglum. 


V. 1834. tu^en. — The meaning is "drew or pulled up," rather than "carried." 
Robert of Brunne in the same passage has " up-drouh." 

V. 1845. Jlu^en is here used transitively, as in A.-S. Levit. xxvi. 8. ( 

V. I860, demdce. — We find <e substituted for final e in some other instances, as 
balitce, ilkce, unceleda, carce, hee, etc., and similar examples may be found in the 
Sax. Chron. ann. 1066. 1085. 1116. 1137, and in A.-S. charters as early as tht 
ninth century. The same obtained in Old Saxon ; see the Heliand, Eleuch. Or- 
thogr. p. 183. ] 

V. 1865. fitsde hine sulfne. — In Wace, " se rembraga, esterchi soi." I 

V. 1880. luien. — Translate thus, "Oft they 'stooped [fell] down." , 

V. 1884. leeches. — Has the same meaning as lafes, of which perhaps it is an or- 
thographical variation. It occurs also in the Early English poem of the Hule ana 
Ni^tenyale, v. 1138, which is explained by the editor, erroneously, tricJcs, frauds. 
In V. 22752 of La3amon, it appears to refer to the thoughts. ' 

V. 1886. gristhatinge. — This noun is found in A.-S. Matth. viii. 12, and it is 
used by Trevisa in the fourteenth century. The verb grispatien is found in th€ 
Legend of St. Juliane, MS. Reg. 17 A. xxvii. f. 68. 

V. 1889. iburste. — This word should be rendered "incensed," as appears from 

vv. 22284. 26360. 


V. 1894. wi^eleden. — Probably a mistake for ici^eloi. \ 

V. I896. A line is here wanting in the earlier text. 

V. 1897. \>udde. — From A.-S. \>ydan, and preserved in the Scot. thud. See 
Jamieson, in voce. 

V. 1899- frommard. — It is again so written (as pronounced) in v. 6439- In 
the like manner we have uppard for upward in MS. Reg. 17 A. xxvii. f. 68. 

V. 1904. mende. — Literally, "complained," A.-S. maenan. I 

V. 1914. him. — Apparently an error for the ace. hine. In this text him is only 
used for the dat. sing. 

I'. 1916. (sec. t.) anoppe. — In A.-S. an-uppen. See Matth. xxi. 7- I 

V. 1970. (sec. t.) turne is probably the contracted (or strong) form of the past 
tense turnede, in the same manner as loone for uonede, cleope for cleopede, somne 
for somnede, answere for answerede, gadere for gadercde, etc., all of which occur ia 
the later text, and similar forms are found nearly two centuries later, in the Wy- 
cliffite Bible. In the earlier text also we meet with 7,a;reke, luue, wune, malce, cleopej 
dune, etc., written by the first hand, but subsequently corrected in some passage^ 


to ^(e7-eJcede, liiuede, lounede, maJcede, cleopede, dunede. We have also the forms 
gadere, answare, help, etc. left uncorrected. 

V. 1984, herrmden. — Perhaps a mistake for heora rceden. 

V. 2027. \>e hurh. — Here and in several other instances he is used before a femi- 
nine noun. In the line following he is probably an error for heo. 

V. 2029. wel idon. — In the original, " bienfaite." See remarks on v. 910. 

V. 2038. — heo is the ace. s. fern., and not nom. pi. The translation should be, 
" and Trinovant named it." Cf. v. 2056. 

V. 2087. — ei^e signifies here rather the /ear of punishment than threats. Hence 
the English awe. Cf. Sax. Chron. a°. 1135. Yet in Ohd. I find aigi, egi, discipiina, 
Graff, Althochd. Sprachs. th. i. col. 103. The phrase might therefore perhaps be 
rendered "wholesome discipline." Elsewhere ceie occasionally means " anger," 
as in vv. 4733. 16099. etc., and in the Legend of St. Katherine, v. 1502, edit. 
Morton. Heste, in the second text, is singular, and should be so translated. 

V. 2091. — The name of Brutus seems omitted in the earlier text, by error of the 

V. 2097. bi-biirien. — More correctly, bi-bureden. Cf. v. 7627. 

V. 2124. me is used in La3amon as man or mon in A.-S., and as on in French. 
The same form occurs in the Sax, Chron. a°. 1137, and often afterwards, and in 
the semi-Saxon poem of the Grave, in Thorpes Analecta, p. 142. 

V. 2126. hi-swac. — Here and elsewhere this verb certainly means "to destroy," 
although in other passages the more usual sense "to deceive or betray" is re- 
tained. In A.-S. and the cognate dialects it occurs only in the latter sense, yet 
in Csedmon we have the adj. swic, destructive, p. 120, 

V. 2134. {sec. t.) Locrin is an error of the scribe for Albanac. 

V. 2159. here seems used in this place and in v. 8245 for the A.-S. hergccS. 
See Sax. Chron. a°. 894. p. 117. 

V. 2168. A hyphen should perhaps be supplied in wode bnr^e, and it would be 
equivalent to wudu-bearive, wood-grove, in the Exeter MS. p. 208. In the later 
text, borewe means burgh. 

V. 2174.— Correct the translation thus, "the 'land [fight] into Britain, to Lo- 
crin," etc. 

V. 2191. Scotte. — Is the gen. pi. A.-S. Scotta, and should be so rendered. See 
remark on v. 17. 

I'. 2209. 7nucle an. — We should probably read mudan (nmchelen), and omit the 
article in the translation. Cf. v. 2162. 


V. 2210. iherjed. — Instead of "made war," it rather means "ravaged" or 
" harried." 

V. 2221. fai. — Throughout La3amon it never has the sense of ca^^Ze, as in Ohd. 
and Middle English. See Kembles Gloss, to Beowulf, v. feoh. 

V. 2245. \>a is the article, not the adverb. Read " the yet (still) lived." 

V. 2251. hond-fasist. — In addition to what I have said on this word at p. 312, 
may be added, that it occurs in the Latin-English dictionary of the fifteenth cen- 
tury, called Medulla Grammatice, under " Subarro, to handfast." MS. Eccles. 
Cant. D. 2. 

V. 2252. hired monnen. — Should be printed with a hyphen. In A.-S. hired- 
man means domestic, as it does often in Lajamon, but in other passages it means 
attendant, courtier, and sometimes people. It is synonymous with hired-gume and 

V. 2271. ebure. — A.-S. aber, notorious. 

V. 2272. geue'Se. — Is an adjective ; in Old Saxon gibi]>iy, and in A.-S. gife'Se. 
See Schmellers Gloss, to the Heliand, in voce, and Grimms note on the Andreas, 
V. 489. 8vo. 1840. 

V. 2282. motiine. — Is probably the A.-S. ace. monigne. Cf. v. 3412. The query 
should be omitted. 

V. 2283. The second text has " onsets," in the plural. 

vv. 2298-9. Correct thus, "and thou 'repayest [wouldst repay] my great la- 
bor with injury ; thou desertest my fair," etc. 

tj. 2301. al\>eodisc. — The later version has the curious reading " elvish," as a 
term of reproach. This adj. only occurs once more in the poem, v. 21131, where 
it is used in its usual signification. 

V. 2321. A line appears to be here wanting in the first text. 

V. 2328. \>eos is erroneously considered as the gen. absolute, and the line should 
be rendered, " that this enmity should be." 

V. 2337. hui^e. — Cf. vv. 3033. 4910, and see the remarks in the Gents. Mag. 
Dec. 1834. p. 593. 

V. 2353. hirede. — Instead of "court" perhaps "assembly" would be here the 
better signification, but the word is used very variously to express a collective 
number of persons. 

V. 2366. dude. — Literally, "should place." 

V. 2369. ponewees. — The mark of interrogation in the translation may be re- 
moved, since the sense is clear from vv. 14684. 29460. So also in ApoUonius, 
" twa hund gildenra pmnega," p. 27- 

r. 2382. {sec. t.) 30. — The usual form is jeo. 


V. 2419. iuhleti. — More correctly, tuhtlen. See w. 2720. 22238. It does not 
occur in A.-S. in the sense it bears in La3amon, of manners, qualities, or habits. 

V. 2446. cu^efolk. — Might be rendered better, "familiar folk." In the original 
French it is "parens.' In the Legend of St. Katherine, p. 43, is a similar pass- 
age, " & se feole cM^e men, ba & utcumene," rendered by the editor, " so many 
men, both natives and foreigners." 

V. 2463. \>isse. — Probably an error for Ussere. 

V. 2499. Translate, "the 'maiden [maid] Abren." 

V. 2521. (sec. t.) Literally, " well it was to the folk." 

V. 2533. Malui here and below, are errors of the scribe for Malin. 

V. 2579. (sec. t.) for-hedde. — I take this to be the same as for-hcefde, from 

V. 2607. bi-swac. — See remark on v. 2126. 

V. 2638. her^eden. — Translate, " and they 'ravaged [conquered] France." See 
remark on v. 2210. 

V. 2647. {sec. t.) ^et is an error probably for jerfe. 

V. 2666. (sec. t.) i>o\>ir is probably a mistake of the scribe for ]>e o\>er. 

V. 2673. (sec. t.) cleope is the pa. tense, and should be so rendered. See re-- 
raark on v. 1970. 

V. 2722. i>eo is for the relative \>e. After this, one or more lines appear to be 
wanting here in the first text. In the second also the disturbed punctuation 
would indicate some omission. 

V. 2725. (sec. t.) ihedde. — Perhaps we ought to read bihedde. Cf. v. 18010. The 
translation rests on the supposition that the word is derived from A.-S. behawian, 
but on a reconsideration of those passages in which the preterite bi-hedde occurs, 
I would rather take the A.-S. hedan, Dutch behoeden. Germ, behiiten, to take heed, 
as the root. The word should in this case be rendered, " well heeded or taken 
care of." The text of Wace reads, "Totes furent bien conraees." 

vv. 2736. 2739. The second text reads "are" in both instances. 

V. 2742. (sec. t.) This line and the next should form only one. 

V. 2753. witen. — For "advise" the translation perhaps should be "defend." 
Cf. V. 5279. 

V. 2759. {sec. t.) See remark on v. 1805. 

r. 2765. heore is no doubt a mistake for the adverb here, and should be so ren- 


V, 2805. (sec. t.) Literally, " possessed the realm." The version is too free. 

V. 2815. a^elede. — The primary sense of this verb would seem to be nohly 
treated or honored, but in other passages it appears to mean, comforted or glad- 
dened. See vv. 2333. 3605. 6650. 22496. It does not occur in A.-S. 

V. 2918. seh.—¥or " fell" read " came." 

V. 2959. \>eus. — Incorrectly, for }piis. 

V. 2960. on cB'^elen. — Mr. Thorpe translates the phrase, " among his nobility." 
I have been guided by the examples of the word in vv. 7030. 8995- etc. 

vv. 2962. 2975. 3047. teo is an error in the MS. for \>u, as is also l>eoic, v. 2978, 
and ]>eu, v. 3342. 

V. 2965. wo7-^. — See remark on v. 1604. 

V. 2988. i>ira Q>ire) is no doubt right, since greting is a feminine noun. 

V. 2991. leuoste. — Apparently an error for loueste ; as se^ for so'^ in the next 
page. It must be remarked that throughout many leaves the MS. of the earlier 
text is written very incorrectly ; and a new hand commences from fol. 16'". col. 2. 
It has not been thought worth while to point out all the orthographical inaccu- 

V. 3002. We should supply o'Ser in the first text. 

V. 3007. There is some deficiency in the MS. and we should probably read, 

pa answffirde Regau . 
mid raetfulle worden. 

V. 3011. Correct as follows, "as is to rae thy one limb, ' more than mine own 

V. 3028. The meaning of this line is assumed, partly from the corresponding 
line of the later text, and partly from the circumstance, that of sc^e is not, like 
to so'Se, an adverbial form (as Mr. Thorpe has understood it), nor is it ever so 
used. 3«r means "well," and is found prefixed to the same adjective in vv. 5639. 
14539. 18547. Cf. Csedmon, p. I96. 1. 14. 

V. 3033. hiiie. — See remark on v. 3237. The adjective leaf -f nine literally 
means " belief-ful," " faithful," but the modern lawful stands in its place, and is, 
in fact, the same word. 

V. 3051. ibide, "expect" or "have," appears to be from A.-S. bidan, abidan, 
and not from biddan, to pray, although in the phrase bidde or bedencere, w. 5526. 
12379, the latter verb is certainly used. 

V. 3054. velden is an error for weldende. 

V. 3062. ))eo appears superfluous. 


V. 3064. In the original, " Ce quida, qu'ele eschernist — Ou par vilte de lui 

vv. 3069. 3071. iioer^e. — Literally, "became," but the ellipsis in the second 
instance scarcely admits of its being so rendered. 

V. 3072. su]}e. — Incorrectly, for swi]>e. 

V. 3079. hce7-7ie is an incorrect form of hmrcne, arising from the slurred pronun- 
ciation of c. It occurs again, vv. 3381. 3541. 

V. 3090. woldes. — This omission of the final t is not unusual even in A.-S. ma- 

V. 3095-3098.— La^amon has here fallen into error, since Gornoille was mar- 
ried to the king of Scots, and her sister Regau to the duke of Cornwall. 

V. 3097. Scottene. — Is the gen. plur. as elsevdiere. The translation should be, 
"the king of Scots." See remark on v. 17- 

V. 3100. waldinge. — The correct reading should be waZfZenc?c, in both texts. The 
first text affords an instance of the part. pres. having been confounded with the 
verbal noun in ing. 

V. 3115, mod-Jcare. — Cf. Beorvulf, v. 3553, 

V, 3125. sonde. — For "message" in the translation, read "messengers." In 
Wace, "messages envoia." Sonde is used by Lajamon in both numbers, and in 
vv. 3161. 31627. it certainly means "message"; and this appears to have been 
the original signification, since we find sandes-man used to express " messenger," 
both in A.-S, and Early English. 

V. 3135. feor is incorrectly written, instead of /or. There are many other in- 
stances of eo used for 0. 

ibid. liSende men. — This phrase means " travellers" in general, either by sea or 
land. See v, 4138. Thorpe renders it "mariners," but in A.-S. this would I be- 
lieve be expressed by sce-li'Sende men, as it is in La3amon, v. 7821. 

V. 3153. Frauncene. — See remark on v, 17. 

V. 3160. wel-deda.— This was taken to be the gen. pi. A.-S. wel-dceda, Ps. Ixxvii. 
14 ; but from v. 24160 it appears to be dat. s. fern., and that the preposition for 
has been accidentally omitted. 

V. 3167. Dele the conjecture on twam : in v. 3237. twain is an error of the scribe. 

V. 3171. for-husce. — The verb is not in A.-S. dictionaries, but only the noun 
husc, reproach. 

V. 3174. iinaleledce.—Th\s is, no doubt, a mistake for una-Selede, and it should 
be rendered " dishonored." 

vv. 3177-8. See the same phrase of /a rtrf and leudc'mihc Legend of St. Andrew, v. 


2643. ed. Kemble, and in the verses on Edward the Confessor, in the Sax. Chron. 
a°. 1065. p. 256. In Early and Middle English it often occurs as lond and lede, 
or lond and lith, in which passages lede or lith is often used in a secondary sense, 
as possessions ; see the instances quoted in my Examination of Singers Remarks on 
the Glossary to HaveloJc, p. 19. In Mhd. the same phrase is found. Cf. Tristan, 
1. 13934. Iwein, 1. 7715. 

V. 3185. biwiten. — For " deliver her to," translate, " keep her for." 

V. 3187. seoluen. — "sole clothes," i. e. her own clothes, and nothing more; 
"her clothes alone." See similar phrases, vv. 11835. 12592. 

V. 3197. (sec. t.) welde-king. — There appears some error here. Perhaps we may 
read holde king, as in v. 3223, or weoreld-Mng, as in v. 6328. 

V. 3202. \>eos is the article, gen. s. neut. and governed of wilnede, as in A.-S. 

V. 3237. (sec. t.) The pa. pa. i^iue is wanting after hadde. 

vv. 3255. 3296, This is an adverbial phrase, with the noun in the gen. case. See 
the Exeter MS. p. 207, the A.-S. Gospels, Mark, iv. 27, Sax. Chron. a°. 1137, 
and Grimms remarks, D. G. vol. iii. p. 133. A similar phrase is, wintres ne su- 
meres, v. 2861, The translation should be, " hy day and hy night." 

V. 3256. Supply a hyphen here and elsewhere in hired cinhtes. Although this 
orthography is probably only an error of the scribe, yet we meet with the same 
form in the Saxon Chronicle, in the Bodleian MS, of Kyng Horn, in the Romance 
of Havelok, and in other places. It may be a question, if this has arisen from a 
simple metathesis of letters, as in other cases, or from some analogy between the 
Teutonic chint, chinth, child, and chnit, boy, lad, knight. See Graff, Alth. Sprachsch. 
th. iv, col. 455, and Ziemann, Mittelh. TViJrierbuch, in v. Kint. 

V. 3282. (B^elene. — It is possible that this rather difficult word may here be equi- 
valent to " people" (dat. p].J, as it may also in v. 5432. It certainly bears that 
sense in v. 7852. as in Middle English. See Gloss, to Syr Gawayne, in voce. 

V. 3288. monne is gen. pi. , consequently the literal version should be "of men." 
This remark may apply to many other passages. 

V. 3290. felle.fele.— In the Genfs. Mag. for Dec. 1834, p. 592, I conjectured 
that this was the same as /ere, sound, Isl./«er, since the letters I and r are else- 
where interchanged in the MS. On second thoughts, however, I think /eWe is 
probably the A.S.fcele, true, steadj% used with a latitude of signification. 

V. 3294. nan. — No doubt, an error for anan. 

V. 3301. Amid. — Read And. The second d only serves in the MS. to fill up the 
superfluous space at the end of the line. This is a conmion expedient of the an- 
cient scribes, who often in such cases e.vpunct the supeifluous letter or letters 
many similar instances occur in the MS. 


V. 3304. hhcSeliche. — Is explained by Thorpe, in the Analecta, " bashfully, 
clownishly," as if from a Scandinavian root, and akin to the Scot, hlait. This is, 
however, a mistake, as the sense is here certain from other passages. See also 
the A.-S. Gospels, Luke, xix. 6. (where the adverb occurs with the same verb, 
fengan) and the Early English legends in MS. Reg. 17 A. xxvii. ff, 3. 54''. 56. 

V. 3305. {sec. t.) come is an error of my transcriber for conne, which escaped me 
in passing the sheets through the press. The translation should be corrected, 
" and render us [only] ingratitude for our good-deed." 

V. 3317. hermen. — See Gloss, to Havelok, in v. Bermen, and in A.-S. Jos. iii. 
3. 15. 

V. 3326. spiche. — Incorrectly, for speche. 

V. 3332. (sec. t.) Mi here]> is, no doubt, a mistake for hi-here]> (i here\>). The 
words "they hear" must therefore be omitted, and the mark' transposed before 
•' the." 

V. 3339. ac. — We should read cec. 

V. 3355. ]>ai is an error for i>a. Cf. v. 7873. Bosworth only gives the sense 
to sing to the A.-S. verb geddian, and so in Thorpes Analecta, but in Beoiiulf, 
V. 1253, it is rendered spake by Kemble, and is often so used in La^amon. 

vv. 3398. 3399. (sec. t.) The last words of these lines were, doubtless, nottt>e 
and 171 dede. 

V. 3410. laichen. — More properly lechen, as in many other passages. See remark 
on v. 1884. 

r. 3411. It would be better to render this line, "Alas! weal, Alas!" Cf. v. 

V. 3428. A line is wanting in the earlier text. 

V. 3432. Scotte. — Instead of Scottelonde, as queried at the bottom of the page, 
we should read Scotten, d. pi. [A.-S. Scottum], to the Scots, as in vv. 12128. 
16249. 16255. 

v. 3435. wurdea. — Meant, no doubt, for wur^ian, A.-S. weor^ian. 

V. 3455. Notwithstanding the remarks in the Gents. Mag. Dec. 1834. p. 591, 
on the supposition that cBruu is the same with A.-S. eai-g. Middle English cerwe, 
I am now inclined to believe, that cerim is an error in the MS. for eBrm, as in 
V. 6608 and often elsewhere, and should be rendered " wretched." 

V. 3499. alpie. — In the Sax. Chron. a". 1085, celpig, contracted from cenlipig. 

V. 3513. iradmon. — A mistake for hired-mon. Cf. v. 2350. 

V. 3526. See remark on v. 2027- 


V. 3546. hmngest. — See Kembles Gloss, to Beowulf, vol. i. in v. hlonca. 

V. 3552. {sec. t.) hoten. — The marginal query applies to both texts. Cf. v. 2819' 

V. 3562. heose is a faulty orthography of huse. 

V. 3566. haid is probably an error for hed, and both texts will then read 

V. 3571. {sec. t.) feche hit. — The MS. reads thus, but we should probably cor- 
rect it, seche hit at, 

V. 3575. (sec. t.) hoi. — Incorrectly, for holde. 

V. 3583. eastresse. — This word is not unusual in Old French writers in the sense 
I have given to it. See Roquefort, in v. Estre, and compare Robert of Brunne, 
pp. 89. 212. 

V. 3585. hine appears to be an error for hit. 

V. 3588. fainen. — A.S. fcegnian, which governs the genitive case. 

V. 3590. The translation would be clearer thus, " No man ever may know it, 
but that he," etc. i. e. Let no man know otherwise, than that Leir is newly ar- 

V. 3597. godere hale. — See remark on v. 490. The phrase means " advantage," 
or "benefit." 

V. 3598. M.— Translate "this," not "the." 

V. 3605. iafSeled. — See remark on v. 2815. 

V. 3610. cB^ene is for hce^ene. See remark on v. 159. 

■6. 3633. an hirede. — Might be here more correctly translated " among f//e folk," 
as in other instances. Cf. v. 8219. 

V. 3635. J>erfe?j. — Instead of weren, we should read ^eden, and the translation 
would then be, "there went pipes among." Cf. v. 5110. 

V. 3640. A line is missing in the first text, and the MS. continues to exhibit 
great faults in orthography. 

V. 3657. swal. — The same form occurs in v. 5435, and similar ones are smulle^, 
swulden, sivahte, to-swadde, etc., all of which, although errors of orthography, arise 
from a provincial pronunciation still existing. 

V. 3659. {sec. t.) \>us. — A mistake for Hs? 

V. 3660. 0. — An error for ei or ai. Cf. vv. 2392. 11324. 

vv. 3662-3. The translation of these two lines is conjectural, and far from 
satisfactory ; but there appears to be some error in the MS. 


V. 3666. This phrase is used very frequently by the Middle English poetical 

V. 3741. heri^en. — To harry or ravage. See remark on v. 2638. Werri in the 
later text, and v)erre in v. 3756, although not found in this sense in A.-S. dictio- 
naries, would seem to claim a place, since the verbs to war and worry are thence 
derived. In Ohd. we have werren, and its cognates are found in other languages. 
In the Sax. Chron. a°. 1135. p. 365. we should probably read, "toe to werrien 
him," instead of wessen, translated so absurdly by Ingram, " took to Wessing- 

V. 3742. wolde has the verb to go understood after it. See remark on v. 617. 

V. 3751. cB'Selen. — May mean "territories" here. 

V. 3783. \>at hro\>eran. — A mistake probably for )>a brol>eran. 

V. 3796. hirede. — May be better rendered " court," and so v. 3964. 

V. 3803. mon. — Perhaps an error for pi. men, but the same form occurs in 
vv. 13721. 31858. 

V. 3820. gadere. — See remarks on v. 1970. 

V. 3837. bi-cherrest. — See remarks on v. 978. 

V. 3840. ahuggen. — In Middle and later English is written aheye, abie, abye, and 
although explained in the Glossaries to suffer or atone for, means properly to buy 
dear, to pay for. See the note on ^thelbirhts Laws, vol. i. p. 11. ed. Thorpe, 8vo, 
1840. The phrase occurs at length in Lajamon, v. 4799- 

V. 3880. iweren. — For the conjecture heo weren, substitute hi weren, and so else- 
where in similar cases. In general the first text has heo for the plural pronoun, 
but hi is occasionally found. 

V. 3920. King MarJce. — ^This is clearly an error of the scribe for Kinemark, 
and need not have been noticed in the translation. Geoffrey has Kinmarcus, and 
the best copies of Wace, Kinmarc. 

V. 3942. swuh. — Incorrectly, for swuch. 

V. 3944. sule. — Perhaps we should read sulde. 

V. 3962. gled and Jcime are faults of the scribe for glad and kume. Several 
others of the same kind have not been noticed. 

V. 3965. {sec. t.) cni\>te is gen. pi. after the superlative. 

V. 3968. ])at is an error for \>an, dat. s. governed of iquemed. 

V. 3980. to-clipede. — In all probability, the later text represents the genuine 
reading of the earlier one, and all that is wanted, is to supply mid in the line 


V. 3993. on-m(Bre. — Probably a mistake for mare. 

V. 400G. {sec. t.) strike. — This sense of the verb is retained in Middle English. 
See Examination of Remarks on Gloss, to Havelok, p. 22. 

V. 4015. A closer version would be as follows, "and all divided [him], one 
imb from an other." Cf. v. 4227. 

V. 4027. on leode. — " Among the people," or " in the land." See remark on 
V. 1. 

V. 4033. Hyphens may seem to be required in sa (sa) grunde, see grund, and 
similar compounds, but an objection arises to uniting composites of this kind, 
from the nouns being often of different genders, and the article preceding agreeing 
with the former of them. Examples of this are obvious in s(b brimme, sceflode, see 
grunde, see oure, see straem, and see stronde, all of which are preceded by the fein. 
article, yet the nouns brim,Jiod, grand, ofer, stream and strand are of the masc. 
or neut. gender in A.-Saxon. 

V. 4036. recemes. — See remark on v. 623. 

V. 4042. The meaning of hete in this phrase is very doubtful, nor does the 
French text of Wace render any assistance. It occurs again in vv. 8752. 20441. 
20728. 21893. 31875, and has been variously translated. On the whole I think 
it generally includes the idea, of hatred and strife. Compare the second text, v. 9914. 
The only other instance of the phrase that has occurred, is in the Legend of St. 
Katherine, MS. Reg. 17 A. xxvii. f. 36, where we read, " Hihentlice iher ham, 
heouenlic Jauerd ; aflei from ham al uuel, worre ant weane batSe, & untidi we- 
deres, hunger ant euch hete, \>e heani'5 ham ant harmit?." In the edition of this 
Legend by Mr. Morton, the phrase is rendered, " hunger and every fieat, that de- 
presses and harms them." In Bede, lib. ii. cap 12, the sentence " hostium vi- 
tabam insidias," is rendered by the Saxon translator, " f ic me his hete berh & 
wearnode." Ed. Smith, p, 513. See also Grimms note to v. 78 oi Andreas und 
Elene, 8vo, 1840. 

V. 4062. rcehere. — In Wace, " plus fort." 

V. 4108. Scot is here for Scotte, gen. pi., and the line should be rendered, " with 
a great army of Scots." Cf. v. 2191. 

V. 4111. wcbI. — Translate, " the 'slaughter [heap] was the more!" See remark 
on V. 816. 

V. 4113. Instead of " harried," read, " here slew." 

V. 4132. On a closer inspection of the MS. the first hand appears to have 
written SndSen, and subsequently the second hand has erased the final w, and 
interlined the letters e and i, so as to make Sendi^e. 

V. 4134. alne. — For alcne ; the c being elided after I, as in steer, starliche, etc. 
See remark on v. 3079. 


V. 4137. cer is for hcer. 

V. 4144. \>e)ie is, no doubt, an error for han, dat. pi. sicerd occurs again v. 30523 
connected with broi>er, and in both passages it appears to mean " sworn " ; although 
there is some difficulty in supposing this a participle in the tceak form, from 

V. 4152. somenede. — For " summoned" read " assembled." 

t'. 4155. (sec. i.) Brutus is occasionally written in the later text for Brutfes 
(see V. 376r), so that here and elsewhere the translation should perhaps be " Bri- 
tons." The first text should certainly so be rendered in this passagi'. 

V. 41S1. wi^e. — The same as ic/V, by the interchange of ^' and 3. See ^•^•.4^2S. 

vv. 4190. 4193. ore. — An incorrect form of our e or ure. 

V. 4236. tirinseden. — " Retreated" or " separated"? The word does not else- 
where occur, and its derivation is doubtful. 

r. 4242. for-u-onde would seem to be a mistake (or for-wonded. 

!•. 4253. ieode. — Read, "since the Britons 'conquered [had] it." Cf. Sax. 
Chron. a°. 921, and the parallel passage in v. 31647. 

V. 4259- /'PO is for he. 

V. 4268. huse. — It is possible this may be the A.-S. husian, in an active sense. 
In Wace, " r' alast." 

V. 4312. i>eo. — For "they" read "who." 

I'. 4318. mceinde. — This is incorrectly translated. It comes from A.-S. moengan, 
to mingle, and hence the common Middle English term to brew bale. Cf. v. 5016. 

IT. 4332. 4336. 4348. ercet, erat, eeer, har. — Incorrect forms of ear t or cert. 

V. 4374. We should no doubt read, hes londes kivg. (Cf. v. 1417-) The pre- 
ceding line is also incorrectly written. 

V. 4424. \>eos. — Is gen. s. masc. ; fur " this" read " the." 

V. 4463. {sec. t.) iiomen seems to be an error for nom. 

V. 4469. {sec. t.) on iv(dlp is here probably a mistake for o«-icaWe, and the read- 
ing of both texts will consequently be the same. 

V. 4472. heo is wanting before the verb. 

V. 4479. Norwehie is apparently the gen. pi., but in the Sax. Chron. a". 1066. 
the form is N^orrena. See remark on v. 17. 

V. 4487. {sec. t.) hue. — Sec remark on v. 1970. 
VOL. III. 2 11 


V. 4489. tveis. — Incorrectly, for wes. 

V. 4525. dranches. — See Notes on Havelok, v. 31. 

V. 4567. A line is deficient in the first text. 

V. 4576. on we^ere. — Incorrectly, for on wiSere. 

V. 4577- see is feminine, so for he we must read heo, or for he wra^ede substi- 
tute iwra'Sede. 

V. 457?. The interpretation of this line and of v. 11978 I feel very doubtful 
about, and the text of Wace offers no assistance. 

V. 4590. weht. — Incorrectly, for whet. 

V. 4592. A line is here wanting in the later text. 

V. 4602. swulche is probably an error for wulche or whuche. 

V. 4607. (sec. t.) H« is used in the later text for the more regular form of the ar- 
ticle, \>es, gen. c. sing. 

V. 4645. Denemarkene is the gen. pi. here and v. 5053, and expresses properly 
the people of Denmark. See remark on v. 17. 

V. 4681. Dele the conjecture on a, and correct the translation thus, " On me 
[and now] do thy 'mercy [will]." 

V. 4690. kinge is an error for ]>inges. 

V. 4721. ibiden is here in the sense of "have," as often elsewhere. See remark 
on V. 3051. 

V. 4729. folkede is, perhaps, a mistake for flokede. 

V. 4738. graneden. — This verb has been doubtfully translated here and in an- 
other passage, v. 5199, as if it were connected with the Germ, grenzen, Swed. 
graei^a, but it may perhaps be referred to the A.-S. ge-reonian, to conspire. Old 
Dutch graenen, to assemble in a body. In v. 23909 it appears synonymous with 
mune^i, to urge or manage. 

V. 4749. The second text reads "him" for " them." 

V. 4766. eorlene. — See Kembles Gloss, to Beowulf, in v. eorl, and Prices note 
on Warton, vol. ii. p. 70. 

V. 4775. leo^ien. — This verb occurs in the same sense in MS. Reg. 17 A.xxvii. 
f. 27 ; A.-S. liSian. 

vv. 4843. 4846, 4872. In all these instances heos is the article, gen. s. masc, 
and not the pronoun, but there is considerable difficulty in making the distinction. 

V. 4893. swilSe hende, — In Wace, " de grant afaitement." See remark on v. 612. 


t'. 4899. hoBnde craftes. — Although rendered "handicrafts" on the authority 
of the later text, and the evident connection there is between hend and hendi [Cf. 
V. 5523], yet the earlier version may simply mean " fair crafts." 

V. 4910. hiiie. — See remark on v. 3237. 

V. 4943. The construction of the first text differs a little from that of the second, 
and should be rendered, " bliss was in the court, or among the people, when 
Brennes took this maid ; with much worship he dwelt," etc. 

V. 4945. duwe^e. — See remark on v. 389, 

V. 4984. /or'S war's. — An error for foreword. 

V. 4986. Some omission is evident, but the grammatical construction is also 
faulty, and difficult to understand. 

V. 5015. a has been translated as an interjection, but it is, in all probability, a 
preposition, and the sense is, " On what thing wilt thou." 

V. 5018. Instead of " mayest thou expect," it would be better to read, " wilt 
thou have." See remark on v. 3051. 

w. 5027. 5029. lou, leo. — Home Tooke would no doubt cite these instances as 
proofs of the derivation of lo ! from the imperative of to look. See Div. of Purley, 
p. 264. ed. 1840. In further confirmation of this may be adduced the Early En- 
glish Rule of Nuns, MS. Cott. Cleop. C. vi. f. 7, where lo occurs, and in the later 
copy, Nero A. xiv. lolci. 

V. 5054. idrecched. — " Distressed" or " injured," from A.-S. dream. In v. 4521 
the same p. pa. occurs as i-draht, A.-S. gedreht. 

V. 5113. Read, "'Thus [There] became Brennes." 

vv. 5114. 5175. whit is an irregular form of wi>, as in a few other instances, but 
this preposition is very variously spelt. 

V. 5134. {sec. t.) The s in hi»re is expuncted in the MS. 

V. 5154. (sec. t.) \>ar is an error in the MS. for \>an. 

V. 5161. The same phrase occurs in the Sax. Chron. a". 1052. p. 235. 

V. 5178. beiden may be the past tense of beien, A.-S. begean, and equivalent to 
dro^en in the later text. It was supposed at first to be the Germ, beide, both, but 
no other instance is found of such a form. Yet it may be, after all, an error of 
the scribe for beiene. Cf. v. 5222. 

V. 5190. cumene is, no doubt, an error for gumene, and the line should be ren- 
dered, " there was destruction of men !" 

V. 5192. -p dceden. — We should probably read i>an daden. Cf. v. 1759- 

2 II 2 


V. 5196. 6?-eo5eS. — Compare w. 5807. 30415. It appears to be connected with 
the A.-S. hreotan, ahreo\>an. 

TK 5197. {sec. t.) Dele the conjecture on oncti\>e, since the dual form of the pro- 
noun is never used in the later text ; the compiler of which seems to have here j 
made an error, arising from similarity of sound. | 

V. 5199. greine. — See remark on v. 4738. 

V. 5233. Whether leoden or louden be right in this line, we must correct \>at into 

V. 5234. leoueden. — LiteraUy " loved" or " approved" ; Germ, heloben. 

V. 5253. walde. — For "one realm" read "any weald." 

V. 5319. Literally " the son of each baron." A similar liberty has elsewhere 
been taken in translating. 

?;. 5361. gereden. — "made them ready" or "arrayed them." A.-S. gerian, 

V. 5389. forn at is equivalent to the A.-S. at-foren. 

V. 5446. on fore. — The second text has here led me into error, and the transla- 
tion should be, " come here 'in journey [before me} the highest," etc. Cf. vv. 5858. 

28248. ■ 

r. 5447. hcexete.— Incorrectly, for heexte. 1 

V. 5486. (sec. t.) comen is probably an error for come, since the practice of nun- 
nation is not apparent in this text. j 

V. 5489. \>on. — We must read \>a >p, or else, with the later text, substitute stod 
for hcefde. ■ i 

V. 5534. fondien. — For "engage" substitute "prove." 

V. 5561. flceinde. — See remark on v. 1570. 

V. 5610. louden. — Apparently an error for londes. 

V. 5630. fon on. — Should be rendered " attack." Compare v. 1707. The A. S. 
version of Josh. x. 9- reads " Josue him ]>a.feng on mid gefeohte," for which the 
early Wyciiffite version has, "felle on him feerlich," {irruit, Vulg.). 

V. 5639. See remark on v. 3028. i 

V. 5640. ham iwurden. — Sec two other instances of the same idiom in vol. iii. j 
vv. 25323. 29427. So also in the Sax. Chron. a". 1103. p. 324, "swa swa him i 
and ham cynge gewear^," as was agreed between him and the king. | 

V, 5655. h« hp. — Perhaps )>c maybe the relative, and be rendered" when that." i 


V. 5667. The verb seems to be omitted by accident. 

V. 5668. i>ene dm. — In the ace. case absolute. See Kembles note on Beowulf, 
V. 108. vol. ii. 

V. 5695. strales. — This is the only instance of the use of this word, which in 
A,-S. means " arrows" or " missiles." 

V. 5714. waritreo, — The same term is applied to the Cross, in the poem of 
Cristes throwynge, in MS. Coll. Jes. Oxon. 29. f. 224''. It is from the A.-S. wcerg, 
cursed, and treow, tree. The Cross is also called warg-rod in A.-S. 

V. 5716. ]>an is a mistake of the scribe for \>a. 

V. 5732. \>at weoren. — The same idiom as in German, Es waren. Similar in- 
stances occur in the Legend of St. Katherine, pp. 17- 30. ed, Morton. Cf. 
V. 14811. 

V. 5741. swi'Sefor \>eonne. — The French text has " piece avoit ja," and the trans- 
lation should probably be thus corrected, "The earls ' who should them defend,' 
Gabius and Prosenna, [they] were gone 'very' far thence into Lumbardy, ' into 
the country,' after forces," etc. The conjecture also as to the division of the 
verses in the early text is erroneous, and I have little doubt they should be read 
thus : 

pa eorles weoren iwende ^ 

swi'Se for J^eonne. 

he heom wite solden ^ 

Gabius and Prosenna. 

into Lumbardie ^ 

in to Jjon leode. 

efter monkunne ^ 

he heom mihten fulsten. 

i>e mid heom sculden fihten. 

V. 5788. fitsdeu. — This is an error for fuhten, or is used transitively, as in vv. 
1511. 6881. and elsewhere, but in the latter case we must read heom for heo. 

V. 5819. na uilit anemile. — The meaning seems to be, that the conversation 
lasted only as long as a man might ride a mile. A similar phrase is met with in 
Ipomydon, v. 1465 : 

He had not slepyd but a while, 
Not the space of a mile. 

and in Florice and Blancheflour , p. 101 (corrected by the MS.) : 

Hire cussing laste a mile, 

And that hem thoujt litel while. 

V. 5835. scare. — This is, apparently, the French escar, eschar, disgrace, derision, 
contempt, used by Wace and by Hue de Tabarie. See vv. 20746. 29548. and 
Roqueforts Glossary. 


V. 5856. ore toimen. — Ore is, probably, an error for heore, as houre in the later 
text is for hire. The orthography of (ounen for teoiien is also very irregular, as 
again ioune, v. 6013. 

V. 5866. Wace reads, 

Cil ont parmi trancie lor lances, 
Et lasquies lor connissances ; 

evidently meaning by the last w^ord the badges or distinctions on the shields. 

V. 5911. hcep. — See remark on v. 816. ] 

V. 5931. monie. — Should properly be monies, "of many kind," as in v. 1710. 
but, as before remarked, the final s is often omitted by the scribe. 

V. 5950. (sec. t.) wepne. — This appears, on consideration, an error for ^erne, or 
some similar word, and the translation for both texts will then be the same. 

w. 5955-6. \>ea and )>is are forms of the article, gen. sing. In many other 
passages the same correction may be made. 

V. 6055. leoue. — See remark on v. 1970. ' 

V. 6070. drunken. — Probably an error for drinken. 

V. 6094. wH>er. — The conjectural reading, witer, is confirmed by vv. 96OO. 
16033. 19638. etc., and by the compound unwit(er,v. 16023. The word does not 
occur in the A.-S. Dictionaries, except in the form of witol, yet we have it in the j 
Sax. Chron. a". 1067. p. 267- It is identical with the Isl. vifr, and exists in the 
Early and Middle English witerliche, ivitterly, Dan. and Swed. vitterlega. In the j 
same line for ives \>er we should probably read Jjes ives. j 

V. 6096. smhte and sibbe. — Sax, Chron. a°. 1140. p. 372, " sib and sahte sculde 
ben betwyx heom." 

V. 6097. nnstronge. — This word here and in v. 7095 seems to have the sense of ! 
" bad" or " ill-disposed," yet there is no authority in A.-S. for such an interpre- 
tation. In the second instance it may also mean "poor" or "base," as in v. 1 
10474. j 

V. 6138. eorne^ and ecerne. — The distinction seems to be here observed, which 
Rask has pointed out, Gramm. p. li, between the A.-S. verbs yman to run, and 
arnan to make or let run, i. e. to ride; and so also in vv. 8129. 24695. The 
strong verb yman appears to be expressed in the texts of Lajaraon by eornen, I 
urnen, eorne, erne, and the weak verb arnan by cernen, heme, earne, eamne, erne. 
In several instances, however, the two verbs have been confounded. Cf. vv. 
13683. 14666. Perhaps some light may be hence thrown on the law of Al- 
fred, " Of Church-frith," in which occurs the expression " gif hie fah-mon geierne \ 
[geyrne'] oi>]>e gecerne" ? Price translates it, " if a fah-man^ee to or reach one (a j 
church)," and Thorpe, p. 64, conjectures that the words " oH'C geierne" were ori- 
ginally a glubs. The use of such a gloss appears quite unnecessary, nor do I see \ 


how yecerne can be rendered by reach. May we not translate it, " if a fah-man 
flee to or ride to one" ? 

V. 6146. secelled. — Compare the Early English Rule of Nuns, MS. Cott. Nero 
A. xiv. f. 65''. " Hwon hit so bivallcS ^et me asaileS buruhwes o"Ser castles, )>eo 
•Set bee's wiiSinnen heldetS schaldinde water ut," etc. 

V. 6162. Denemarlcene. — See remark on v. 17. 

V. 6165. ]>an burden. — This noun is generally used in the first text with the 
feminine article. 

V. 6167. awcelde. — Perhaps we should read acwoelde, as in the later text. Cf. 
V. 21631. 

V. 6186. ibo7ie. — The meaning of this word here and elsewhere appears to be, 
" prepared." The same phrase occurs in Ilavelok, and is incorrectly explained 
in the Glossary. Robert of Brunne also has wel bone, for " very ready." It is 
from the Suio-Goth. bo-a, to prepare, make ready, p. p. boen, Isl. buinn. Ihre 
quotes the same expression, " Hus aero wael boin," the house was well prepared. 
See also Jamieson, in v. Bayne. 

V. 6266. steoivien. — There is no such verb in the A.-S. Dictionaries, but it ap- 
pears to be the same with the Goth, staujan, stojan, judicare. See Zahns Glos- 
sarj' to Ulphilas. The French text reads, " sis ^■«shczoi7." In the Early English 
Legend of St. Katherine, the verb stew means " to stop" or "check," and is re- 
ferred by the editor to the Germ, stehen. 

V. 6275. (sec. t.) The second text may perhaps be translated, "though their 
lemman saw ;" and the conjectural reading is then unnecessary. 

V. 6331. ke is, apparently, a mistake for je or jeo. 

V. 6358. va7idliche.— This word does not occur again, and although translated 
" unstable," on the authority of " wandeliche, mutabilis," in Scherzius, yet I 
think it probable it is an error of the scribe for wunliche, fair, goodly ; an adjective 
often employed, and which in v. 10000 is written wundliche. 

V. 6361. ]>eauwe. — This is the only instance in the poem of the word being ap- 
plied to bodily qualities, nor has any other passage of an earlier date than the six- 
teenth century been found, in which it is so used. In modern Scotch I find the 
adj. thowles, feeble. 

V. 6364. kenschipe. — For "authority" in the translation, read " courage." 

t'. 6369. warned. — This word should have been rendered " wrathful," from A.-S. 

V. 6375. glad.— In the French, "sans ire." 

V. 6451. agaste. — Tooke and the lexicographers derive this word from agnze. 


but very unsatisfactorily, since the Goth, us-geisjan supplies at once the etymo- 
logy. It does not occur in A. -Saxon, but is used in Early and Middle English. 

V. 6502. itase. — A. -Sax. gelcese, meet, convenient. 

I'. 6505. deaf. — In A.-S. dyfde, and in the Early English Legend of St. Mar- 
garet, def and defde, MS. Reg. 17 A. xxvii. ff. 51. 55. 

V. 6508. iveo'^ede. — Apparently from the A.-S. ivce^an, pa. t. wceMe, to drive. 

V. 6516. halden is probably an error for hcelden, and the translation should be 
corrected, " he shall fall the sooner." 

V. 6538. For a mete ril-hende read a mete-rum hende. Wace has, "Unkes en 
lui n'ont desmesure." In the translation, 'most' should be omitted. 

V. 6548. Argal his, — It is rare to find this form in the earlier text. See remark 
on v. 1459. It will be observed that the second text here, as in some few other 
instances, has the regular A.-S. genitive. 

V. 6555. wfiaf is an error of the scribe for wha, as again, v. 6661. 

V. 6556. wrcccche mon. — Wace has, " les nobles homes abaissoii." The A.-S. 
term includes the ideas both of abasement and poverty. 

V. 6590. i>an leoden. — No doubt, an error for \>a leoden. In the translation, 
fondede had better be rendered " sought." 

V. 6614. fondicn. — Read "seek" instead of " try," in the translation, and for 
"whether" read "where." 

V. 6621. atUclien. — Apparently from A.-S. atelic, deformis, or liccetan, simu- 

V. 6630. on comelan. — Tlie translation of this difficult phrase here and elsewhere 
is purely conjictural, nor have I, after much time spent on it, been able to trace 
any satisfactory etymon. The other passages in which the phrase is found are 
vv. 10601. 11009. 20273. (where the second text reads in teldes, and the original 
of Wace has el huschement) 20905. and 30400. 

V. C652. ce^clede. — See remark on v. 2815. 

V. 6659. dv^eliche. — Incorrectly, for di^eliche. 

V. 6667. hinc hraeid sac. — So, in the Sax. Chron. a°. 1003. "^a gehrade he 
hine seocne." 

t'. 6725. \>ringe. — Is here equivalent to thane, as appears from v. 6739. Else- 
where we find the terras here-Yringes, here-dringes, warriors, which in v. 24736 
is used for the French contes. 

V. C729. nra;i>. — The sense is determined by the later text, but I find no equi- 
valent A.-S. verb. It appears to be the Goth, ivratou, ire, iter faccre. 


V. 6750. deme. — We may hence correct Ingrams translation of " dcerne sprtce," 
in the Sax. Chron. p. 335, and for " on an interesting subject," read " in private 

V. 6752. ecBrne. — See remark on v. 61 38. 

V. Ql&T. him. — This form is very rarely used in the early text for the ace. hinc 
It shows, however, the period at which the change took place to the modern 

V. 6788. as^elen. — See remarks on vv. 296O. 3282. 

V. 6823. ks«e.— Translate, "alPthis [the] south end." 

I'. 6887- {sec. t.) hehfeste is incorrectly written for heheste, as in vv. 2325. 8092. 

V. 6895. bi-aid. — In Wace, " B'len sembla as bons ancissors." This sense of the 
word does not occur in A.-S. Dictionaries, but is found in the cognate Islandic 
verb hreyda, and is preserved in the modern Scottish idiom. See Ihre, in v. Braa, 
and Jamieson, v. Brade. 

V. 6901. at. — The usual form in this text is ah, and at is an error here and in 
vv. 6953. 7673. etc. 

V. 6929. dii^e'Sen. — In the French original we have 

Et tut perde %Q.jovente 
En beivre e en iveresce, 

which would induce the suspicion that diqe'Sen is here an error in the MS. for 
pi^eSe, youth, and iveoren be 3 pers. sing. It has, however, been rendered in con- 
formity with the signification the word bears in v. 20851. 

V. 6934. yrei^e. — Better, if written gri^e. See Jamieson, v. graith. 

V. 6958. hehde. — The same irregular form occurs in v. 7430. 

V. 6986. and is probably a mistake for an. We might render blceS-fest better, 
perhaps, "rightful," or " prosperous." Cf. v. 10100. 

V. 6990. cus(i.~ln Wace, " large de doner." 

V. 7002. coiiun. — The MSS. of Wace read corun, choron, etc. It is certainly an 
instrument of music, as is evident not only by the context, but by a passage cited 
from the Estoire de Troie la Grant by Roquefort, Be la Poesie Fran^oise, p. 130, 
which if M. Le Roux de Lincy had seen, he would not have hazarded the erro- 
neous interpretation of " chccur, chanson en choeur." In the Supplement to the 
Glossaire de la Langue Romans it is made synonymous with the coruth (named 
chorus by the Latin middle-age writers), and explained, " Sorte d'instrument a 
vent." Ellis interprets it, " a sort of trumpet." Early Engl. Poetr. vol. i. p. 48. 

?'. 7027. a wiht. — The MS. has aidht, and this seems correct. It should be 
translated, " aught," i. e. of any account. Cf. v. 26737, where the French 


text reads bens. See the Sax. Chron. a*. 1087- p. 295. In A. -Saxon aht is op- 
posed to naht, and both are found in the modern Lancashire dialect, as " nowt 
that's owl," naught that's good. For the power of a in this and similar words, 
see Kembles Gloss, on Beowulf, in a. In the later text /ore seems the same as 
Suio-Goth. /iir, bonus, Isl.fcer. 

V. 7033. (sec. t.) A noun seems to be wanting after the adjective onwreste, and 
if supplied, both texts would agree. 

V. 7079- ^eht. — Incorrectly, for ^et. 

V. 7081. ner. — No doubt, an error for nes. 

V. 7084. Correct the translation, "in 'this [its] history." 

V. 7095. vnstronge. — See remark on v. 6097- 

V. 7125. )?ene is, apparently, an error for \>a, ace. pi. 

V. 7165. an hand. — This phrase, in connexion with various verbs, is often used 
in the sense of " speedily," " soon," or " now," in the same manner as the mo- 
dern German in die hand. Cf. vol. ii. pp. 96. 106. 251. 264. Hence perhaps may 
be explained a line in the Early English Poem of The Grave in Thorpes Analecta, 
p. 142, which is not understood or wrongly interpreted by Conybeare and Guest. 

V. 7182. on some. — For " together" read "in concord." Cf. v. 9514. etc. 

V. 7185. weer^e. — Incorrectly, for wrcelSe, as in several other instances. 

V. 7224. eeelde. — This would seem an error for helle. Cf. v. 9159. 

V. 7239. i>e sunne. — Elsewhere the feminine article is used, but I have already 
remarked the occurrence of )>e with feminine nouns. See remark on v. 2027- 

vv. 7254. 7262. 7342. Bruttes, Bruttis. — Incorrectly, for Bruttm. 

V. 7265. cw^ed. — Incorrectly, probably, for culSSeiS. 

V. 7334. (sec. t.) host. — This, if not an error of the scribe, is a singular instance 
of contraction. 

V. 7348. weore. — The letter erased is the pleonastic n, as again vv. 17963. 

V. 7359. hiloeiuen. — Correct "'wilt' believe" into " 'wilt' leave." 

V. 7447. Nor^ Walene. — Is the gen. pi. See Sax. Chron. a°. 607, and remark 
on v. 17. 

V. 7448. mode. — We should read modi. 

V. 7480. In the translation, for "hew" read "hewed," and for "resound" 
read " resounded." 


V. 7487. Oslo's. — See remark on v. 317. 

V. 7489. (sec. t.) lei>erede. — So in the Legend of St. Katherine, " U'Serede ai o 
blode," p. 83, explained erroneously by the editor. 

t;. 7495. feond. — The " enemy" here alluded to is Caesar. 

V. 7505. (sec. t.) starliche. — See remark on v. 4134. 

V. 7524. 6/a4ec?e,— "Blenched" or " became pale." Cf. v. 19799- 

V. 7526. we na hraeS. — There is some error here, which renders the sense ob- 
scure. The particle ne is, probably, redundant. 

V. 7615. A line is wanting in the later text. 

V. 7623. hi-gon. — For " inlaid" read " covered." See Rychard Coer de Lion, 
V. 2656. ap. Weber, and a poem in the Reliqum Antiquce, vol. ii. p. 19. 

V. 7644. This line should be rendered, " threatened the host of each land." 

V. 7675. bliSere. — In the A.-S. Orosius, ii. 5, this adjective is used in the cog- 
nate sense of effeminate, and it seems to be allied with the Isl. bleyta, blaufr, 
Scot, blate, pusillanimous. 

vv. 7706-7708. This passage is obscure, and perhaps for Aim we should readkeom. 
The French text seems to countenance this, in reading, " Et assds plus lor a pro- 
mis." vol. i. p. 202. There is some difficulty also in iwan. 

V. 7735. ^ifuen wit en seems equivalent here to the phrase are witan, to confer 
honor, in Bede, lib. ii. c. 20. p. 521. ed. Smith. 

V. 7739. answare. — See remarks on v. 1970. 

vv. 7780. 7782. 8012. — In these passages, and indeed generally, the word cniht 
means simply man, as in A.-S., but the term knight has been usually retained for 
reasons which have influenced the principle on which the translation has been 
made. The same may be said of some few other words. 

V. 7798. (sec. t.) For tou read ton, which is evidently rhythmi gratia, as in some 
other instances, w. 16687- 19025. 21900. 22524. 

V. 7812. after. — Literally " through" or "along," as in the Teutonic. 

V. 7842. «/. — Incorrectly, for of. 

V. 7854. rameden. — May also be rendered " shouted." Cf. v. 5795. This and 
the preceding verbs are in the past tense. 

V. 7855. wundre. — Apparently the same with the Early and Middle English 
wondreth, misfortune, or damage, from the Isl. vandraedi, Suio-G. wandraede, 
discrimen, maxima difficultas. 


V. 7859. lof. — This nautical term occurs several times in La3araon, and always 
as a substantive, applied to some part of the ship, the agency of which was used 
to alter its course. It is used in a similar manner by Wace, in the Brut, vol. ii. 
p. 141, and in Douces fragment of the i?oma« de Tristan, v. 1594. See Michels 
edition, in Gloss, v. Lof. The term is also preserved in modern German, Swedish, 
Dutch, Spanish, and English, but signifies only, when used as a substantive, the 
weather-gaffe, and is more usually employed as a verb, " to get the weather- gage," 
or " bear up to the wind." From Falconers Marine Dictionary we also learn, 
that this word loof is applied to " the after-part of a ships bow," and so, in the 
Dialogues on Marine Ajf airs, written by Capt. Nathaniel Butler in 1634, we read, 
" The loofe is counted that part aloft which lyes right before the chesse-trees," etc. 
MS. Sloane, 758. f. 50''. Matthew of Paris, when speaking of the expedition of 
Hubert de Burgh against Eustache le Moine, says, " Perrexerunt igitur audacter, 
oblicjuando tamen dracenam, id est, loof, acsi vellent adire Calesiam." Hist. Maj. 
ed. Wats, p. 250. ed. 1684 ; and Otterbourne at a later period writes, " sed pro- 
videntia probitateque naucleri obliquantis dracenam subito,navemque girantis," etc. 
The latter passage is quoted by DuCange in his Supplement, and he explains dra- 
cena by gubernaculum. Robert of Brunne retains the term lofe in his translation of 
Wace, quoted previously in the " Notes," p. 395 ; and in the Household Account 
of the 19 Edw. H., in the library of the Society of Antiquaries, No. 122. p. 51, I 
find the following entry, " Paie a Alisandrede Hanworthe, burgeis de Lynne, pur 
i. mast novelle de rouge sapyn, de c. pees longe, un loffe, une verge, et une bowe- 
spret, apertenant a dit mast, pris vi''. xvii'. vii''." In order to illustrate further this 
term, I shall adduce three passages, the second of which has never been in print : 

That noble schyp was al withoute, 
With clothys of gold spred aboute, 
And her loof, and her wyndas 
Off asure forsothe it was. 

Rychard Coer de Lion, v. 69. 

Then he tron on tho tres, & thay her tramme reechen ; 
Cachen vp the crossayl, cables thay casten ; 
Wi3t at the wyndas wereu her ankres, 
Sprude spak to the sprete, the spare bawe-lyne ; 
Gederen to the gyde-ropes, the grete cloth falles ; 
Thay layden in on ladde horde, & the lofe wynnes ; 
The blythe brethe at her bak, the bosum he fyndes ; 
He swenges me thys swete schip swefte fro the hanen, 

MS. Cott. Nero A. x. f. 84. 

Tlie winde blowes out of the west, thou gentle mariner, a, 
Look to the looffe wel, beware the lee still. 
For deadly roches doe now appeare, a. 

Pammelia, No. 55. 4to. 1609. 

V. 7909. icimde. — Means territory acquired by heritage, as in several other 
passages. So in the Sax. Chron. a". 1087. p. 295. " Normandige ■], land wa?s his 


gccynde," which is translated properly by Gibson, "jure hereditario." Cf. vv. 
20459. 25047. 

V. 7911. This line should be translated, "hateth you so greatly." 

V. 7936. feoUen. — Correct thus, " and 'Rome-men fell [the Romanish felled]." 

V. 7947. {sec. t.) nihtes. — Apparently, here and in v. 7977, an error for nihte. 

V. 7953. leode. — Incorrectly, for hide. 

V. 7957. f(B^eden. — Apparently connected with Isl./«e^za, Mhd. fec/en, to clean 
or polish. 

V. 8013. (sec. t.) hi appears an error for heo, 

V. 8038. imunten. — Had better be rendered "purposed." 

V. 8O39. io-^ere has not been found in the A.-S. Dictionaries, although it would 
seem to claim a place there. It is used by La3amon frequently in the sense of 
"now," "presently," and so also in the Middle English Romance of Ipomy don, 
V. 271, and in Chaucer, Cant. Tales, v. 5750, which is erroneously explained by 

V. 8O67. vnder-nomen. — For "understood," translate "accepted." 

V. 8077- cure. — "the best choice," i.e. the most chosen. Cure is elsewhere 
often used, and always as a noun. In A.-S. the verb only is found. 

V. 8084. ]?echene. — This appears the same with the A.-S. \xBcele, \>ecele, lamp, 

V. 8086. iboned. — I have considered this word cognate with Sw. bonad, amictus, 
Isl. hunadur, vestitus, habitus, but it should probably he rendered "adorned." 
Cf. V. 25788. 

V. 8088. hcehliche. — Not " high," but "nobly," " royally." 

V. 8O94. a^eles. — Incorrectly, for a^ele {c^ele). 

V, 8118. ^ifu(fSe is here a noun, but elsewhere an adverb. It should be ren- 
dered " wealth." 

V. 8 129. cernen, — See remark on v. 6138. 

V. 8144. (sec. t.) sceremigge is written for sceremingge, or for the inf. sceremi. 

w. 8152-4. Correct the translation thus, " and 'with the [his] staff struck vio- 
lently, ' and smote ' ' Herigal on the [upon Ergals] ribs, so that the staff [it] brake 
in the middle. Then quoth," etc. 

V. 8212. slcE ne na. — Perhaps we should read slaen na, as the double negative 
seems unnecessary. 

V. 8219. herede. — Incorrectly, for hirede. In Wace, curl. 


V. 8227. him seide. — Is used reflectively, as (war's him, just above, and in the 
translation " to" should be omitted. See remark on v. 1653. 

V. 8238. one. — From the reading of the later text, we might suppose this a 
mistake for a^ene. 

V. 8245. here. — See remark on v. 2159- 

V. 8264. mid oerhlSe. — " With fear," i. e. out of fear, influenced bj' fear. 

V. 8289. ah to don. — Literally, " ought to do." In the French text it is " doit 

V. 8303. After "indited," in the translation, add, "and thus it spake 'forth 
[sooth] right." 

V. 8313. 8f \>u. — I do not find in the early text any other instance of and or an 
used to express if, but in the later text we have two examples, vv. 3524. 10608. 
In Robert of Gloucester, Robert of Brunne, and Chaucer, and or an frequently oc- 
curs in the sense ofif, and so also in the Paston Letters, vol. iii. p. 212. In later 
times it generally took the form of an, and the Scottish poets used it in a similar 
manner. See the quotations in Jamieson, in v. An, Chalmers Gloss, to Lyndsays 
Works, and Tookes Divers, of Parley, p. 53. ed. 1840. 

•w. 8322-4. — In the translation, for "love"read " have loved," and for "make" 
read "have made." 

V. 8341. The paragraph apparently should begin with Seo'S'Sen, and the trans- 
lation be, " After that or since we had thee overcome, and thy folk slain and cap- 
tured, now is Cassibelaune," etc. Compare v. 8826. 

V. 8357. \>0' king. — Irregularly, for \>e king. 

V. 8417. iwarS him. — Became. In the translation, " to him" should be omitted. 
See remarks on vv. 1653. 8227. 

V. 8428. atwaie wond. — Perhaps for awaie wond, or simply, at-wond. 

V. 8520. sa. — Incorrectly, for see. 

V. 8542. cernen. — " riding" ? See remark on v. 6138. 

vv. 8548. 8554. In the translation, read, "that 'are [is] hateful," and after 
" sooth" add, " that I say [to thee] here." 

V. 8585. slcede. — In the French, valee. 

t). 8622. hi-diemden. — Perhaps we should render the line, "'and awaited 
[^abiding] their while" : wille is used for wile in v. 4190, but I find no other in- 
stance of the verb bi-diemen, and we may possibly read idemden, as in v. 10441. 

V. 8663. heom to. — The verb is probably understood, as in v. 27386 and else- 
where, and the conjectural reading unnecessary. 


V. 8669. Translate, "When the folk would flee." 

V. 8675. — For "Britains king," read "the Britons king" ; and so elsewhere. 
It is the gen. pi. 

V. 8697. (sec. t.) This line seems redundant, or otherwise an additional line 
is wanting. 

V. 8717. Literally, "it was 'altogether Qittle] the better for'them [him]." 

r. 8723. {sec. t.) me)? might also be translated " mead." 

V. 8727. for-rad seems to have here a stronger signification than that which it 
bears in A.-S. Compare vv. 12098. 1211.5. 14867. In all these passages it may 
perhaps be rendered " injured," or " destroyed," as it certainly must in v. 25505. 

V. 8745. <Er-rf<eden should be rendered "offences." Soin A.-Sax. Luke, ch. xxiii. 
V. 41. wyt bi uncer cer-dcedum onfo'8. 

V. 8752. h<Bte. — See remark on v. 4042. 

V. 8795. The original reading riht is would appear to be the better one. 

V. 8798. nolde appears an error for wolde. 

V. 88I6. 31/ is wanting in the earlier text. 

V. 8849. The second and is here redundant, and the translation should be cor- 
rected thus, "fell to his feet, 'and sought the ground.'" 

V. 8881. wurde. — Incorrectly, for worde. 

r. 8911. l>eo. — Incorrectly, for J>m. 

V. 8948. Translate, "alPready [done]." 

V. 8959. forlorne. — Should be rendered "set aside" or "broken." 

V. 8982. The paragraph in the first text should begin with this line, and the 
translation be corrected thus, " Cassibelaune, ' who was king of this land,' he lived 
never after but seven years ; when his end-day came," etc. In the second text, 
vv. 8982-3 are, by error, made to bear reference to Androgens. 

V. 9072. wunne may also be rendered "joy." 

V. 9073. walden. — Incorrectly, for waldend. 

V. 9121. leod-ronen. — In v. 15499 this word means incantations, as it does also 
in A.-S., but here it seems to denote popular rumors, and should be so rendered. 
In V. 14553 the later text reads, deorne runing. 

V. 9245. In the later text to-drese is not an error for to-rese (Cf. v. 15483), but 
rora the A-S. dreosan, to fall. It would appear doubtful if hyphens are necessary, 
but we have elsewhere the pa. t. to-rtes. 


V. 9269. wl^er-happes. — See remark on v. 405. 

V. 9282. (sec. t.) seine. — A.-S. segen, Csedm. p. 188. Bede, lib. iii. c. 11. p. 535. 
Dutch sein, Fr. en-seine. 

V. 9306. hai^en is for a^en, " own," and the translation must be corrected. 

V. 9339. remden. — See remark on v. 623. 

V. 9419. /rec/ie. — This word would be better rendered "bold," from A.-S. free, 
M. -Goth, frceck. See Gloss, to Beowulf , and Ihre. 

V. 9435. hi\>rungen. — Only the simple verb \>ringan is in Bosworths Dictionary, 
but in Otfrid is the same participle, bithivungan. See Schilters Thesaurus, in voce. 
It is found elsewhere in Early English. 

V. 9454. sceld-trome. — Tliis term is common in Middle English, and was pre- 
served so late as the sixteenth century, under the form of schiltron, which Hol- 
linshed explains, " round battailes, in forme of a circle." It probably means the 
same as the Latin military term testudo. 

V. 9469. In the translation read, " and 'with the [to these] knights." 

V. 9476. me hi-uoren. — Correct the version, "the emperor before me won." 

V. 9479. nut or inithas been translated as if connected with A.-S. geniht, abun- 
dance, but it had better be regarded as an adjective, and rendered " useful" or 
" needful," A.-S. nyt. 

V. 9600. witer. — " witty" or "prudent." See remark on v. 6094. 

V. 9670. {sec. t.) ]>an is, no doubt, an error for \>e. 

V. 9710. In the translation, for " these tidings" read "this tiding." 

V. 9726. \>ere leodene king. — See remark on v. 151. 

V. 9744. lof. — See remarks on v, 7859. 

V. 9739. atliche. — Incorrectly, for ahtUche. 

V. 9798. to-stopen. — 'ITie translation is conjectural, and instead of being a par- 
ticiple, it may be the pa. t. of to-steppan (as to-stepen, v. 17406), and the lines 
be rendered, " boldly advanced with steels edge." 

V. 9811. her men (so written in the MS.) should have been printed hermen (for 
hcermen), and the translation be corrected thus, " ' sorry washer heart, filled with 

V. 9823. seon men. — It thus appears in the MS., but perhaps we ought to read 
seoumen, for sceomen, and the translation may then be amended, " if from shame he 
will be clean." 

vv. 9837. 9843. iuteid, iucd. — Better, if rendered "at enmity." See remark on 
V. 964. 


r. 9846. Fore.— Literally, "proceeding," Cf. vv. 10118. 15578. 

V. 9925. {sec. t.) eye is probably an error for eny, unless it be a contracted foriii, 
as cei, ei, in the earlier text. 

V. 9929. blte'Se. — Other instances of this word occur in vv. 16762. 18737- 2.3620. 
30768. It is probably connected with the A.-S. hleate, deletus, Goth, hlautgan, 
delere. See Kembles Gloss, to Beowulf, v. 5643. See also Wachter, in v. Be- 
leiden. Cf. v. 7675. 

V. 9934. cernde. — For "ran" translate " rode," and see remarks on v. 6138. 

V. 9945. The phrase " coraen to hirede," here and in similar cases, seems to 
mean "to assemble together." See remark on v. 2353, and Sax. Chron. a°. 1095. 
p. 313, where the same phrase occurs. 

V. 9965. fdehtes is used improperly iovfcshte, as in a few other passages. 

V. 9970. (sec. t.) \>ane appears an error for ^e. 

V. 10000. w;/Mdh'cAe is incorrectly written for M7MM/ic/te. 

V. 10023. caSel. — See Kilian, Etymologicum, in v. Kateylen. 

V. 10030. Translate, "They gan soon to plough." 

V. 10039. grceilichen. — This is either a contracted form of grcevSlichen, (as in 
numerous other instances where '5 is elided,) or an error of the scribe in omitting 
the letter «. 

V. 10055. heore wcei. — The later text reads "away." 

V. 10097. Bruttes is an error for Brutus. See remark on v. 7254. 

V. 10100. bltB^fcest.—See remark on v. 6986, 

V. 10106. (sec. t.) \>issere must be a mistake for )>isne. 

V. 10124. The literal construction is, " Then it longed to the king." 

V. 10134. For \>a we should read ];>an. 

V. 10163. The later text reads "exceeding well." 

V. 10201. dihten is followed here by a dative case, as also in v. 11155. 

VOL. HI. 2 I 



V. 10233. muchere, — There is no necessity for a conjectural reading, since the 
forms of muchere and mochelere are both used ; muchele would be incorrect, as 
winne is a fern. noun. i 

V. 10237. folc. — Elsewhere /oZc is neuter, as in A,-S. 

V. 10246. For \>at, the second text has l>o, "when." 

V, 10275. a-bcBileden. — This word does not occur again, but it seems to be con- 
nected with A.-S. ahcelian, or abylgean, for I find the noun bcelignis, injury, from 
the same root. 

V. 10328. Scotte wmr'S. — Perhaps we should read Scotte-wceS, and the Solway 
Frith or Frith of Forth be alluded to. See Note on vol. i. p. 93. v. 2191. Or, 
supposing w(Bi-'^ to be the A.-S. waro^, shore, coast, the text may stand as it is, 
but the translation be corrected. 

V. 10329. seo'S^c is an irregular form of su^. 

V. 10365. The later text reads, "thus made." i 


V. 10413. af or en on. — "before," i. e. in front of. Cf. vv. 26647. 28313. In 
the last instance Wace has " contre lui." ' 

V. 10447. i^ec. t.) and appears to be an error for ac. 

V. 10474. unstrong cniht. — Wace lias, " asses ert de has parage," and Bede, 

" genere quidam infimus," lib. i. c. 6. 1 


V. 10538. hi tehten. — Should have been rendered, "gave" or "committed." I 

V. 10569. hi-bo^en. — For "come to," read "left" or "abandoned." Cf. vv. 
12252. 27965. 

V. 10601. comela. — See remark on v. 6630. ( 

V. 10659. Sco«e.—" the Scots." Cf. v. 12128. j 

V. 10703. hcerde. — Instead of "gesture" this word should be rendered "up- j 

braiding" or " reproach." See remark on v. 1672. ' 

V. 10706. Bruttene. — This is not an adjective, but gen. pi. of the noun. See ■ 

remarks on v. 17- The translation here and in p. 24 requires correction. 

V. 10748. Perhaps we should here read West, but see remark on v. 15468. j 

?'. 10761. For (/o'5/tc/ip we should probably read (/oJ/Zc/te, and supply the pro- j 
noun hine. 


V. 10903. ojid appears superfluous here. For a7icrist or ancreos Geoffrey has 
cives, and the Cotton MS. of Wace, citeins. In the printed edition it is crestien, 
and a similar reading would appear to have been the cause of the error in Laja- 

?'. 10943. derf. — Instead of "hardy," perhaps "cruel" or some similar epi- 
thet would be more appropriate. This adj. is not in A.-S., but is found in the 
Northern dialects. See Jamieson, in voce. 

V. 11024. heo is here for he, as in other passages. 

I'. 11043. weorld-seli. — The same compound, " woruld-gescelig," occurs in 
Thorpes Analecta. 

V. 11046. luueden would be better rendered "honored," A.-S. lojian. 

V, 11075. biho^eden. — Means literally, " cared for," or " looked to." 

V. 11087. kingen is gen. pi., and king, in the second text, is the contracted form, 
and not the nom. case. Cf. v. 26082. 

V. 11108. menden. — Should be rendered "complained," as elsewhere, and so in 
the later text, v. 11138. 

V. 11 168. peo in the early text is for pa, as often elsewhere, and the translation 
should read, " When the Jews sought it, etc., then was she," etc. 

V. 11259. iscipen. — Has been translated as a participle, but is probably a noun 
and preposition, i scipen, in ships. 

V. 11296. Norweo^en. — A noun, not an adjective. Cf. v. 12011. 

V. 11329. hi-winnen. — Apparently a mistake for bi-nimen. 

f. 11378. The same apposition of terms occurs in the Sax. Chron. a°. 1087- 
p. 293, " rice menn ne heane." 

V. 11396. mid carte. — " With a cart," i. e. in a cart or carriage, A.-S. creet. 

V, 11420. i Cornwale. — Here, as elsewhere, i or in stands for of. See particu- 
larly v. 16975. 

V. 11638. The hyphens in faiir-lac and fair-lock should be omitted, and in 
the translation, for "presents" we should read "fair present." Cf. v. 17749- 

V. 11648. ende. — For "world" in the translation read "land." 

V. 11704. clond. — Suio-G. Hand, infamia. See Ihre. Hence perhaps the Fr. 

V. 11710. In the version, insert [then] before "hight," and for "run " read 
" ran." 

V. 11715. prude, — Correct the translation, "assumed 'there' much pomp." 

2 I 2 


V. 11791. ofS-neow. — A.-S. edneowe, renovatus. 

V. 11824. heo in the text is probably an error for he, and the translation then 
■will be, " well he it held." 

w. 11831-2, Better, if translated, "and should place folk of each craft in sun- j 
dry (separate) ships." 

V. 11835. J>a seoluen. — "the shipmen alone." See remark on v. 3187. 

V. 11848. Liuieine. — Incorrectly, for Luueine. 

V. 11876. ]pissi. — ITie conjectural emendation should have been \>issere. See 
vv. 7130. 11266. 

V. 11879. tncere. — May here mean "elder." 

V. 11917. (sec. t.) here-word. — Synonymous with A.-S. hcere-lof. 

V. 11960. scepen. — Incorrectly, for scipen. 

V. 11978. Cf. V. 4579, and note. ' 

V. 11980. For " gan weep," the second text has, " there wept." ' 

V. 11983. to-driuen. — Should have been translated "dispersed." Cf. v. 32216. 

V. 11986. {sec. t.) er is evidentlj' an error for euere. 

V. 11993. cleopien. — There is clearly some error here, and the marginal con- 
jecture does not seem so probable, as if we should follow the later text, and read 
ou heo cleopeden. 

%\ 12007. — The verb wanting is probably weolken. Cf. v. 12040. i 

V. 12023. in signifies "of" in both texts, as in vv. 11420. 27206. [Cf. Sax. i 

Chron. a°. 1 140.], and should be so rendered. Wace has, " rois de Hongrie," and 

" de Scyse sire," for which the printed edition falsely reads, " d'Escocc." 

V. 12047. ForlS wit nu. — The verb go is understood after /crS, as in several ' 
other passages. It is supplied in the later text, v. I6II7. The translation should ' 
be printed " Forth go we." 

V. 12062. For nuwe him to substitute nu we him to, as in the MS., and dele the 
conjectural reading. The phrase is repeated in vv. 27386. 27808. 

V. 12075. \>an deepen. — Is plural (A.-S. a \>am dagum, Luc. i. 25), and should be I 
rendered "those days": ilke is, apparently, understood in both texts. | 

vv. 12098. 12115. for-radde. — See remark on v. 8727. f 

V. 12101. (sec. t.) hcdde. — Erroneously, no doubt, for bi-hedde. Compare the 1 
later text, v. 25900. . I 

f. 12120. cnihte. — It should be cnihten, dat. pi., but the same irregular form ' 
Qccurs in a few instances elsewhere. 


V. 12211. For "nothing" the second text has " nought." 

V. 12278. lades. — Incorrectly, (or laics ; see remark on v. 1195. 

r. 12304. an sice dug. —See the Sax. Chron. a°. 1088. p. 300, and Kyny AH- 
saunder, v. 200. ap. Weber. 

V. 12335. gadelinges. — In A.-S. only means "companions," but here is a term of 
reproach, and so also in Early and Middle English. See Reliq. Antique, i. 180, 
Wrights Polit. Songs, p. 237, and Webers Glossary. 

V. 12348. cheorlene. — In the translation, for "churlish hand," read 
" the hand of churls." 

V. 12393. Bi vfelen iwurhten. — " For evil deeds," i. e. undeservedly. In A.-S. 
bufon gewyrhtiim, John xv. 25. Cf, v. 24189. 

vv. 12484. 12491. {sec. t.) oure. — Incorrectly, for pure. 

V. 12497- ibiden are. — See remark on v. 3051. 

V. 12517. cceppen. — This w^ord occurs again in the singular iep/je, v. 19949- It 
is derived from the Isl. Jcappi, heros, athleta, and is synonymous with kemp, 
champion. Probably the vulgar term chap is hence borrowred. 

V. 12612. arcedde. — Instead of "rule," might be better rendered " free." Cf. 
v. 12878. 

V. 12711. an hond. — See remark on v, 7165. 

V. 12752. scere. — Tv^o similar instances of the use of this word occur in the 
Sax. Chron. a°. 963. Lye quotes these passages improperly under the verb sci- 
ran, and in Bosworth they are wholly omitted. 

V. 12754. This line is very obscure. 

V. 12801. (sec, t.) ende. — Incorrectly, for hende. 

V. 12805. ibon. — Should perhaps be rendered "prepared." See remarks on 
v. 6186. 

vv. 12828. 12832. wuden, straten and walden are plurals. 

V. 12847- rce^e'is, perhaps, an error for ra^ere, dat. sing. fern. 

V. 12860. Correct the translation thus, "'and bade the guides to ride before 
[that guides should ride] to the waters." 

V. 12871. kinga. — Improperly, for Hw^re. 

r. 12874. seole. — Incorrectly, for S0M?e. 

V. 12887. Bruttene. — See remarks on v. 17. 

V. 12959. {sec. t.) The verb is omitted. 


V. 12968. (sec. t.) For coman we should read with the MS. com in, " came in." 

V. 12991. heu. — Incorrectly, for hou. 

V. 13036. speec-huse. — The French text has parlur. 

V. 13043, (elde is, probably, a mistake for celdre, 

V. 13088. uorien. — From A.-S./orHian, either by contraction or by omission. 

V, 13091. (sec. t.) ulles. — Correct the version, "how it 'all [altogether] were." 

V. 13107. weien appears to be an error for iva-^es, walls. Cf. v. 13144. 

V. 13182. anwolde. — Properly, "power" or "authority." Cf. Sax. Chron. a". 
1106. p. 329. 

V. 13203. Translate thus, "'The Britons knew not at all [None there knew] 

V. 13258. on ]>onke.—" In will," or " grateful." 

V. 13321. Densemonne. — Danes, gen. pi. See remarks on v. 17. 

V. 13362. In Wace, " de grant feinted." 

V. 13386. Translate, "'for [and] I will." 

V. 13499- hiwiten. — Literally, "keep." 

V. 13504. whar is the contracted form of A.-S. hwce'&re, and kept its ground in 
Middle English till the fifteenth century. In like manner we have \>(Er for Yy'Ser 
in the Sax. Chron. a°. 1127- p. 356. 

V. 13592. The later text has " the head." 

r. 13656. scipinge. — The verb scipien, to reward, occurs v. 20012, but I do not 
find it in A.- Saxon. 

V. 13703. (sec. t.) lij>e. — Another instance of the change of 3 into J>. 

V. 13767- (sec. t.) an hond. — See remark on v. 7165. 

V. 13769. cost. — Cf. V. 18166, where the later text has read, and see the Glos- 
sary to Syr Gawayne, in voce. Hence is formed the adverb nedescost, necessarily, in 
Chaucer, Cant. Tales, v. 1479, which is so misinterpreted by Urry and Tyrwhitt, 
See also MS. Cott. Dom. viii. f. 16 P. 

V. 13785. vnder l>an. — In the French, entre taut. 

V. 13816. The usual sense of spilede in La^amon is " spake," A.-S. speUian, 
but it here seems to have a difiercnt meaning, api)arently from A.-S. spilian 
(omitted by Bosworth), scurrilibus jocis vacarc ; cognate with the Dutch speelen. 
Germ. spirJpv, etc. 


V. 13854. amende.— Here signifies "customs." Cf. v. 14325. 

V. 13881. Ittste is an error of the scribe for liifle. 

V. 13886. ale a)i. — Here and in v. 14593 we should read celcan, dat. sing. 

V. 13904. weoli. — Signifies "bounteous," from A.-S. welig. 

V. 13935. This line would be more correct if written, Monen heo yifuen, but si- 
milar inaccuracies are not unfrequent. 

V. 13966. bi-liue&. — Incorrectly, for hi-leueS. 

V. 14002. iuceld. — There is some error in this word, or we must supply the 
word habbe<S. 

V. 14058. londes is probably an error for londe. 

V. 14122. Bruites is gen. sing, and refers to Aldroein. The line should be ren- 
dered, "the noble Briton." Cf. v. 21146. 

V. 14151. hiren. — Incorrectly, for heren. 

V. 14187. anes seems a mistake for an, or else we must read hules. It is sin- 
gular that hid is not in A.-S., although found in the kindred dialects. 

V. 14252. Correct the translation thus, " eighteen great ships." In Wace we 
have, " Vindrent dixhuit nes cargies," i. 327. 

V. 14262. gistninge. — I do not find this noun in A.-S., but it is common in Early 
and Middle English. 

V. 14282. hetten may be an error for letten, as in the later text. 

V. 14294. ibon. — See remark on v. 6186. 

V, 14304. /arrest. — Incorrectly, for fairest. 

V. 14310. Jcime is an error for hme ; cf. v. 14827 ; yet in A.-S. we have cyme. 
In the later text comes is used irregularly, as in v. 4373. 

V. 14394. mcBr^eiie. — For "ample" read "nuptial," as in vol. iii. p. 249. The 
error arose from the incorrect form mcEr^eue, compared with the Sax. Chron. a°. 
1125, "micele gife and mcere." Wace has doaire. With regard to the morgan- 
gifu, see Bosworths A.-S. Dictionary, in voce. 

vv. 14405-8. In the MS. these four lines are punctuated so as to form only two, 
with final rhyme. 

V. 14431. The expression "all that knew of book" refers to the Clergy, and 
not to the Christians. 

V. 14469. wed-bro'&er. — See the Note in p. 354. The term occurs also in the 
Laud MS. of Kyng Horn, No. 108. 

He tok wit him another, 
That was Honics ved-brothcr. 


V. 14482. )>»•«/.— A.. S. Vearft, Csedm. p. 130. In the later text, v, 18650, it 
takes the form of )peort, and in Middle English, thurt. In Barbour it is spelt 
thmst (see remark on v. A), which is quite misunderstood by Jamieson. 

V. 14539. W witele. — See remark on v. 3028. 

V. 14585. limie. — For "praise" substitute "worship." 

V. 14618. bidden appears to be governed by wulle'S, so that the translation may 
read thus, "greet; ^and will pray Chrisb [be Christ now] that is Gods son, ' to 
be' to us in help! " 

V. 14630. king. — Incorrectly, for hinges. 

V. 14692. \>are seems a mistake for \>an, as water is always neuter. 

V. 14722. The verb at-stonden also means to stand out, to resist, as in Beowulf, 
V. 1776. So in the Early English Rule of Nuns, " etstonde^ one a3ean he ueonde, 
resistite diabolo." MS. Cott. Nero A. xiv. f. 66. 

V. 14745. (Bcliere is an error for celchere, as written elsewhere in the early text. 

V. 14790. ki7ig is omitted by the scribe, as is manifest from the rhyme. 

w. 14809. 14874. maJce and answare. See remarks on v. 1970. 

V. 14841. set. — In the translation, "'prosperously'" has been accidentally 
omitted. Cf. v. 5058. 

V. 14867. uor-radde. — See remark on v. 8727. 

w. 14937. 16273. — Brutene. — gen. pi. Britons ; but there is much difficulty in 
distinguishing it from Bruttene, gen. s. Britain. 

V. 14981. (sec. t.) sme7-e appears to be superfluous, and without meaning. 

I'. 15044. hir. — Incorrectly, for here. 

V. 15050. soluer. — Incorrectly, for seoluer. 

V. 15079- kenedom for kinedom. 

V. 15174. iwra^ for iwarS, as in some other instances. 

V. 15208. Perhaps this should be rendered, "that they should not disagree." 
See remark on v. 5640. 

V. 15233. bi-swac is certainly the right reading, and the translation of both 
texts should correspond. 

?'. 15263. lift. — This is the earliest instance that has occurred of the use of this 
word, which is not found in A. -Saxon, but is evidently borrowed from the Belg. 
liiffp, Fries, leeft. See Outzen, Gloss, der friesischoi Sprache, 4to. 1837, and an 


article in the Quarterly Review for Feb. 1836, p. 3/6. It occurs in several other 
passages, but in v. 21244 we have the A.-S. form swiSren. 

V. 15279. i\>euen. — A.-S. gei>afian, to permit. 

V. 15332. burh^es. — In Wace, forielesces. Here and in some other passages 
Lurk means a fortified place, as in A.-S. 

»•. 15343. halidom. — This word is always used by Lajamon in the sense of "re- 
iique" (except that in the later text it stands once for "rood," v. 22101), but it 
has other meanings in A. -Saxon. See the Sax. Chron. pp. 287. 363. 371, and 

V. 15373. ferden is incorrectly written for fereden, or perhaps we should read 

V. 15409. The later texts read "with honor." 

V. 15468. The West-Wealas, according to Florence of Worcester, were the in- 
habitants of Cornwall. See the Sax. Chron. ann. 813. 835. It would seem, 
however, from this and another passage in Lajamon, v. 17632, that by the West 
Welsh, he understood the counties bordering on St. Georges Channel. If the 
reading West is to be admitted in v. 10748, the inhabitants of Cornwall are there 
separately spoken of. 

V. 15482. arceddrn. — Literally, " restored." 

V. 15509. weien-lmten. — In ^Ifrics Glossary we have wege-lceton, trivium, and 
in the A.-S. Gloss in Mones Quellen und Forschungen, etc. 8°. p. 427, is wegge- 
Icete, compitalia. The word is still preserved in the later Wycliffite version of the 
Scriptures, Gen. xxxviii. 14, II. Kings, i. 20, where the Vulgate reads in bivio itineris 
and compitis. 

V. 15571. u-hu.— Incorrectly, for whi. 

V. 15695. for appears to be superfluous. 

V. 15703. wunsele. — Compare winsel in Csedmon, p. 270, and Beoivulf, 1. 1383. 

V. 15723. uncw^e. — In the translation, for "unusual" read "uncomfortable," 
which is still the provincial meaning of uncwSe. 

V. 15734. unwiht. — In Early English unwiht is often used for the Devil. See 
MS. Reg. 17 A. xxvii. ff. 1. S^. 51^ etc. 

V. 15736. See remark on v. 3051. 

V. 15757. Perhaps leod-spelle may here mean magical spells, in the same sense 
as hod-rune elsewhere. 

V. 15851. The conjectural reading should be \>e, not ht. 


V. 15885. volden to grunde. — A phrase often repeated, in which uolden seems 
used adverbially, and it may be rendered " down to the ground." Cf. v. 23984 
(sec. t.). 

V. 15942. middernihte. — This form of the dat. sing, occurs twMce elsewhere 
(midre-niht, Exeter Book, p. 54), but we have middel-niht, v. 20607, as in Beo- 
wulf, 1. 5561. In Mhd. it is mitter naht, Wigolais, v. 267. Germ, mitternacht. 

vv. 15946-7. It is doubtful if the hyphens before the infinitives should be used, 
but see remark on v. 9245. 

V. 15961. ilcer. — A.-S. gelcer. The word is still preserved in the dialect of the 
western counties, and also in Hampshire and Wiltshire. 

V. 15971- lates. — "gestures" or "looks." See remark on v. 1195. 

V. 16007. Literally, "dearest of men to me." 

V. 16026. tacned is probably for tacneS, and both texts will then agree, 

V. 16034. (sec. t.) wost. — Perhaps an error for woldest, but in v. 18747 we have 
sost for soldest. 

V. 16062. Correct the translation, " from Britanny [of the Britons] arrived." 

V. 16099. swenieii. — In the MS. it appears to be written sweuien, but as the u 
and n are sometimes not easily distinguished, the verb has been considered as con- 
nected with the A.-S. swindan, Ohd. suinen, Low Germ, stvinnen, Swed. siritma, 
decrescere, minui, consumere. The corresponding lines in Wace are, 

Comme sangler fiers en bataille 
Les traitors devorera. 

V, 16099. PJje. — Should be rendered " anger." See remark on v. 2087. 

V. 16101. witen. — In two former instances, vv. 1026. 1046, this word has been 
translated in the plural, as it ought probably to be here and in v. 16535, as in 
A.-S. to \>am witum gelsedd, ad supplicium ducta. Gen. xxxviii. 25, but in v. 16603 
it is in the singular, and of the fern, gender, as in Prankish, whereas in A.-S. icite 
is neuter. Its meaning is usually "punishment," "torture" or "death," but in 
V. 20462 the original French text reads horde, which connects wite there with the 
Ohd. and Mces.-Goth. eduuit, opprobrium. 

V. 16109. {sec. t.) sohtere. — See remarks on v. 38. ! 

V. 16111. to hirede here and in some other passages seems to be used adver- 
bially, meaning in a host, or all together. Cf. v. 25416. 

V. 16116. The verb is understood, and should have been printed in Italics. 

V. 16133. heo is an error for hcom. 


V. 16139. This line is very obscure and requires some correction. Perhaps for 
ivrcec we may read icrceh (Ca;dm. p. 83), and translate, " all it covered the plains." 

V. 16219. slwlden.—Cf. v. 6147. 

V. 16234. Translate, "the'noble [strong] earl." 

V. 16303. cnaue. — In the translation, for " knave" read "child." In Wace, 

En/es est, qui's a a garden 

V. 16308. In the original thus : 

Rien ne valt li gent que on maine, 
Qui a foible et fol chavetaine. 

See remark on v, 816. 

vv. 16328-9. ferde is fem. gend., to which heo and hire may refer ; and if so, the 
foot-note is unnecessary, and the passage should be rendered, " 'where it was in 
field,' but otherwise [it] was disposed 'to it' ere," etc. 

V. 16372. hcer umde. — The same expression is used by Wyntown and Douglas, 
and in the latter it is a translation of Virgils immanem silvam. Jamieson derives 
it from A.-S. haer, hair, but it is more likely from A,-S. har, hoar, grey. See 
Csedm. p. 185, and Boeth. ed. Rawl. p. 155. Compare also the phrase " holtis 
hair" quoted by Jamieson, in v. Hair. 

V. 16457. horn. — Incorrectly, for heom, and again, v. 21177. 

V. 16500. See the same phrase in the Sax. Chron. a°. 959, which is falsely trans- 
lated by Ingram. 

V. 16525. cleope. — See remarks on v. 1970. 

V. 16548. iurceinned. — Perhaps an error of the scribe for iurcEmmed, "done," 
from A.-S. gefremman, to perform. 

V. 16572. bu^e^en. — Incorrectly, for btqen. 

V. 16584. A hyphen is required in drihte-folke. See remarks on v. 111. 

V. 16594. non must here, as in Swedish and Danish, signify the repast taken at 
noon, " nooning." 

V, 16621. haued is for haue'S, 3 p. s. pr. t. 

V. 16631. \>e seems an error for ^a, then, or for and, as the later text. 

V. 16687. (sec. t.) ton. — See remark on v. 7798. 

V. 16701. to-swadde. — See remark on v. 3657. 

r. 16703. tarueden. — A.-S. torfian, jactare ; " forfedon toward han weofode." 
Sax. Chron. p. 185. 


V. 16717- swored. — Incorrectly, for sweord. 

I'. 16762. bla'Se. — See remark on v. 9929- 

vv. 16789. 16799. 16861. an hand. — See remark on v. 7165. 

V. 16800. temden. — See remark on v. 1245. 

V. 16868. rahliche. — Should be rendered " sternly" or "fiercely." 

V. 16914. for )>us we should probably read \>as. I 

V. 16949. stronge. — Perhaps for strongmen. Cf. v. 5981. 

V. 16963. eerstowe. — A.-S. leger-stow. In the French, cemeterie. 

V. 17037. Correct the translation thus, "noblest of all kings, greeteth thee; 
' all this vast land standeth in king Aurelies hand,' — [and] ' he' beseecheth," etc. 

r. 17093. Correct thus, " for the coming of ever any man that came to him." 

V. 17103. cu^lcehte. — The only instance hitherto known of this verb in A.-S. 
is given by Somner, and admitted on his authority into Lye and Bosworth. 

V. 17113. wlcet. — A.-S. wlitan, to behold, Moes.-G. wlita, circumspicere. i 

V. 17119. Correct, "to understand of the worlds 'course [duration]." Cf. ; 
V. 17167. 

V. 17129. iscire. — "inquire." Such appears the sense of this verb here, although 
in two other passages, w. 16822. 18417, it means simply "to speak." I find in 
A.-S. dictionaries no corresponding sense of the verb scirian, but it is remarkable, 
that the Bodleian MS. of Boethius, cap. 39. § 12. (p. 134. ed. Rawl.) reads scy- ] 
rian instead of spy rian, as the Cotton MS. 

V. 17304. to \>an ones. — " For the nonce," for the purpose. Cf. v. 21506. Here 
we have clearly the derivation of the phrase which has puzzled so many etymo- 
logists. See Prices note on Wartons Hist, of Engl. Poetr. vol. iii. p. 75. ed. 1840, 
and my Glossary to Sy7' Gawayne, in v. Nonez. 

V. 17317. baluwenen. — Incorrectly, for baluwen, but this duplication of the final 
syllable en is found in some other instances. 

V. 17401. "All clean," means altogether, every one. i 

V. 17409. syje. — Had better be rendered "success." 

V. 17485. wcerf. — In Wace, "feste tint, si se corona," but I can find no au- 
thority in A.-S. or the kindred dialects for such a signification. 

V. 17501, he^e witr^ede. — Should have been printed //e ^eicuf^ede, which is an i 
error for he iwur'^ede. 

V. 17547. Translate, " be ' thither' mv companion." j 


V. 17602. iminseles. — Mansions or " wine-halls." See remark on v. 15703. 

V. 17618. feore. — Used again in vv. 30601. 30604, and also in the contrary 
sense, unfere, v. 6780. It occurs in the Sax, Chron. a°. IOI6. p. 195. "f a;lc 
mann i>efeor waere, forS gewende," where the Cotton MS. Tib. B. iv. reads /('re. 
Ingram mistalces the sense, in rendering it " however distant," and the word is 
therefore excluded from Bosworths Dictionary, although he ha8MW-/ere, from the 
Sax. Chron. a°. 1055. 

V. 17651. We should probably read Jppas he. 

V. 17653. A line is here wanting in the later text. 

vv. 17659. 17739. mtBinde. — Translate "mingled." See remark on v. 4318. 

V. 17723. {sec. t.) soch may be an error of the scribe for swike. Cf. v. 17693. 

V. 17773. on sweuete. — Cf. vv. 17802. 25581. The sense is always the same, 
" in slumber" or " deep sleep." The editor of the Legend of St. Katherine, p. 77, 
seems mistaken in rendering the expression " in dream." 

V. 178O9. beouste. — This word should have been printed beonsle. It appears 
here to be an error of the scribe, but in v. 2609') the same word occurs in the 
sense of " habitation" ; probably from A.-S. byan. 

V. 17854. a-^eineden. — Should have been printed a^en-ieden, "returned." 

vv. 17874-6. Translate, "at the gleams end was a dragon fair; from the dra- 
gons mouth," etc. 

I'. 17883. Correct thus, " bright 'exceedingly [enow]." 

V. 17946. (sec. t.) moreliht seems a mistake for moreweliht. 

V. 18010. bihedde. — See remark on v. 2725. 

V. 18023. him is here reflective, and the line should be rendered, " where Uther 
he came." See remarks on v. 532. 

18026. The hyphens in to-biliue, to-hliue are inserted erroneously, and in the 
following line and is not redundant, as conjectured. The verb of motion is under- 
stood here, as in w. 18026. 27808. 

t'. I8O6I. an earnest. — This may also be translated, "in earnest," as in A.-S. 
Matth. V. 18. The phrase is literally, " that it was to the Britons," etc. 

V. 18069. isih.—3 p. sing. pr. t. ; in the translation, for "saw" read "seeth." 

V. 18111. arnde. — "rode." See remarks on v. 6138. 

V. 18159. icunde, — See remark on v. 7909- 

V. 18187. (sec. t.) varen. — Incorrectly, for i'are«c?e. 


V. 18206. (sec. t.) In the translation, read "dragons [like to the dragon, all of 
red gold]." 

V. 18214. hire-meerke. — More correctly, here-marke. Cf. v. 18869- 

V. 18250. hi heore Hue. — The later text here would seem to point out the true 
derivation of the adverb beliue or bliue, respecting which some futile conjectures 
may be found in Jamiesons Glossary, in v. Belyve. 

V. 18275. (sec. t.) heo]) for he)>, according to the usual forms of the later text. 
See remarks on v. 336. 

V. 18335. halp. — Incorrectly, for hap. See remark on v. 316, and correct the 

V. 18356. wel idon. — In Wace, " saiges et cortois." See remark on v. 910. 

V. 18367. on. — Would be better rendered, "favor." See the article in the 
Quarterly Review for Feb. 1836, p. 372. 

V. 18417. scire. — Is here used in its usual sense of " speak," but see remark 
on v. 17129. 

V. 18451. Cf. v. 818, and note. 

V. 18533. (sec. t.) )?are.— This is the fem. article, but in A.-S. »ne/eis raasc. gen. 
and so also elsewhere in both texts of La3amon, which would induce one to sup- 
pose \>are a mistake for \>ane. In the later text, hire is always the form of the 
pronoun, gen. pi. 

r. 18650. Correct the translation, " needed not the knights, by day or night, 
but to guard," etc. 

V. I8707. hende. — See remarks on v. 612. 

V. 18715. For iderued we should probably read idreued. Cf. v. 171- 

V. 18764. So also in a poem written in 1264, 

Sire Simond de Mountfort hath swore bi ys chyime. 
Wrights Political Songs, p. 70. 

V. 18789. (sec. t.) scoiie is an error of the scribe for seoue. 

V. I8869. marJc is elsewhere used (as in A.-S.) by itself, vv. 19099. 19125. 
31220, yet it is probable that heore mcerJcen and hire marke are here compounds, 
and should be written here-mcerken, here-marke. See v. 27469, where the same 
error occurs, and has been corrected in the early text, and compare vv. 18214. 

V. 18934. The later text reads, " one such craft." 

V. 18936. gareres appears an error for cheres: Fr. chere, Flem. cierre, vultus. 

V. 18956. iwil del. — See remark on v. 596. 

vv. 19023. 19035. monne and u-ifmonne are gen. pi. governed by the superla- 


tive, but in the later text the regular form seems often to give way to the nomi- 
native sing. 

V. 19047. (sec. t.) eod. — Incorrectly, for code. 

V. 19141. isohte7i. — The conjectural reading is unnecessary. 

V. 19167. an skentting. — The same expression occurs again, v. 30625, where it 
simply means " amusement," and where Wace has, "a grant joie." The word 
has not been found in A.-S., which seems surprising, since in the Early English 
poem of the Hide and Nqtenyale, we not only meet with the noun several times, 
but also the verb skente, to make merry. It would seem to be connected with the 
Swedish skanta, lascivire. See Ihre, Swenskt Dialect Lexicon, 4to. Ups. 1766. 

V. 19192. hate^ me. — This use of the pronoun continued down to the seven- 
teenth century. See instances in Nares, in v. Me. 

V. 19210. Translate, "then were in Britain joys enow," etc. 

V. 19297. oder is for o'^er. 

V. 19300. of-lceien. — In Wace, " de longhes gardes anuies." In the Kings 
Quhair, a similar phrase occurs in wery for-lyin, st. 11. 

r. 19368. sa. — Incorrectly, for s«. 

V. 19396. {sec. t.) alle seines. — Incorrectly, here and in v. 24496, for alles cities, 
hut written according to pronunciation. Similar instances are not unusual in 
poems of the thirteenth centur}\ 

V. 19412. Icetten. — Translate thus, "and thought very 'contemptuously [much 
derision] of Loth." A.-S. Iceitan, putare. 

V. 19425. uurede. — An error, probably, for uundede. 

V. 19453. imonnen. — Incorrectly, for monnen. 

vv. 19479. 19576. etc. Fder. — Incorrectly, for V'^er. 

V. 19514. her is an unusual form of the gen. pi. heore. 

V. 19580. itah is written for itaht (as in many other instances A is used for final 
hf), and might be rendered literally, "taught." 

vv. 19609-19611. (sec. t.) The punctuation here is faulty, and should be made 

vv. 19641. 19662. monnes appears here and in v. 28253 to be the gen. pi. (in- 
stead of the usual form monnen, A.-S. monna) ; and perhaps these are among the 
earliest instances of the termination of the gen. pi. in s, which in modern English 
is so absurdly followed by an apostrophe. 

V. 19799. The verb blakien also signifies " to become pale," but here it stands 
expressly for Waces "noircist." 

V. 19801. swelfen. — In the translation, for "burst" read "die." 


V. 19876. flcBmen.— Lite raWy, " put to flight." 

V. 19944. her-cnihtes. — Incorrectly, for hur-cuihtes. 

V. 19989. iucEid. — See remarks on v. 964. 

r. 20032. Translate, " In those days," and cf. v. 12075. 

V. 20058. ualden is an error {or fallen. 

V. 20093. arhred^e. — Incorrectly, for arA?'e5tSe, which elsewhere has the form of 

V. 20123. runie. — See remark on v. 1545. 

V. 20165. floe is a provincial form of the A.S.fli/g ; in Mhd. vlttc. 

V. 20233. Insert in the translation the words, " ere the king were aware," after 

V. 20249. a'^elest. — The later text reads " wisest." 

V. 20273. on comele. — See remark on v. 6630. 

V. 20319. culde. — The translation is conjectural, as the word has not been 
traced elsewhere. 

V. 20375. hude. — Is, in all probability, the same with the A.-S. hude, hyde, Dan. 
and Sw. hud, Dut. huid, all of which are feminine nouns. It means either " skin," 
or "hide of land." In either case, it is used with a certain latitude of expres- 

V. 20441. Affile. — See remarks on v. 4062. 

V. 20459. icunde.—ln Wace, " heritage." Cf. v. 7909. 

V. 20504. deh. — A form of de'S or do^S, as heh for heo^^, soh forso^, lah for /oS, 
etc. In V. 21482 we have doh. 

V. 20532. beorkes. — The meaning is very doubtful. The French text gives no 
assistance, and the word does not occur again. 

V. 20572. Translate, "yet had it not" ; heo in the previous line was overlooked. 

V. 20635. uien. — This is perhaps among the latest instances of the use of the 
A.-S. utan, which is defined "a verbal conjunction, used with the infinitive, to 
express a desire or intention." Thus in Gen. xxxiii. 12. Utonfaran, Mark xiv. 
42. Uton gan, let us go, etc. 

u. 20678. dunede. — For "became dun," I would read "dinned" or "re- 
sounded," as in vv. 21230. 27441. The former translation was made on a sup- 
position that dunede here (A.-S. diainian) was synonymous wllhfaleweJe, as used 
in vv. 16414. 1831S. Compare the disputed line in the A.-S. Ode on the Victory 


of Athelstan, " feld dennade [dunnade?] secga swate." See Prices note on the 
passage, in Wartons Hist. Enyl. Poetr. vol. i. p. Ixxi. ed. 1840. 

V. 20665. Oec. t.) \>are is, no doubt, a mistake for \>an, since wode is masc. else- 
where in both texts, as in A.-S. 

V. 20697- /(O.— Incorrectly, for heo. 

V. 20700. (sec. t.) \>are is an error for \>an or \>e. Cf. vv. 4211. 8127. 

vv. 20704. 21826. gr^den is an error in the MS. for g"nden. 

V. 20712. hnlmp. — Its meaning in A.-S. as also still in Scotland is a river- 
island, or spot surrounded by water. 

vv. 20715-16. Correct the translation, "the Britons (///. folk of Britons") all 
surrounded the woods." 

V. 20728. h(-te would here seem to have the sense of thirst or drought. In Wace 
we read " Qu'il ne hurent ne ne mangierent." In v. 21875 it might also bear this 
meaning, but in other passages certainly not. See remarks on v. 4042. 

r. 20746. scare. — See remark on v. 5835. 

V. 20830. sad. — Consult the note on wigcs seed in the poem on Athelstans vic- 
tory. Hist. Engl. Poetr. vol. i. p. Ixxii. ed. 1840. In the Shropshire dialect s«(/p(/ 
is still used in the same sense of " satiated." 

V. 20856. stefenen is the dat. sing. fem. 

?'. 20863. uirste is the superl. of/eor. In the Sax. Chron. a°. 1131. p. 362, the 
conip. ^rrer is found, which Ingram entirely misinterprets. 

V. 20886. (sec. /.) ine is, no doubt, an error for hinene. 

V. 20905. comela. — See remark on v. 6630. 

V. 20935. "board" is here used for "ship" (as in A.-S.); hence the phrase 
" on board." 

V. 20957. ido^en. — For "drove off," translate "flayed." The verb in the early 
text is from A.-S. Jlean, flog, and in the later text is replaced by hilden, A.-S. he- 
hyldan, excoriare. 

V. 20958. {sec. t.) \>ar is an error for \>e or \>a. Cf. v. 1940. 

V. 20960. hiwusten here may be better rendered " took charge of." 

V. 20968. clibben, incorrectly, for clubben. 

vv. 21011-21315. The portion of the poem comprehended in these lines has 
been printed by Mr. Guest, in his "History of English Rhythms," 8vo, Lond. 1838. 
vol. ii. pp. 114-122, accompanied by a translation, the variations of which from 
VOL. HI. 2 K 


my own will be seen by comparison ; but the more important I deem it right to 
point out. 

V. 21016. Here and elsewhere Guest translates the neuter article by the pro- 
noun that, and this practice is authorized by our A.- Saxon scholars, yet I can find 
no ground for such a license. 

V. 21022. heo is for he, and hlawen 3 pers. sing, with the pleonastic n. Guest, 
however, renders the line in the plural, and consequently is forced to render his 
falsely in the next line but one by their. 

V. 21029. {sec. t.) broc. — This is the modern term brag, the meaning of which 
was originally the same with threat. Gawin Douglas writes it braik. The verb